/veuh lear"ee euhn/, n. (Publius Licinius Valerianus)
died A.D. c260, Roman emperor 253-60.

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Latin Publius Licinius Valerianus

died AD 260

Roman emperor (253–260).

He served as consul under Severus Alexander (r. 222–235). Later a commander on the upper Rhine, he supported the emperor Gallus (r. 251–253) in the conflict with a rival emperor but arrived with his legions too late to save Gallus from death at the hands of his own troops. Elected emperor by his soldiers (253), Valerian renewed the persecution of the Christians and executed Pope Sixtus II in 258. After appointing his son Publius Licinius Gallienus to rule the western part of the empire, he marched east to repel the Persian invasion. At first successful, he was later defeated by the Persian king Shapur I and died in captivity.

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▪ Roman emperor
Latin in full  Publius Licinius Valerianus 
died 260

      Roman emperor from 253 to 260.

      Licinius Valerianus was consul under Severus Alexander (emperor 222–235) and played a leading role in inducing the Senate to risk support for Gordian I's rebellion against the emperor Maximinus (238). He may have been one of the 20 consulars who successfully defended Italy against the emperor. He is not again mentioned until the reign of Decius (emperor 249–251). Under Gallus (emperor 251–253), Licinius Valerianus held a command on the Upper Rhine and was summoned to bring the northern armies to aid in the struggle against the rival emperor Aemilian. He arrived too late to save Gallus but managed to avenge and succeed him.

 As the emperor Valerian, he vigorously renewed Decius's persecution of the Christians (Christianity), executing, among others, Bishop Cyprian (Cyprian, Saint) of Carthage and Bishop Xystus (Sixtus II (Sixtus II, Saint)) of Rome. Recognizing that it was no longer possible for one emperor to control the whole empire, Valerian appointed his son Gallienus to rule the West while he marched east to repel the Persian invasion. His attempts to negotiate personally with the Persian king Shāpūr I (Latin: Sapor) ended in failure. He was captured in June 260 and died in captivity. Like his predecessor, Decius, Valerian tried valiantly to preserve the ideals of the High Empire but ultimately failed to save himself or the regime he served.

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Universalium. 2010.

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