Virgin Islands

Virgin Islands
a group of islands in the West Indies, E of Puerto Rico: comprises the Virgin Islands of the United States and the British Virgin Islands. Abbr.: V.I., VI

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Virgin Islands

Introduction Virgin Islands -
Background: During the 17th century, the archipelago was divided into two territorial units, one English and the other Danish. Sugarcane, produced by slave labor, drove the islands' economy during the 18th and early 19th centuries. In 1917, the US purchased the Danish portion, which had been in economic decline since the abolition of slavery in 1848. Geography Virgin Islands
Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico
Geographic coordinates: 18 20 N, 64 50 W
Map references: Central America and the Caribbean
Area: total: 352 sq km water: 3 sq km land: 349 sq km
Area - comparative: twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 188 km
Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate: subtropical, tempered by easterly trade winds, relatively low humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to November
Terrain: mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level land
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Crown Mountain 474 m
Natural resources: sun, sand, sea, surf
Land use: arable land: 15% permanent crops: 6% other: 79% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: several hurricanes in recent years; frequent and severe droughts and floods; occasional earthquakes Environment - current issues: lack of natural freshwater resources
Geography - note: important location along the Anegada Passage - a key shipping lane for the Panama Canal; Saint Thomas has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the Caribbean People Virgin Islands -
Population: 123,498 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.7% (male 16,926; female 16,012) 15-64 years: 64.2% (male 35,801; female 43,443) 65 years and over: 9.1% (male 4,851; female 6,465) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.04% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 15.85 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate: 5.58 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/ female total population: 0.87 male(s)/ female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 9.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.43 years female: 82.53 years (2002 est.) male: 74.55 years
Total fertility rate: 2.24 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA% HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Virgin Islander(s) adjective: Virgin Islander
Ethnic groups: black 80%, white 15%, other 5% note: West Indian (45% born in the Virgin Islands and 29% born elsewhere in the West Indies) 74%, US mainland 13%, Puerto Rican 5%, other 8%
Religions: Baptist 42%, Roman Catholic 34%, Episcopalian 17%, other 7%
Languages: English (official), Spanish, Creole
Literacy: definition: NA total population: NA% male: NA% female: NA% Government Virgin Islands -
Country name: conventional long form: United States Virgin Islands conventional short form: Virgin Islands former: Danish West Indies
Dependency status: organized, unincorporated territory of the US with policy relations between the Virgin Islands and the US under the jurisdiction of the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior
Government type: NA
Capital: Charlotte Amalie Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are three islands at the second order; Saint Croix, Saint John, Saint Thomas
National holiday: Transfer Day (from Denmark to the US), 27 March (1917)
Constitution: Revised Organic Act of 22 July 1954
Legal system: based on US laws
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; note - indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections
Executive branch: chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 January 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (Since 20 January 2001) election results: Dr. Charles Wesley TURNBULL elected governor; percent of vote - Dr. Charles W. TURNBULL (Democrat) 58.9%, former Governor Roy L. SCHNEIDER (ICM) 41.1% elections: US president and vice president elected on the same ticket for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 November 1998 (next to be held NA November 2002) head of government: Governor Dr. Charles Wesley TURNBULL (since 5 January 1999) and Lieutenant Governor Gererd LUZ James II (since 5 January 1999) cabinet: NA
