/vol"euhn teuh riz'euhm/, n.1. Philos. any theory that regards will as the fundamental agency or principle, in metaphysics, epistemology, or psychology.2. the principle or practice of supporting churches, schools, hospitals, etc., by voluntary contributions or aid instead of relying on government assistance.3. any policy or practice based on voluntary action.[1830-40; VOLUNTAR(Y) + -ISM]
* * *Metaphysical or psychological system that assigns a more predominant role to the will (Latin, voluntas) than to the intellect.Christian philosophers who have been described as voluntarist include St. Augustine, John Duns Scotus, and Blaise Pascal. A metaphysical voluntarism was propounded in the 19th century by Arthur Schopenhauer, who took will to be the single, unconscious force behind all of reality and all ideas of reality. An existentialist voluntarism was present in Friedrich Nietzsche's doctrine of the overriding "will to power" whereby man would eventually recreate himself as "superman." And a pragmatic voluntarism is evident in William James's conception of knowledge and truth in terms of purpose and practical ends.
* * *any metaphysical or psychological system that assigns to the will (Latin: voluntas) a more predominant role than that attributed to the intellect. Christian philosophers have sometimes described as voluntarist: the non-Aristotelian thought of St. Augustine because of its emphasis on the will to love God; the post-Thomistic thought of John Duns Scotus, a late medieval scholastic, who insisted on the absolute freedom of the will and its supremacy over all other faculties; and the position of the French writer Blaise Pascal, who in religion substituted “reasons of the heart” for rational propositions. Immanuel Kant's (Kant, Immanuel) categorical imperative as an unconditional moral law for the will's choice of action represented an ethical voluntarism. A metaphysical voluntarism was propounded in the 19th century by the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer (Schopenhauer, Arthur), who took will to be the single, irrational, unconscious force behind all of reality and all ideas of reality. An existentialist voluntarism was present in Friedrich Nietzsche's (Nietzsche, Friedrich) doctrine of the overriding “will to power” whereby man would eventually re-create himself as “superman.” And a Pragmatic voluntarism is evident in William James's reference of knowledge and truth to purpose and to practical ends.
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