venomless, adj.
/ven"euhm/, n.
1. the poisonous fluid that some animals, as certain snakes and spiders, secrete and introduce into the bodies of their victims by biting, stinging, etc.
2. something resembling or suggesting poison in its effect; spite; malice: the venom of jealousy.
3. Archaic. poison in general.
4. Archaic. to make venomous; envenom.
[1175-1225; var. of ME venim < AF; OF venim, venin < VL *venimen, for L venenum magical herb or potion, poison < *wenes-nom, equiv. to *wenes- desire (see VENERATE, VENUS) + *-nom n. suffix]
Syn. 1. See poison. 2. malignity, acrimony, bitterness, acerbity, gall, spleen, hate.

* * *

Poison secreted by an animal, produced by specialized glands often associated with spines, teeth, or stings.

It may be primarily for paralyzing or killing prey or may be purely defensive. Some venoms also function as digestive fluids. Their effects can range from localized skin inflammation to almost immediate death; they include nervous-system excitation (cramps, vomiting, convulsions) or depression (paralysis, respiratory or cardiac depression or arrest), hemorrhage, red-blood-cell breakdown, circulatory collapse, and allergic reactions (including hives and inflammation). Many major groups of animals contain venomous species: snakes (cobras, mambas, vipers, pit vipers); fish (stingrays, spiny sharks, certain catfish, puffers); lizards (Gila monsters, beaded lizards); scorpions; spiders (black widow spiders, brown recluse spiders); social insects (bees, wasps, some ants); and marine invertebrates (sea anemones, fire corals, jellyfish, sea urchins). See also antidote.

* * *

      the poisonous secretion of an animal, produced by specialized glands that are often associated with spines, teeth, stings, or other piercing devices. The venom apparatus may be primarily for killing or paralyzing prey or may be a purely defensive adaptation. Some venoms also function as digestive fluids. The venom poisoning of humans is primarily a problem of rural tropical regions, though it occurs worldwide. Many thousands of human deaths due to venom poisoning occur each year.

      Most venoms injure humans only when introduced into the skin or deeper tissues, usually through a sting or bite. Venoms are mixtures of toxic enzymes and various other proteins that act on the body in different ways. Neurotoxin venoms act on the brain and nervous system and can cause either nervous excitation (characterized by such symptoms as muscle cramps, twitching, vomiting, and convulsions) or nervous depression (with such symptoms as paralysis and weakening or arrest of respiration and heartbeat). Hemotoxins affect the blood or blood vessels: some destroy the lining of the smaller blood vessels and allow blood to seep into the tissues, producing local or widespread hemorrhages, while others render the blood less coagulable or cause abnormally rapid clotting, leading to circulatory collapse that can be fatal. Still other venoms produce the symptoms of an allergic reaction, resulting in wheals, blisters, and violent inflammation, often followed by death of tissue and muscle spasms.

      Most major animal phyla contain venomous species, but relatively few come into harmful contact with humans. These few include certain snakes (e.g., cobras, mambas, vipers, pit vipers, coral snakes, and rattlesnakes); certain fishes (e.g., stingrays, weevers, spiny sharks, scorpion fish, ratfish, and certain catfish); a few lizards (Gila monster); some scorpions and several spiders (e.g., the black widow and brown recluse); some social insects (e.g., the bee, wasp, and certain ants); and various marine invertebrates, including some sea anemones, fire corals, jellyfish, cone shells, and sea urchins. Snakes and spiders inject venom into their victims with their fangs; fishes use venomous spines and scorpions and many insects use stings.

      Venom attacks can range in severity from a simple localized inflammation of the skin to almost immediate death, depending on the animal involved and the potency and mode of action of its venom. An attack's severity also depends on the victim's age (children are more severely affected than are adults) and the location of the injury (a venom wound on an arm or leg is usually less serious than a similar one on the head or trunk). See also poison.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Venom — hace referencia a: Veneno, en idioma español. Música Venom, banda británica encabezada por el bajista y vocalista Cronos. Venom, álbum musical del proyecto en solitario de Cronos. Película Venom, película dirigida por Piers Haggard 1981. Venom,… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Venom — (engl. für Gift, besonders Schlangengift) bezeichnet: eine fiktive Comicfigur aus den Spider Man Comics sowie dem Film Spider Man 3, siehe Figuren aus dem Marvel Universum#Venom eine britische Metal Band, siehe Venom (Band) einen Flugzeugtyp,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Venom — Ven om, n. [OE. venim, OF. venim, F. venin, L. veneum. Cf. {Venenate}.] 1. Matter fatal or injurious to life; poison; particularly, the poisonous, the poisonous matter which certain animals, such as serpents, scorpions, bees, etc., secrete in a… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Venom — Ven om, v. t. [OE. venimen, OF. venimer, L. venenare. See {Venom}, n.] To infect with venom; to envenom; to poison. [R.] Venomed vengeance. Shak. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Venom — puede ser: ● Venom: personaje de las aventuras de Spiderman. ● Venom: grupo de música black metal …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Venom ER — is a television program made by the Wildvision department of the BBC Natural History Unit for Animal Planet. It follows doctors at the hospital of Loma Linda, California dealing with venomous bites from snakes. External links*… …   Wikipedia

  • venom — index malice, odium, rancor, resentment, severity, spite Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • venom — early 13c., from Anglo Fr. and O.Fr. venim, from V.L. *venimen (Cf. It. veleno, Sp. veneno), from L. venenum poison, earlier (pre classical) drug, potion, probably originally “love potion,” from PIE *wenes no , and thus connected to venus… …   Etymology dictionary

  • venom — *poison, toxin, virus, bane …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • venom — [n] poison; hating acidity, acrimony, anger, bane, bitterness, contagion, gall, grudge, hate, hatred, ill will, infection, malevolence, malice, maliciousness, malignity, rancor, spite, spitefulness, spleen, taint, toxin, virulence, virus;… …   New thesaurus

  • venom — ► NOUN 1) poisonous fluid secreted by animals such as snakes and scorpions and typically injected by biting or stinging. 2) extreme malice, bitterness, or aggression. ORIGIN Old French venim, from Latin venenum poison …   English terms dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”