Legislative branch: unicameral Senate (15 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms) elections: last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2002) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Democratic Party 6, ICM 2, independents 4, no party affiliation 3 note: the Virgin Islands elects one non-voting representative to the US House of Representatives; election last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2002); results - Donna M. CHRISTIAN-CHRISTENSON (Democrat) elected
Judicial branch: US District Court of the Virgin Islands (under Third Circuit jurisdiction); Territorial Court (judges appointed by the governor for 10-year terms) Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party [Arturo WATLINGTON]; Independent Citizens' Movement or ICM [Usie RICHARDS]; Republican Party [Gary SPRAUVE] Political pressure groups and NA
leaders: International organization ECLAC (associate), Interpol
participation: (subbureau), IOC Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of the US) Diplomatic representation from the none (territory of the US)
Flag description: white, with a modified US coat of arms in the center between the large blue initials V and I; the coat of arms shows a yellow eagle holding an olive branch in one talon and three arrows in the other with a superimposed shield of vertical red and white stripes below a blue panel Economy Virgin Islands
Economy - overview: Tourism is the primary economic activity, accounting for more than 70% of GDP and 70% of employment. The islands normally host 2 million visitors a year. The manufacturing sector consists of petroleum refining, textiles, electronics, pharmaceuticals, and watch assembly. The agricultural sector is small, with most food being imported. International business and financial services are a small but growing component of the economy. One of the world's largest petroleum refineries is at Saint Croix. The islands are subject to substantial damage from storms. The government is working to improve fiscal discipline, support construction projects in the private sector, expand tourist facilities, reduce crime, and protect the environment.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.8 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: NA%
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $15,000 (2000 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA% Population below poverty line: NA% Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
percentage share: highest 10%: NA% Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%
Labor force: 48,356 (2002 est.) Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry 20%, services 79% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate: 4.9% (March 1999)
Budget: revenues: $364.4 million expenditures: $364.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Industries: tourism, petroleum refining, watch assembly, rum distilling, construction, pharmaceuticals, textiles, electronics Industrial production growth rate: NA% Electricity - production: 1.02 billion kWh (1999) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (1999) nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 948.6 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products: fruit, vegetables, sorghum; Senepol cattle
Exports: $NA
Exports - commodities: refined petroleum products
Exports - partners: US, Puerto Rico
Imports: $NA
Imports - commodities: crude oil, foodstuffs, consumer goods, building materials
Imports - partners: US, Puerto Rico
Debt - external: $NA Economic aid - recipient: $NA
Currency: US dollar (USD)
Currency code: USD
Exchange rates: the US dollar is used
Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September Communications Virgin Islands - Telephones - main lines in use: 62,000 (1997) Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,000 (1992)
Telephone system: general assessment: NA domestic: modern, uses fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay international: submarine cable and satellite communications; satellite earth stations - NA Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 11, shortwave 0 (2002)
Radios: 107,000 (1997) Television broadcast stations: 2 (2002)
Televisions: 68,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .vi Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 50 (2000)
Internet users: 12,000 (2000) Transportation Virgin Islands -
Railways: 0 km
Highways: total: 856 km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km (2000)
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Charlotte Amalie, Christiansted, Cruz Bay, Port Alucroix
Merchant marine: none (2002 est.)
Airports: 2 (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2001) Military Virgin Islands -
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US Transnational Issues Virgin Islands - Disputes - international: none

