/tek"seuhs/, n. U.S. Naut.
1. a deckhouse on a texas deck for the accommodation of officers.
2. See texas deck.
[1855-60; after TEXAS, from the fact that the officers' accommodation was the most spacious on the Mississippi steamboats, on which cabins were named after states]

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State (pop., 2000: 20,851,820), southwestern U.S. Occupying 266,873 sq mi (691,201 sq km), it is the second largest state in both area and population.

Many of Texas's boundaries are formed by water
the course of the Red River on the north makes up two-thirds of the state's boundary with Oklahoma; on the east the state is bordered in part by Arkansas, though the Sabine River forms most of Texas's eastern boundary with Louisiana; the Gulf of Mexico forms the coastal boundary to the southeast; the Rio Grande carves a shallow channel that separates Texas from Mexico on the southwest; the Panhandle section juts northward, forming a counterpart in the western part of Oklahoma; and New Mexico lies to the west. The capital of Texas is Austin. Plains and hills make up the terrain, which ranges from the fertile prairie of the Coastal Plains on the Gulf of Mexico through the central Great Plains grasslands to the arid High Plains of the Panhandle. The forerunners of West Texas Indians inhabited the area as much as 37,000 years ago. Some of the peoples later formed the Caddo confederacy. Indians, including Apaches, were living in the region when the Spanish arrived in 1528. The first settlement was attempted in 1685 by the French, who claimed the region as part of Louisiana. In 1803 the U.S. acquired the French claim in the Louisiana Purchase but relinquished it to Spain by treaty in 1819. It became part of Mexico at Mexican independence in 1821. In 1836 Texans declared independence from Mexico as the Republic of Texas (see Stephen Austin; Sam Houston). After a 10-year struggle to remain independent, Texas became the 28th U.S. state in 1845. Its boundary with Mexico was fixed after the Mexican War (1848). In the American Civil War, it seceded from the Union (1861), and it was readmitted in 1870. After the war, railroad building and increased shipping helped expand the economy, and the discovery of oil in 1901 transformed it. While Texas still leads all other states in oil and natural-gas production and in petroleum-refining capacity, its manufacture of electronics, aerospace components, and other high-technology items is increasingly important. It is also the leading cotton, beef-cattle and sheep producer in the U.S.
(as used in expressions)
Texas Instruments Inc.
Texas University of

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Texas, flag of    constituent state of the United States of America. It became the 28th state of the Union in 1845. Texas occupies the south-central segment of the country and is the largest state in area except for Alaska. The state extends nearly 1,000 miles (1,600 km) from north to south and about the same distance from east to west.

      Water delineates many of its borders. The wriggling course of the Red River makes up the eastern two-thirds of Texas's boundary with Oklahoma to the north, while the remainder of the northern boundary is the Panhandle, which juts northward, forming a counterpart in the western part of that state. The Sabine River forms most of the boundary with Louisiana to the east, where by land it is bounded by Arkansas as well. The crescent-shaped coastline of the Gulf of Mexico (Mexico, Gulf of) lies to the southeast, and the Rio Grande carves a shallow channel that separates Texas from Mexico to the southwest. The state of New Mexico lies to the west. Austin, in the south-central part of the state, is the capital.

      The vastness and diversity of Texas are evident in nearly all aspects of its physical features, economy, history, and cultural life. The territory of Texas was part of the Spanish Empire for more than a century. It was then part of the new country of Mexico from 1821 to 1836, when it gained its independence, and had a short-lived existence as a republic before joining the Union. The image of Texas was that of a raw and lawless frontier when it relinquished its independence to become a state. Although Texans still identify strongly with their cowboy heritage, the state's image of Texas changed dramatically over the course of the 20th century; present-day Texas is known for its great agricultural wealth, major oil and natural gas production, industry and finance, huge urban centres that foster a cosmopolitan cultural life, and seemingly unending stretches of high prairie and ranges devoted to cattle and cotton.

