—Tripolitan /tri pol"i tn/, n., adj./trip"euh lee/, n.1. Also, Tripolitania /trip'euh li tay"nee euh, -tayn"yeuh/; It. /trddee'paw lee tah"nyah/. one of the former Barbary States of N Africa: later a province of Turkey; now a part of Libya.2. a seaport in and the capital of Libya, in the NW part. 551,477.3. a seaport in N Lebanon, on the Mediterranean. 175,000.4. (l.c.) any of several siliceous substances, as rottenstone and infusorial earth, used chiefly in polishing.
* * *IArabic Ṭarābulus al-GharbCity (pop. 1995 est.: 1,140,00), capital of Libya.Located on the Mediterranean Sea, it is the country's largest city and chief seaport. Founded by the Phoenicians с 7th century BC, it was known as Oea in ancient times and was one of the three cities of the region of Tripolitania. It was controlled by the Romans from the 1st century BC and later by the Byzantines. It was taken by the Arabs in 645. Conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1551, it was made an Ottoman colonial capital. It was under Italy's control (1911–43), after which it was occupied by the British until Libya's independence in 1951. U.S. warplanes bombed targets within the city in 1983 in response to the Libyan government's alleged support for terrorist activity. Historical structures include numerous mosques and a Roman triumphal arch. In 1973 Al-Fateh University replaced the former University of Libya.IIArabic Ṭarābulus al-ShāmSeaport city (pop., 1998 est.: 160,000), northwestern Lebanon.Founded с 700 BC, it became the capital of a federation of three Phoenician city-states: Sidon, Tyre, and Arvad. It was controlled by the Seleucids and Romans and taken by the Muslims in the mid-7th century AD. Besieged and partially destroyed by crusaders in the early 12th century, it was rebuilt by the later Crusaders (see Crusades). It was occupied by the Egyptians in the 1830s, the British in 1918, and the British and Free French in 1941. It became part of the Republic of Lebanon in 1946. It has sometimes been a centre of Christian-Muslim conflict during Lebanon's history. It was also the scene of a siege in 1983 by Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) rebels against PLO leader Yāsir Arafāt. It is a major port, a commercial and industrial centre, and a popular beach resort. At the terminus of an oil pipeline from Iraq, it is an important oil storage and refining centre.
* * *▪ LebanonLatin Tripolis, Arabic Ṭarābulus, in full Ṭarābulus Ash-shām(“The Eastern Tripoli”), city and port, northwestern Lebanon. It lies on the Mediterranean coast at the mouth of the Abū ʿAlī River, 40 miles (65 km) north-northeast of Beirut.Founded after 700 BC, it became in the Persian period (300 BC) the capital for the Phoenician triple federation of city-states—Sidon, Tyre, and Arvad (Aradus). Later, Tripoli was controlled by the Seleucids, then by the Romans, and, from about AD 638, by the Muslims. Besieged and partially destroyed during the First Crusade, in the early 12th century, by Raymond of Saint-Gilles (count of Toulouse), the city was rebuilt by the later crusaders and prospered for a time as the seat of a Latin bishopric and as a commercial and educational centre. In 1289 Tripoli was destroyed by the Mamlūks, a Muslim dynasty of Egypt and Syria, which controlled the city until 1516, when it came under Ottoman rule. The new settlement that later arose was built a few miles inland and was connected by broad avenues to the port district. Long disputed by rival Syrian princes, it was occupied by the Egyptians under Ibrāhīm Pasha in the 1830s and was taken by the British in World War I. It was incorporated into the State of Greater Lebanon (Grand Liban) in 1920. During World War II, the city was occupied by the British and Free French, and in 1946 it became part of the independent Republic of Lebanon. Principally Muslim, Tripoli was a centre of insurrection against the Christian-dominated central government in 1958 and again in 1975–76. In 1982–83 Tripoli was briefly a headquarters of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). Syrian soldiers occupied the city from 1985. The city's economy, which was gravely disrupted by the civil war from 1975, began to recover from the late 1980s.Tripoli has become Lebanon's second city. It is a major port, a commercial and industrial centre, and a popular beach resort. The city serves as an important oil storage and refining centre. Other industries include the manufacture of soap and cotton goods, sponge fishing, and the processing of tobacco and fruits. A coastal railway, which was closed in the mid-1970s because of the civil war, links the city with Beirut.Historical landmarks include Teylan Mosque (1336), the Great Mosque (1294), the medieval castle of Saint Gilles, and the Tower of the Lions, built at the end of the 15th century to protect the port. Pop. (1985 est.) 500,000.▪ LibyaArabic Ṭarābulus , in full Ṭarābulus al-Gharb (“The Western Tripoli”)capital city of Libya. Situated in northwestern Libya along the Mediterranean (Mediterranean Sea) coast, it is the country's largest city and chief seaport.The city was known as Oea in ancient times and was one of the original cities (along with Sabratha and Leptis Magna) that formed the African Tripolis, or Tripolitania. Occupying a rocky promontory overlooking the sea and located due south of Sicily, the city was founded by the Phoenicians and later controlled by the Romans (146 BCE until about 450 CE), the Vandals (Vandal) (5th century), and the Byzantines (Byzantine Empire) (6th century). During the invasions by the Vandals the walls of the cities of Sabratha and Leptis Magna were destroyed, and this resulted in the growth of Tripoli, which had previously been the least important of the three cities. In 645 the city fell to Arab Muslims led by Amr ibn al-ʿĀṣʿ, and it subsequently remained under Arab control (except from 1146 to 1158, when it was taken by Sicilian Normans). It was stormed by the Spanish in 1510 and was conquered by the Turks in 1551, after which it was made a colonial capital of the Ottoman Empire. From 1911 to 1943 it was in Italian hands, and from then until Libya's independence in 1951 it was occupied by the British.The city is divided into old and new quarters. The ancient walled city, or medina, lies along the harbour and is dominated by a 16th-century Spanish castle. The old quarter contains the marble Marcus Aurelius triumphal arch (163 CE) and the mosques of Gurgi (1883) and Karamanli (18th century), with its distinctive octagonal minaret. The al-Nāqah Mosque, or “Camel” Mosque, dates from the Middle Ages to the 17th century. Many historical structures benefited from restoration programs in the late 20th century. The modern city, which experienced rapid growth from the 1970s, contains many of the official buildings, theatres, and hotels, as well as the former royal palace (later called the People's Palace), which houses a library. Universities in Tripoli include Al-Fāteḥ University, founded in 1957 and previously part of the former federal University of Libya before its split in 1973, and Open University, founded in 1987. Libya's Department of Antiquities, which oversees the country's museums and archaeological sites, is also located in Tripoli, as are the national archives, several research centres, and the majority of the country's publishing houses.Tripoli is a major coastal oasis serving a region growing olives, vegetables, citrus fruit, tobacco, and grains. Fishing is important, and several canneries in the city process the catch. Tripoli's industries include tanning and the manufacture of cigarettes and carpets. An oil depot, motor vehicle assembly plants, and a gas-bottling plant are also located there. With its port, nearby international airport, and road connections, Tripoli is a busy transshipment centre. Important among its major roadways are the coastal highway linking the city with Banghāzī and Cairo and another that runs inland connecting Tripoli with Sabhā in the south. Tripoli is the centre of the most densely populated region of Libya. Pop. (2005 est.) city, 911,643; urban agglom., 2,098,000.
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