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▪ islands, Caribbean Sea

      group of about 90 small islands, islets, cays, and rocks in the West Indies, situated some 40 to 50 miles (64 to 80 kilometres) east of Puerto Rico. The islands extend from west to east for about 60 miles and are located west of the Anegada Passage, a major channel connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Their combined land area is about 195 square miles (505 square kilometres).

      The islands are administered in two groups—the British Virgin Islands and the Virgin Islands of the United States. The former is a British colony consisting of four larger and 32 smaller islands and islets. Their total area is 59 square miles, and they lie to the north and east of the U.S. islands. The latter group, administered by the U.S. Department of the Interior as an incorporated territory, consists of three larger islands and some 50 smaller islets and cays, with a total area of 133 square miles.

      The Virgin Islands are noted for their inviting subtropical climate, which attracts a large number of tourists each year to swim in the warm aquamarine waters and frequent the sandy beaches and harbours. Apart from the tourist industry, the islands have few economic resources; financial aid is provided by the United Kingdom and the United States, respectively. Fresh water is scarce. In recent years some tension has arisen between the inhabitants of the islands and people from other parts of the Caribbean who have immigrated, particularly to the Virgin Islands of the United States, to seek jobs and secure better living conditions.

Physical and human geography

The land
 Although the Virgin Islands form the easternmost extension of the Greater Antilles, they are often included in discussions of the Lesser Antilles because of their size and proximity to that island chain. The Virgin Islands themselves are the peaks of submerged mountains that rise from a submarine plateau. While the Caribbean deepens to a 15,000-foot trench between the island of St. Croix, to the south, and the rest of the group to the north, the greater part of the plateau is covered by at most 165 feet of water. Most of the islands rise only to a few hundred feet above sea level, although isolated peaks are well over 1,200 feet. The highest point is Mount Sage on Tortola, which is 1,710 feet (521 metres) high.

      Of the 36 British islands, 16 are inhabited. Tortola (Turtle Dove), with an area of 21 square miles, is the largest and is the site of the group's capital and population centre, Road Town. Other larger islands in the British group are Anegada, with an area of 15 square miles; Virgin Gorda (Virgin Gorda Island) (the Fat Virgin), with an area of 8 square miles; and Jost Van Dyke (Jost Van Dyke Island), about 3 square miles. Lesser islands include Great Tobago, Salt, Peter, Cooper, Norman, Guana, Beef, Great Thatch, Little Thatch, and Marina Cay.

      About 50 islands and cays constitute the U.S. group. Only three are of importance; several are uninhabited. The largest, St. Croix, is 28 miles long, 84 square miles in area, and lies about 40 miles south of the other islands. The island of St. Thomas, 32 square miles in area, is the site of the territory's capital, Charlotte Amalie. St. John has an area of 20 square miles. At the closest point, between Great Thatch Island and St. John, a distance of only half a mile separates the British and the U.S. groups.

      The landscape of the islands offers scenes of dramatic contrast, varying from craggy cliffs and mountaintops to small lagoons with coral reefs and barrier beaches, from landlocked harbours to unprotected bays, and from small, level plains to elevated plateaus with rolling lands and junglelike regions. Individual islands have their own distinguishing characteristics.

      In the British group, Tortola, of the same geologic formation as St. John, is hilly, with unbroken ranges running throughout its 15-mile length. Road Bay is Tortola's most important bay; it is exposed to the southeast but protected from all other sides by an amphitheatre of hills. Virgin Gorda, an island with several peninsulas, is rectangular in shape, about 2 1/2 miles long, and 1 3/4 miles wide in the central part of the island. Its highest peak rises 1,359 feet. Anegada is the only flat island of the group. Its elevation is never more than 10 to 15 feet above sea level, and its coast, because of its many reefs, is dangerous to boats. Jost Van Dyke is a hilly, almost rugged island with two fine beaches on the south side.

      In the U.S. group, St. Thomas, composed primarily of a ridge of hills running east and west with branching spurs, has little level, tillable land. Crown Mountain (1,556 feet), northwest of the capital of Charlotte Amalie, is the island's highest elevation. Charlotte Amalie, facing a fine landlocked harbour, is built on five foothills. There are a number of springs on the island's northern side but only one small stream. Magens Bay, with 3,500 feet of white sandy beach, is reputed to be the finest beach in the West Indies. St. Thomas is surrounded by 17 islands and by cays and innumerable rocks.

      St. Croix rises abruptly on the north to Mount Eagle (1,088 feet) and Blue Mountain (1,096 feet), but southward the land slopes to flatlands that near the coast are laced with lagoons. The island's only urban centres, Christiansted and Frederiksted, lie on the flat land. Since the coastal indentations are slight, there are few harbours and sheltered bays; dangerous reefs lie along the north and south coasts. While there are several rivulets on the island, it is generally poorly watered.

      St. John—three miles east across Pillsbury Sound from St. Thomas and lying closest to the British Virgin Islands—has steep, lofty hills and valleys but little level, tillable land. Its highest elevations are Camelberg Peak (1,193 feet) and Bordeaux Mountain (1,277 feet). Its coastline is indented with forests and many fine, sheltered bays. Coral Bay, on the eastern end, whose steep shores allow large vessels to come close in, has been described as the best natural harbour in the Virgin Islands. A number of small streams on the south side of St. John, together with a multitude of springs, make it the best-watered island of the U.S. group. More than three-quarters of its area, about 14,700 acres (5,949 hectares; including Hassel Island in St. Thomas harbour), is preserved as Virgin Islands National Park.

