/zahr, tsahr/, n.

* * *

or czar

Byzantine or Russian emperor.

The title, derived from caesar, was used in the Middle Ages to refer to a supreme ruler, particularly the Byzantine emperor. With the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, the Russian monarch became the only remaining Orthodox monarch, and the Russian Orthodox clergy considered him a possible new supreme head of Orthodox Christianity. Ivan IV (the Terrible) was the first to be crowned tsar, in 1547. Though theoretically wielding absolute power, he and his successors were limited by the power of the Orthodox church, the Boyar Council, and the successive legal codes of 1497, 1550, and 1649. In 1721 Peter I changed his title to "Emperor of All Russia," but he and his successors continued to be popularly called tsars.

* * *

▪ Russian ruler
also spelled  tzar , or  czar , English feminine  tsarina,  tzarina , or  czarina 

      title associated primarily with rulers of Russia. The term tsar, a form of the ancient Roman imperial title caesar, generated a series of derivatives in Russian: tsaritsa, a tsar's wife, or tsarina; tsarevich, his son; tsarevna, his daughter; and tsesarevich, his eldest son and heir apparent (a 19th-century term).

      In medieval Russia the title tsar referred to a supreme ruler, particularly the Byzantine emperor, who was considered the head of the Orthodox Christian world. But the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 and the Ottoman Turks' conquest of the Balkans left the grand princes of Moscow as the only remaining Orthodox monarchs in the world, and the Russian Orthodox clergy naturally began to look to them as the defenders and possible supreme heads of Orthodox Christianity. Claims were put forth that Moscow would become the “third Rome” in succession to Constantinople (now Istanbul) and Rome itself. In 1472 Ivan III, grand prince of Moscow, married Sofia (Zoë) Palaeologus, the niece of the last Byzantine emperor. Sofia brought with her the traditions of the Byzantine court and its concept of the exalted nature of monarchical power.

      In 1547 Ivan IV the Terrible, grand prince of Moscow, was officially crowned “tsar of all Russia,” and thus the religious and political ideology of the Russian tsardom took final form. As tsar, Ivan IV theoretically held absolute power, but in practice he and his successors were limited by the traditional authority of the Orthodox church, the Boyar Council, and the legal codes of 1497, 1550, and 1649.

      In 1721 Tsar Peter I discarded the title of tsar for that of “emperor of all Russia” as part of his effort to secularize and modernize his regime and assert the state's primacy over the church. “Emperor” remained the official title for subsequent Russian rulers, but they continued to be known as “tsars” in popular usage until the imperial regime was overthrown by the Russian Revolution of 1917. The last Russian tsar, Nicholas II, was executed by the Soviet government in 1918. The early Bulgarian emperors (10th to 14th century AD) and the 20th-century kings of Bulgaria (from 1908 to 1946) also called themselves tsars.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • tsar — tsar …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • TSAR — Forme slave tardive (la forme ancienne est c face= EU Caron ガsar face= EU Caron ク , du latin cæsar ), tsar sert au Moyen Âge à désigner l’empereur romain, byzantin ou germanique. Voulant affirmer son indépendance et cherchant à rivaliser avec… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • tsar — tsar; tsar·dom; tsar·e·vitch; tsar·ish; tsar·ism; tsar·is·tic; …   English syllables

  • tsar — tsar, czar Both spellings are in use for the title of the Russian emperors before 1917, but tsar (which is closer to the Russian form) is more common in BrE and czar in AmE. Tsar is also the more usual spelling in the extended meaning… …   Modern English usage

  • Tsar — Tsar, n. The title of the emperor of Russia. See {Czar}. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • tsar — [ zar, tsar ] another spelling of czar …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • tsar — s. m. O mesmo que czar.   ‣ Etimologia: russo tsar …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • tsar — (el. zar) sb., en, er, erne (HISTORISK russisk kejser), i sms. tsar , fx tsarrige …   Dansk ordbog

  • tsar — [tsär, zär] n. var. of CZAR (sense 1) tsardom n. tsarism n. tsarist adj., n …   English World dictionary

  • Tsar — steht für die Zar Bombe, sowjetische Wasserstoffbombe die Czar (1912), ein 1912 in Dienst gestelltes russisches Passagierschiff Siehe auch: Tshar Tradition ( tib. tshar pa), eine Schule des tibetischen Buddhismus Csar, ZAR (dort auch andere… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • TSAR — vide Czar, it. Moscovia …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”