/tuy"reuh seen', -sin, tir"euh-/, n. Biochem.
a crystalline amino acid, HOC6H4CH2CH(NH2)COOH, abundant in ripe cheese, that acts as a precursor of norepinephrine and dopamine. Abbr.: Tyr; Symbol: Y
[1855-60; < Gk tyrós cheese + -INE2]

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One of the amino acids, not essential for humans unless they have the hereditary disorder phenylketonuria.

It is the biochemical precursor of many important catecholamines. It is found in small amounts in most proteins, especially insulin and papain (found in papaya). It is used in biochemical research and as a dietary supplement.

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      an amino acid comprising about 1 to 6 percent by weight of the mixture obtained by hydrolysis of most proteins. First isolated from casein (1849), tyrosine is particularly abundant in insulin (a hormone) and papain (an enzyme found in fruit of the papaya), which contain 13 percent by weight. Tyrosine is one of several so-called essential amino acids for certain animals; i.e., they cannot synthesize it and require dietary sources. Other species can, however, convert phenylalanine, also an essential amino acid for fowl and mammals, to tyrosine whenever necessary for protein synthesis.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Tyrosine — L ou S( ) tyrosine D ou R(+) tyrosine …   Wikipédia en Français

  • tyrosine — [ tirozin ] n. f. • 1855; de tyro et ine ♦ Biochim. Acide aminé essentiel très répandu dans la nature (graines de céréales, pommes de terre, fruits mûrs), jouant un rôle important grâce aux composés organiques qui en dérivent (mélanine,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • tyrosine — tyrosine. См. тирозин. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • tyrosine — amino acid, 1857, coined 1846 by German chemist Baron von Justus Liebig (1802 1873), who had first obtained it a year before, from Gk. tyros cheese + chemical suffix INE (Cf. ine) (2). So called because it was easily obtained from old cheese …   Etymology dictionary

  • tyrosine — [tī′rō sēn΄, tir′ōsēn΄; tī′rōsin΄, tir′ōsin΄] [Gr tyros, cheese (see BUTTER) + INE3] n. a white, crystalline nonessential amino acid, C6H4OHCH2CH(NH2)COOH, formed by the decomposition of proteins, as in the putrefaction of cheese: see AMINO ACID …   English World dictionary

  • Tyrosine — NatOrganicBox name=( S ) 2 Amino 3 (4 hydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid PubChem = 1153 CAS = 60 18 4 SMILES = N [C@@H] (Cc1ccc(O)cc1)C(O)=O C=9 | H=11 | N=1 | O=3 mass=181.19 g/molTyrosine (abbreviated as Tyr or Y) [cite web | author=IUPAC IUBMB… …   Wikipedia

  • tyrosine — Tyrosin Tyr o*sin, n. [Gr. ? cheese.] (Physiol. Chem.) A white crystalline nitrogenous substance present in small amount in the pancreas and spleen, and formed in large quantity from the decomposition of proteid matter by various means, as by… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • tyrosine — 2 Amino 3 (4 hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid; 3 (4 hydroxyphenyl)alanine; the l isomer is an α amino acid present in most proteins. t. aminotransferase an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction of l t. and α ketoglutarate producing p… …   Medical dictionary

  • tyrosine — tirozinas statusas T sritis chemija formulė HOC₆H₄CH₂CH(NH₂)COOH santrumpa( os) Tyr, Y atitikmenys: angl. tyrosine rus. тирозин ryšiai: sinonimas – 2 amino 3 (4 hidroksifenil)propano rūgštis …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • Tyrosine hydroxylase — or tyrosine 3 monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). DOPA is a precursor for dopamine which in turn is a precursor for norepinephrine (noradrenaline)… …   Wikipedia

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