      The splendid climate is perhaps the Virgin Islands' chief asset. Although they are located in the tropics, the heat is tempered by gentle trade winds that blow from the northeast most of the year. Humidity is low, and there is little pollen. The temperature rarely exceeds 90° F (32° C) or falls below 70° F (21° C). The average temperature is about 78° F (26° C). The dry season lasts from February to July, and the wet season from September to December. Hurricanes—averaging perhaps four in a century—occur usually between August and October, and there are occasional light earthquakes.

      The water (water supply) scarcity is so serious that nearly all buildings, both private and public, have their own water catchments. Rainfall averages between 45 and 50 inches (1,143 and 1,270 millimetres) a year, but much of it runs off unused. In the driest sections of the large islands, rainfall usually averages a little less than 30 inches, with possibly as much as 80 inches on the upper slopes of Mount Sage on Tortola. But rainfall is erratic, varying widely from year to year.

      Virgin Islanders have long depended almost entirely upon their own cisterns and wells and, in addition, have imported water in barges to meet their needs for fresh water—needs now rapidly increasing in proportion to population and industrial growth. Only Road Town in the British group has a piped supply. The first flash-type evaporator for the desalination of seawater in the Western Hemisphere was installed in St. Thomas, where the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, established in 1965, now operates several saltwater-distillation plants. A seawater desalination plant is located in Christiansted on St. Croix. Maximum use of salt water is made everywhere in the islands.

Plant and animal life
      Vegetation is tropical. Supported in most places by thin soil, it includes royal poinciana (flamboyant) trees and other lush blooms, but the islands' generally sparse stands of shrubs and trees are not sufficient to be of commercial value. Among the tree species are mangoes, soursop (a small tropical tree with a large succulent fruit), coconut palms, and breadfruit. Cacao and wild orchids grow in the hills, while cactus, acacia, grass, and sugarcane flourish in the lowlands. Even though the woodlands are not dense, there are numerous species of birds and small game, such as deer. Sailfish, tarpon, marlin, kingfish, and wahoo abound in coastal and offshore waters.

The people
      The population is overwhelmingly made up of blacks descended from African slaves. The number of Puerto Ricans and persons from the continental United States has increased in recent years. Less than half of the U.S. Virgin Islands population is native-born.

      Despite a long tradition of racial equality and the absence of legal or de facto discrimination in housing, churches, theatres, and public facilities, there have been growing signs of discontent with a type of class discrimination that to a great extent corresponds with the difference between white and black. While there has been relatively little racial violence, there is an increasing demand by those of African descent for a greater role in determining economic and social decisions and in running the government.

      The Chachas of St. Thomas form a distinct ethnic unit apart from the other islanders. They are descended from French Huguenots who a century ago came from Saint-Barthélémy—a West Indian island the French purchased from Sweden in 1877, after holding it themselves from 1648 to 1784. The Chachas maintain themselves as a clannish, aloof, industrious, fisher–farmer community.

      The traditional language of the islands is English—much of it spoken in a dialect termed Calypso, which varies somewhat from island to island but is mutually intelligible among most West Indians. Some French is heard on St. Thomas, and there are numerous Spanish-speaking people on St. Croix, where many Puerto Ricans have settled.

      Religious freedom has existed since the 1600s. The islands are predominantly Protestant, the largest denomination in the British Virgin Islands being Methodist and in the U.S. islands, Anglican. The second oldest Lutheran church in the Western Hemisphere held its first service in Charlotte Amalie in 1666, and the second oldest American synagogue is in St. Thomas. Roman Catholics form a large minority in the U.S. islands.

