tunnel

tunnel
tunneler; esp. Brit., tunneller, n.tunnellike, adj.
/tun"l/, n., v., tunneled, tunneling or (esp. Brit.) tunnelled, tunnelling.
n.
1. an underground passage.
2. a passageway, as for trains or automobiles, through or under an obstruction, as a city, mountain, river, harbor, or the like.
3. an approximately horizontal gallery or corridor in a mine.
4. the burrow of an animal.
5. Dial. a funnel.
v.t.
6. to construct a passageway through or under: to tunnel a mountain.
7. to make or excavate (a tunnel or underground passage): to tunnel a passage under a river.
8. to move or proceed by or as if by boring a tunnel: The river tunneled its way through the mountain.
9. to pierce or hollow out, as with tunnels.
v.i.
10. to make a tunnel or tunnels: to tunnel through the Alps.
[1400-50; late ME tonel (n.) < MF tonele, tonnelle funnel-shaped net, fem. of tonnel cask, dim. of tonne TUN; see -ELLE]

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I
Horizontal or nearly horizontal underground or underwater passageway.

Tunnels are used for mining, as passageways for trains and motor vehicles, for diverting rivers around damsites, for housing underground installations such as power plants, and for conducting water. Ancient civilizations used tunnels to carry water for irrigation and drinking, and in the 22nd century BC the Babylonians built a tunnel for pedestrian traffic under the Euphrates River. The Romans built aqueduct tunnels through mountains by heating the rock face with fire and rapidly cooling it with water, causing the rock to crack. The introduction of gunpowder blasting in the 17th century marked a great advance in solid-rock excavation. For softer soils, excavation is accomplished using devices such as the tunneling mole, with its rotating wheel that continuously excavates material and loads it onto a conveyor belt. Railroad transportation in the 19th–20th century led to a tremendous expansion in the number and length of tunnels. Brick and stone were used for support in early tunnels, but in modern tunneling steel is generally used until a concrete lining can be installed. A common method of lining involves spraying shotcrete onto the tunnel crown immediately after excavation.
II
(as used in expressions)

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • tunnel — [ tynɛl ] n. m. • 1825 à propos de l Angleterre; angl. tunnel, du fr. tonnelle (XVIe) « longue voûte en berceau » 1 ♦ Galerie souterraine destinée au passage d une voie de communication (sous un cours d eau, un bras de mer; à travers une… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Tunnel [1] — Tunnel, künstlich hergestellter Hohlraum von größerem, verschiedenartig gestaltetem röhrenförmigem Querschnitte, der unter der Erdoberfläche oder unter Gewässern, horizontal oder geneigt in gerader Linie oder in Krümmungen angelegt, zur freien,… …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • Tunnel [3] — Tunnel, erweiterter Ausdruck nicht nur für ein, im rein bergmännischen Ausbau durch ragende Hindernisse oder unter der Erd(Wasser )oberfläche errichtetes röhrenförmiges Bauwerk, sondern auch für ein solches, das offen, von Tag aus oder nach… …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • Tunnel — Tun nel, n. [F. tonnelle a semicircular, wagon headed vault, a tunnel net, an arbor, OF. also tonnel; dim. of tonne a tun; so named from its resemblance to a tun in shape. See {Ton}.] 1. A vessel with a broad mouth at one end, a pipe or tube at… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Tunnel — (engl., »Trichter, Röhre«, v. altfranz. tonnel, Tonne; hierzu die Tafel »Tunnelbau« mit Text), ein wesentlich wagerechter Gang (Stollen) von solchen Abmessungen, daß ein Verkehrsweg (Straße, Schiffahrtkanal, Eisenbahn) durch das Erdinnere geführt …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Tunnel — Tun nel, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Tunneled}or {Tunnelled}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Tunneling} or {Tunnelling}.] [1913 Webster] 1. To form into a tunnel, or funnel, or to form like a tunnel; as, to tunnel fibrous plants into nests. Derham. [1913 Webster] 2.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Tunnel 1 — (6,330m), is a tunnel under construction situated in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. The tunnel is located on the road that connects Tobiagrande with Puerto Salgar. Up ahead the road connects with another tunnel that is named Tunnel 11… …   Wikipedia

  • Tunnel — Sm std. (19. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus ne. tunnel, dieses aus afrz. tonnel Tonnengewölbe, Faß , aus gall. tunna.    Ebenso nndl. tunnel, ne. tunnel, nfrz. tunnel, nschw. tunnel, nnorw. tunnel; Tonne. ✎ Krüger (1979), 451; DF 5 (1981), 528… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • tunnel — [tun′əl] n. [ME tonel, a net with wide opening and narrow end < MFr tonnelle, arbor, semicircular vault < OFr tonnel, dim. of tonne, TUN] 1. Obs. a) a flue b) a funnel 2. a passageway, as through a mountain or under a body of water, as for… …   English World dictionary

  • Tunnel — Tun nel, v. i. To make a tunnel; as, to tunnel under a river. [PJC] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Tunnel — »unter der Erde angelegter, durch einen Berg führender Verkehrsweg«: Das Wort wurde im 19. Jh. aus engl. tunnel »unterirdischer Gang, Stollen; Tunnel« entlehnt, das seinerseits aus afrz. tonnel (= frz. tonnelle) »Tonnengewölbe; Fass« stammt. Dies …   Das Herkunftswörterbuch

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