/tooh"nis, tyooh"-/, n.
1. a city in and the capital of Tunisia, in the NE part. 944,000.
2. one of the former Barbary States in N Africa, once notorious for its pirates: constitutes modern Tunisia.

* * *

City (pop., 1994: 674,000), capital of Tunisia.

It is situated on an isthmus between two lagoons; its port, La Goulette (Ḥalq al-Wādī), is on the end of the eastern lagoon, Tunis Lake. Founded by Libyans, it was later a small town under Carthage; it became important after the Muslim conquest in the 7th century AD. It became the capital city under the Abbāsid dynasty (9th century) and one of the leading cities of the Muslim world under the Hafsid dynasty (13th century). The Spanish and Ottomans controlled it during the 16th century, and it was occupied by the Germans in 1942. It was made the national capital when Tunisia gained independence from France in 1956. It produces textiles, carpets, and olive oil and has metallurgical industries. Tourism is also important.

* * *

Arabic  Tūnis, or Tūnus,  
 capital and largest city of Tunisia, on the northern African coast, between the western and eastern basins of the Mediterranean Sea. Tunis was built at the end of the shallow Lake of Tunis, an inlet of the Gulf of Tunis, and is linked with its port, Ḥalq al-Wādī, 6 miles (10 km) to the northeast.

      Tunis was founded by the Libyans, who in the 9th century BC surrendered the site of Carthage to the Phoenicians from Tyre. In 146 BC, during the Third Punic War (Punic War, Third) between Carthage and Rome, Tunis and Carthage were destroyed. The city flourished under Roman rule, but its importance dates chiefly from the Muslim conquest in the 7th century AD. It became the capital city under the Aghlabids (800–909) and reached its greatest prosperity under the Ḥafṣid dynasty (1236–1574). The Holy Roman emperor Charles V took possession of it in 1535, and in 1539 the city passed into the hands of the Turks. It was retaken by the Spaniards, who held it from 1573 to 1574 but who were obliged to yield it to the Ottoman Empire, under which it remained until the French protectorate (1881–1956). Occupied by the Germans in 1942 and liberated by British forces and Allied troops in 1943, it became the national capital of Tunisia when independence was achieved in 1956.

      Agriculture remains a major source of income. Olives and cereals are the principal crops grown, and olive oil and foodstuffs are processed. Manufactures include textiles and clothing, carpets, and cement and metal building structures. There are also chemical (superphosphate), metallurgical, machine, and electrical industries and railway workshops. There are several thermoelectric plants at Ḥalq al-Wādī, and Maqrīn has a lead smelter. Tourism is of particular economic importance. Al-ʿUwaynah International Airport and the International Airport of Tunis-Carthage are located northeast of the city.

      Tunis has two cultural centres, as well as a theatre that is used by international theatre groups. The summer festival—the Festival of Carthage, held in July—has achieved a certain renown. Among the city's attractions are its thermal baths, dating from the time of Rome's Antonine emperors (who reigned in the 2nd century), the heights of Sīdī-Bū Saʿīd, the exoticism of its markets (suqs), and the mosque of Az-Zaytūnah (Zaytūnah, Al-) (8th century), the oldest and most venerated monument in Tunis. The University of Tunis was founded in 1960. Southeast of the city, along the valley of the Wadi Milyān, are magnificent remains of the aqueduct built by the Romans to link Mount Zaghwān to Carthage. Pop. (1984) city (commune), 596,654; (1990 est.) metropolitan area, 1,479,000.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tunis — Tunis …   Deutsch Wörterbuch

  • Tunis — • French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Tunis     Tunis     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • TUNIS — Atteignant 596 000 habitants en 1990 (1 479 000 pour l’agglomération), Tunis concentrait alors un sixième de la population de la Tunisie. Cette exceptionnelle importance découle de son triple rôle de capitale politique, économique et… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Tunis 2 — Création 20 mars 1990 Disparition 6 novembre 1994 Langue Arabe Pays …   Wikipédia en Français

  • TUNIS — (Toronto University System) was a Unix like operating system, developed at the University of Toronto in the early 1980s.TUNIS was a mostly compatible clone of Unix V7, but with a completely redesigned kernel, written in Concurrent Euclid. TUNIS… …   Wikipedia

  • Tunis 7 — (arabisch ‏تونس 7‎) ist ein tunesischer Fernsehsender. Am 1. Oktober 1965 wurde ein Testlauf des Fernsehsenders gestartet. Es wurde eine Stunde und fünfzehn Minuten gesendet, der Sender konnte in Tunis mitsamt Vororten empfangen werden. Ein… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tunis [1] — Tunis (Tunesien, bei den Arabern Ifrikija), einst Vasallenstaat des türk. Reiches in Nordafrika (s. Karte »Algerien etc.«), seit 1881 (nähere Bestimmungen 1883) Schutzstaat Frankreichs, zwischen Mittelländischem Meer, Tripolis und Algerien,… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Tunis [2] — Tunis, Hauptstadt der Regentschaft T. (s. oben), 45 km vom Mittelmeer, unter 36°50 nördl. Br. und 10°12 östl. L., zwischen dem seichten Salzsee El Bahira im O., durch den seit 1893 ein Kanal für große Handelsschiffe nach Goletta (s. d.) am… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Tunis — Tunis. Seit 1881 steht der Bei von T., dessen Gebiet 99.600 km2 mit (1911) etwa 1∙78 Mill. Einwohnern umfaßt, unter französischer Oberhoheit; als eingeborenem Herrscher stehen ihm jedoch Eisenbahnhoheitsrechte zu, wodurch sich ein wesentlicher… …   Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens

  • Tunis [2] — Tunis (Gesch.). Das Gebiet von T. ist das alte Gebiet von Carthago. Als die einst feste u. bedeutende, 10 Millien von Carthago an der Mündung des Flusses Katada gelegene Stadt Tunes nach dem dritten Punischen Kriege zerstört worden war, siedelte… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Tunis — Tunis, einst eine phönizische Pflanzstadt, jetzt die Hauptstadt des muhammedanischen Staates gl. N., der sich mit einem Flächenraume von 3400 Quadrat M. längs des atlantischen Meeres zwischen Algier (s. d.) und Tripolis (s. d.) wie ein… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”