      The British and U.S. components of the Virgin Islands differ demographically. The U.S. islands have about nine times the population of their British neighbours; the British islands have the lower birth rate, while the U.S. islands have a greater rate of natural population increase. The death rates for both entities are lower than the Caribbean mean. Both island groups have rates of total population growth that are affected substantially by immigration. The principle urban places are Road Town on Tortola and Charlotte Amalie on St. Thomas.

      Despite the colony's small size, British Virgin Islanders have a fairly high standard of living for the Caribbean region. The economy is based largely on tourism. The U.S. dollar is used as the official currency.

      Despite the handicaps of difficult terrain and uncertain water supply, agriculture and stock raising (largely for export to the U.S. Virgin Islands) are undertaken. Farms are usually small holdings worked by owner-occupiers, many of whom are also part-time fishermen. The chief crops are fruits, vegetables, and coconuts for both domestic use and export; sugarcane is grown for the distillation of rum. Many of the younger people seek work in the U.S. islands, where wages are higher.

      The tourist industry makes up almost half of the national economy. New roads have been built, harbours improved, and tourist hotels built. The number of tourists visiting the islands, attracted by opportunities for sport fishing and sailing, has continued to increase.

      Burning wood for charcoal is a minor industry, and there are several boatyards for the construction and repair of vessels. Cement blocks and rum are manufactured.

      Imports—mostly from the United States, Puerto Rico, and the United Kingdom—consist chiefly of foodstuffs, beverages, machinery, motor vehicles, building materials, and petroleum products. Exports, mainly to the U.S. Virgin Islands, include fresh fish, rum, sand and gravel, charcoal, fruit, and vegetables.

      Tortola has two main highways and numerous side routes; Virgin Gorda, Anegada, and Jost Van Dyke also have road networks. Small boats ply to and from the U.S. Virgin Islands. An airport, reconstructed in 1969, is located on Beef Island, which is connected by bridge to Tortola. Another airport, on Anegada, was opened in 1969, and there is plane service to the U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and Antigua. Road Harbour on Tortola is a deepwater port.

The economy (U.S. Virgin Islands)
      Until well into the 20th century, sugarcane and, to a lesser extent, cotton provided the main economic base. The harbour at St. Thomas also generated some income. When the United States acquired the islands, both social and economic conditions were poor. The first U.S. governor reported in 1917 that the islands were incapable of self-support. Since then, millions of dollars of U.S. aid have failed to make them self-supporting. U.S. aid and the development of tourism have nevertheless resulted in the territory's having one of the highest incomes per capita in the Caribbean.

      Minerals of commercial value do not exist, although sand, rock, and gravel are present in quantities sufficient for construction purposes.

      There is no large commercial fishing industry, but fish represent an important part of the islanders' diet, and there is a shellfish-farming operation on St. Croix. Tourism has encouraged sport fishing.

      As in the British Virgin Islands, tourism is the most important economic sector. In the U.S. islands there are more than 200 miles of beaches, several historic 17th- and 18th-century buildings, pleasant vistas of mountain and sea, and numerous recreational facilities. The picturesque free port of Charlotte Amalie is also an attraction. Small manufacturing operations, including watch making, textile manufacturing, rum distilling, and pharmaceutical production, have been encouraged, as have some larger ones. One of the world's largest oil refineries is located on St. Croix, and petroleum products are the islands' leading export. Tax concessions were granted by the United States in1987 to encourage manufacturing.

      The U.S. islands depend heavily on imports for their survival—most importantly crude oil for the large refinery. Food is the next most important import. Other than refined petroleum, exports include chemical products, watches and watch movements, and rum. The main trading partner is the United States.

      The U.S. islands have a fairly good road network. Taxis and rental vehicles are available on all three islands, and regular passenger-bus services operate on St. Croix and St. Thomas. Interisland transport by small boat is available. Seagoing passenger and cargo vessels connect the ports of Charlotte Amalie, on St. Thomas, Frederiksted and Limetree Bay, on St. Croix, to ports abroad. International jet air services operate on St. Thomas and St. Croix.

