wolf spider

wolf spider
any of numerous ground spiders of the family Lycosidae, including the southern European tarantula, Lycosa taretula, that hunt their prey instead of using a web.

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Name that originally referred to a species of southern European spider (Lycosa tarentula) but now refers to more than 175 spider species (family Lycosidae) found in North America, Europe, and north of the Arctic Circle.

The body of L. tarentula, the largest species, is about 1 in. (2.5 cm) long. Most species have a long, broad, hairy brown body; stout, long legs; and strong, prominent jaws. Wolf spiders chase and pounce upon their prey, hunting mostly at night. Most species build a silk-lined, tubular nest in the ground, which they dig with their heavy front legs. A few species spin webs. The bite of L. tarentula produces no ill effects in humans.

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also called  ground spider  or  hunting spider 
 any member of the spider family Lycosidae (order Araneida), a large and widespread group. They are named for the wolflike habit of chasing and pouncing upon prey. About 125 species occur in North America, about 50 in Europe. Numerous species occur north of the Arctic Circle. Most are small to medium-sized. The largest has a body about 2.5 cm (1 inch) long and legs about the same length.

      Most wolf spiders are dark brown. The hairy body is long and broad, with stout, long legs. Wolf spiders are noted for their running speed. They are easily identified by the number and arrangement of the eyes: four small eyes in the lowest row, two very large eyes in a middle row, and two small or medium-sized eyes in a top row. The jaws are prominent and strong.

      Wolf spiders commonly occur in grass or under stones, logs, or leaf litter. They are especially active at night or if the sky is overcast. The eggs are contained in a gray silk sac attached to the female's spinnerets, or silk-producing organs, so that she appears to be dragging a large ball. After hatching, the young spiders ride on the mother's back for several days.

      Most species build silk-lined, tubular nests in the ground. Some conceal the entrance with rubbish; others build a turretlike structure above it. A few species spin webs.

      Wolf spiders of the genus Pirata, often found near ponds or streams, have a V-shaped pale mark on the back. The abdomen often has chevronlike marks and paired yellow spots. Thin-legged wolf spiders (Pardosa), which have a lens-shaped, greenish or gray egg sac, have relatively long legs with long spines on the “foot.” Burrowing wolf spiders (Geolycosa), which spend most of their lives in burrows, have heavy front legs that are used for digging. The wolf spiders with the largest bodies are mostly of the genus Lycosa, a large group that includes L. tarentula of southern Europe (see tarantula).

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Universalium. 2010.

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Wolf spider — Wolf Wolf, n.; pl. {Wolves}. [OE. wolf, wulf, AS. wulf; akin to OS. wulf, D. & G. wolf, Icel. [=u]lfr, Sw. ulf, Dan. ulv, Goth. wulfs, Lith. vilkas, Russ. volk , L. lupus, Gr. ly kos, Skr. v[.r]ka; also to Gr. e lkein to draw, drag, tear in… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • wolf spider — n. any of a family (Lycosidae) of active hunting spiders that are wanderers, living in the ground and not building webs …   English World dictionary

  • Wolf spider — Taxobox image width = 250px image caption = Wolf Spider: Hogna helluo regnum = Animalia phylum = Arthropoda classis = Arachnida ordo = Araneae superfamilia = Lycosoidea familia = Lycosidae familia authority = Sundevall, 1833 diversity link = List …   Wikipedia

  • wolf spider — noun ground spider that hunts its prey instead of using a web • Syn: ↑hunting spider • Hypernyms: ↑spider • Hyponyms: ↑European wolf spider, ↑tarantula, ↑Lycosa tarentula …   Useful english dictionary

  • wolf spider — wolf′ spi der n. ivt any of numerous spiders of the family Lycosidae, living in crevices on the ground and hunting prey directly rather than capturing them in a web • Etymology: 1600–10 …   From formal English to slang

  • wolf spider — /ˈwʊlf spaɪdə/ (say woolf spuyduh) noun 1. the most common ground tunnelling Australian spider, Lycosa godeffroyi, often mistaken for a funnel web spider but harmless to humans. 2. any spider of the family Lycosidae, members of which do not spin… …  

  • wolf spider — any spider of the family Lycosidae …   Medical dictionary

  • wolf spider — noun a fast moving ground spider which runs after and springs on its prey. [Family Lycosidae.] …   English new terms dictionary

  • wolf spider — noun Date: 1608 any of various active wandering ground spiders (family Lycosidae) …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • wolf spider — noun Any of several spiders, of the family Lycosidae, that are known for stalking their prey on the ground and not building webs …   Wiktionary

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