/vos"kod, vos kod"/; Russ. /vu skhawd"/, n.one of a series of Soviet spacecraft, carrying two or three cosmonauts.[1964; < Russ Voskhód lit., rising (of the sun, a planetary body, etc.)]
* * *any of a second series of manned Soviet spacecraft. Following the triumph of the Vostok (q.v.) launchings that had put the first human in space, the Soviets developed the first spacecraft capable of carrying more than one crew member. On Oct. 12, 1964, Voskhod 1 carried three cosmonauts into Earth orbit.Voskhod 1 represented a major advance over the earlier Vostok series of manned orbiters. It was 1,500 pounds (680 kilograms) heavier and featured many technical improvements. It was the first spacecraft to employ an ion-propulsion system and was considered so reliable that no space suits were worn in flight.Reentry procedures were also modified for the Voskhod flight. The pilots of the Vostok series had to parachute from their spacecraft, but the Voskhod cosmonauts remained in their ship, making a hard-surface landing that involved the use of drogues (special parachutes) and retro-rockets. Voskhod 1 also was the first space mission to yield significant biomedical data. One of the cosmonauts, Boris Yegorov (Yegorov, Boris Borisovich), was a physiologist, and was assigned to monitor the physical condition of his fellow crew members. He measured their blood pressure, took blood samples, recorded brain waves, and tested muscle coordination.Voskhod 2, launched on March 18, 1965, continued the early pattern of Soviet space firsts. The two-man crew performed the first space walk. On the day of the launch cosmonaut Aleksei A. Leonov (Leonov, Aleksey Arkhipovich) exited the Voskhod spacecraft through an airlock and practiced manoeuvring in space for 10 minutes. Voskhod 2 spent 27 hours in orbit before returning to the Earth.
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