Administration and social conditions (British Virgin Islands)
      The islands are a crown colony with a governor, appointed by the British crown, who is responsible for defense and internal security, external affairs, and the civil service. He exercises his powers in consultation with the Executive Council, over which he presides. The council consists of three ministers plus the chief minister and the attorney general. The Legislative Council consists of one ex officio member (the attorney general), nine members elected by universal adult suffrage, a speaker, who is elected from outside the council by its members, and one member appointed by the governor.

      The law of the colony is made up of both the common law of England and statutory law, or locally enacted legislation. It is administered by the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, courts of summary jurisdiction, and magistrates' courts. The principal law officer is the attorney general.

Education and health
      Education is compulsory and free, but there is a shortage of schools. The islands have several private schools, but there are no institutions of higher learning. Health conditions are fairly good. The administration carries out a regular immunization program, and there is a modernized hospital on Tortola. A program of social welfare has also been implemented.

Administration and social conditions (U.S. Virgin Islands)
      Jurisdiction is exercised by the U.S. Department of the Interior. Limited legislative powers are held by a unicameral legislature consisting of 15 senators, each elected by popular vote for two-year terms. The governor and lieutenant governor are also elected by universal adult suffrage. There are 12 executive departments, of which 11 are headed by commissioners; the 12th, the Department of Law, is headed by the attorney general. Attempts to redraft the constitution to provide greater autonomy have been rejected, most recently in 1981. Residents of the Virgin Islands do not vote in U.S. presidential elections. They are represented in the U.S. House of Representatives by a nonvoting delegate.

      Judicial power in the islands resides in municipal courts and in the Federal District Court of the Virgin Islands. The district judge and the district attorney are appointed by the president of the United States, with the advice and consent of the U.S. Senate. Municipal court judges are appointed by the governor, subject to confirmation by the legislature.

Education and health
      Education is compulsory and free, but many students attend private schools. The University of the Virgin Islands (established in 1962) has campuses on both St. Thomas and St. Croix. Health services are more extensive in the U.S. than in the British islands. There is a large general hospital on St. Thomas, and hospital services are available on the other two large islands. Mobile units reach the outlying islands.

Cultural life
      The Virgin Islands have little in the way of a national culture. There is no typical music and little folklore. In 1965, however, the Virgin Islands Council of the Arts was created as an adjunct of the U.S. National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. Community arts councils have been formed on all three American islands. They sponsor theatrical performances and provide training in the arts and crafts.

      Pre-Columbian inhabitants of the islands probably included the Arawak, who were displaced by the Caribs; the latter had reached the stage of stone polishing and pottery making when Christopher Columbus arrived. On his second voyage, in 1493, Columbus dropped anchor at what is now known as Salt River Bay, St. Croix (which he called Santa Cruz), and sent a landing party ashore in search of fresh water and fruit. After a skirmish, the Caribs repulsed the Spanish. Columbus later encountered some of the other islands and named the group Santa Ursula y las Once Mil Virgenes (St. Ursula and the Eleven Thousand Virgins). In 1555 the Holy Roman emperor, Charles V (Charles I of Spain), sent forces that defeated the Caribs, claimed the territory, and ordered the annihilation of the natives. By 1596 most of the natives had been killed or had left.

Settlement and history of the British Virgin Islands
      Tortola was first settled in 1648 by Dutch buccaneers who held the island until it was taken over in 1666 by a group of English planters. In 1672 Tortola was annexed to the British-administered Leeward Islands. In 1773 the planters were granted civil government, with an elected House of Assembly and a partly elected Legislative Council, and constitutional courts. The abolition of slavery in the first half of the 19th century dealt a heavy blow to the agricultural economy. In 1867 the constitution was surrendered and a legislative council was appointed that lasted until 1902, when sole legislative authority was vested in the governor-in-council. In 1950 a partly elected and partly nominated legislative council was reinstated. Following the defederation of the Leeward Islands colony in 1956 and the abolition of the office of governor in 1960, the islands became a crown colony. In 1958 the West Indies Federation was established, but the British Virgin Islands declined to join, in order to retain close economic ties with the U.S. islands. Under a constitutional order issued in 1967, the islands were given a ministerial form of government. The constitution was amended in 1977 to permit a greater degree of autonomy in internal affairs.

Settlement and history of the U.S. Virgin Islands
      In 1666 St. Thomas was occupied by Denmark, which five years later founded a colony there to supply the mother country with sugar, cotton, indigo, and other products. Slaves from Africa were first introduced to St. Thomas in 1673 to work the cane fields, but the first regular consignment of slaves did not arrive until 1681. In 1684 the Danes claimed neighbouring St. John, which had been used primarily as a base by buccaneers. Denmark colonized the island with planters from St. Thomas in 1717. In 1733 they abandoned St. John after slaves rebelled, staged an uprising, and held the island for six months. They then purchased St. Croix, which had been in the possession of the French since 1651. Slaves continued to be imported from Africa; by 1742 there were 1,900 on St. Croix alone, and sugar production was bringing prosperity to the islands. The group came under the Danish crown in 1754, and the following year Charlotte Amalie was made a free port. The British occupied the islands from 1801 to 1802, and in the next year, 1803, the slave trade was abolished in the Danish West Indies. The British reoccupied the islands from 1807 to 1815, after which they reverted to Danish rule until 1917. Slavery itself was abolished in 1848 after a serious uprising in that year. Sugarcane production dropped, and there was a general decline in economic activity.

      U.S. interest in the islands began in the Civil War period, but the U.S. Senate refused in 1870 to approve the purchase of St. Thomas and St. John for $7.5 million. The United States moved decisively only in World War I, when it was seen to be strategically important to control the main passage through the Caribbean to the Panama Canal, as well as routes along the eastern coasts of the American continent. Denmark at that time was willing to sell to avoid the jeopardy of seizure by the Allies or conquest by Germany, which then owned Hamburg–America Line docks, warehouses, steamers, and other property in St. Thomas. In 1917 the United States purchased the three islands for $25 million and the Virgin Islands became an unincorporated territory of the United States. The treaty of cession promised U.S. citizenship to the inhabitants, except for those who chose to retain Danish citizenship.

      An act in 1927 granted U.S. citizenship to most of the Virgin Islanders, and another in 1932 provided that all natives of the Virgin Islands who on the date of the act were residing in the continental United States or any of its insular possessions or territories were U.S. citizens. The transition was accomplished smoothly by retaining the organization of the Danish government and its legal code. All military, civil, and judicial power was invested in a governor appointed by the president of the United States. Administration was the responsibility of the U.S. Navy Department from 1917 until 1931, when jurisdiction was transferred to the Department of the Interior.

      The Organic Act of 1936, enacted by the U.S. Congress for the establishment of congressional government, provided for two municipal councils, one for St. Thomas and St. John, the other for St. Croix, and a council for the whole territory. A Revised Organic Act adopted in 1954 created a central government and abolished the independent municipal councils, authorized distinct executive, legislative, and judicial branches, and provided for a substantial degree of self-government. In 1968 an act was approved, which took effect in 1970, legalizing the popular election of the islands' governor and lieutenant governor for four-year terms.

      There has been little demand for autonomy by either the British or U.S. Virgin Islands, mostly because of fears of disrupting the lucrative tourist industry and of incurring an increased tax burden. Independence appears not to be the goal for either territory, and statehood continues to be only a remote possibility for the U.S. islands. The inability of either territory to develop a self-supporting economy continues to encourage their dependent status. In 1995 a major hurricane struck the islands, devastating the economy.

Luther Harris Evans Ed.

Additional Reading
There are few works that treat all the islands of the Lesser Antilles or describe a particular island comprehensively, although a number of broad overviews are listed in the earlier section on the region. An informative geologic survey, covering locations from both the Lesser Antilles and the Netherlands Antilles, is offered in J.H. Westermann and H. Kiel, The Geology of Saba and St. Eustatius, with Notes on the Geology of St. Kitts, Nevis, and Montserrat, Lesser Antilles (1961). Guy Lasserre, La Guadeloupe: Étude géographique, 3 vol. (1978), is a detailed geography. Studies of flora include Clarissa Thérèse Kimber, Martinique Revisited: The Changing Plant Geographies of a West Indian Island (1988); and David Watts, Man's Influence on the Vegetation of Barbados, 1627 to 1800 (1966).The people of Barbados are discussed in Jill Sheppard, The “Redlegs” of Barbados, Their Origins and History (1977), which explores the history of indentured servants; Farley Brathwaite (ed.), The Elderly in Barbados (1986), a survey of social and economic conditions of the elderly; and Graham M.S. Dann (ed.), Everyday in Barbados: A Sociological Perspective (1976), which discusses social structures and recreational activity. Jean Benoist (ed.), L'Archipel inachevé: culture et société aux Antilles françaises (1972), is an anthropological study of the French islands of Martinique, Guadeloupe, La Désirade, Marie-Galante, and Saint-Barthélemy. Stuart B. Philpott, West Indian Migration: The Montserrat Case (1973), explores the impact of migration on village population. Bonham C. Richardson, Caribbean Migrants: Environment and Human Survival on St. Kitts and Nevis (1983), focuses on migration as a response to degradation of environment. Karen Fog Olwig, Cultural Adaptation and Resistance on St. John: Three Centuries of Afro-Caribbean Life (1985), examines the society of one of the Virgin Islands.Analyses of economic conditions include Delisle Worrell (ed.), The Economy of Barbados, 1946–1980 (1982), a study of the trends of the major sectors; Bonham C. Richardson, Panama Money in Barbados, 1900–1920 (1985), which discusses the impact of remittances on a wide range of economic activities and social attitudes; Michel-Rolph Trouillot, Peasants and Capital: Dominica in the World Economy (1988), which explores patterns of land ownership and agricultural production; and C. Bourne, E.R. Lefranc, and F. Nunes (compilers), Small Farming in the Less Developed Countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean (1980), which provides information on Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Montserrat, and Antigua. Studies of individual island-state economies include John S. Brierley, Small Farming in Grenada, West Indies (1974); Deirdre M. Kelly, Hard Work, Hard Choices: A Survey of Women in St. Lucia's Export-Oriented Electronics Factories (1987); and Hymie Rubenstein, Coping With Poverty: Adaptive Strategies in a Caribbean Village (1987).Historical works which concentrate mostly on slavery and plantation life include the following: Vincent T. Harlow, A History of Barbados, 1625–1685 (1926, reprinted 1969), an examination of the period of the early British colonies; Gary A. Puckrein, Little England: Plantation Society and Anglo-Barbadian Politics, 1627–1700 (1984), a revisionist economic history, particularly strong on the creolizing process; Hilary Beckles, Black Rebellion in Barbados: The Struggle Against Slavery, 1627–1838 (1984), a provocative interpretation of slave resistance. Jerome S. Handler, The Unappropriated People: Freedmen in the Slave Society of Barbados (1974), which fills a gap in historiography; Karl Watson, The Civilised Island, Barbados: A Social History, 1750–1816 (1979), a study of the mature slave society; Claude Levy, Emancipation, Sugar, and Federalism: Barbados and the West Indies, 1833–1876 (1980), on postslavery adjustments; Gordon C. Merrill, The Historical Geography of St. Kitts and Nevis, the West Indies (1958), which discusses the colonial period on the islands; Lennox Honychurch, The Dominica Story: A History of the Island, 2nd ed. (1984), a well-illustrated study covering developments up to the 1980s and benefiting from the author's personal involvement in the constitutional changes leading to independence; and George Brizan, Grenada, Island of Conflict: From Amerindians to People's Revolution, 1498–1979 (1984), the work of a Grenadian historian and politician.

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