      The name of the state derives from the Caddo word thecas, meaning “allies” or “friends.” (The Spanish spelled the word tejas or texas and used it to describe the area where this Native American tribe lived.) Texas is commonly divided into East and West, although the dividing line between the two is ambiguous. Generally, though, East Texas has a wet climate and is characterized by cotton and by ties to the Old South (South, the), while West Texas is dry and is known for cattle ranching and an affinity with the West (West, The). Area 266,853 square miles (691,146 square km). Pop. (2000) 20,851,820; (2007 est.) 23,904,380.


   Texas comprises a series of vast regions, from the fertile and densely populated Coastal Plains in the southeast to the high plains and mountains in the west and northwest. Stretching inland from the Gulf Coast, the Coastal Plains, encompassing about two-fifths of the state's land area, range from sea level to about 1,000 feet (300 metres) in elevation. These flat, low prairies extend inland to form a fertile crescent that is well adapted to farming and cattle raising. Near the coast much land is marshy, almost swamp, except where drained by man-made devices.

      The Coastal Plains ends at the Balcones Escarpment, where tremors have occurred. Northwest of this fault, the land extends into the Texas Hill Country and into the tablelands of the Edwards Plateau to the south and the North Central Plains to the north. The entire region varies from about 750 to 2,500 feet (200 to 750 metres) above sea level, and farming and livestock raising constitute the basic economy. In Hill Country there are small industries and recreational areas.

      The North Plains subdivision, centred on Amarillo, depends on grain farming, ranching, oil, and small industries. The South Plains subdivision, with Lubbock as the principal city, has large underground water reservoirs that allow large-scale irrigated cotton farming.

      At the western edge of the North Central Plains lies the Caprock Escarpment, an outcropping of rock that stretches to the north and south for about 200 miles (320 km). Beyond that escarpment lies the third largest region of Texas, the High Plains country, and to the south lies the Trans-Pecos region.

      From the High Plains country of West Texas emerged many of the legends of Texas weather and of the Texas cowboy. On these plains, sandstorms are common. Many wide, flat riverbeds in the region remain dry most of the year, but they can become sluiceways for flash floods. In this region lies the flat, dry area known as the Llano Estacado (“Staked Plain”). According to legend, when traveling through the region in the mid-16th century, the Spanish expedition from New Spain (Mexico) led by Francisco Vázquez de Coronado (Coronado, Francisco Vázquez de) laid down stakes to serve as guides for the return trip. Even Native Americans hesitated to venture across these lands.

  The state's most rugged terrain lies to the west of the Pecos River. Trailing down from the Rocky Mountains, the Guadalupe Mountains (Guadalupe Mountains National Park) lead into Big Bend country, whose name is derived from a bend in the Rio Grande. The highest peak in Texas is Guadalupe Peak, which rises to 8,749 feet (2,667 metres) above sea level. Much of the native ruggedness of the region is preserved in Big Bend National Park.

      The most important river in Texas is the Rio Grande. It extends some 1,900 miles (3,060 km) from its source in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado to the Gulf of Mexico, and its Texas segment forms the border between the United States and Mexico. Other major rivers traversing the state are the Brazos (Brazos River) (at 1,280 miles [2,060 km], the longest river solely in Texas), as well as the Sabine (Sabine River), Trinity, and Red (Red River) rivers, the last of which forms a large portion of the border between Texas and Oklahoma.

      In 1913 there were only 8 major lakes or reservoirs in Texas; by the early 21st century there were about 200, many of which were created to store water against periodic droughts. Others, including the 85-mile- (137-km-) long Highland Lakes chain in Hill Country, are popular for recreation.

      The rich fertility of the territory's soils first attracted settlers to Texas. Much of the soil was degraded through wasteful practices in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but since the 1930s efforts by federal and state governments have done much to promote soil conservation in the state.

      There is immense variation in the types of Texas soil. The Piney Woods region of East Texas has a gray and tan topsoil that covers the red subsoil usually within about 2 feet (0.6 metre) of the surface. The soil along the upper and middle Texas coast is black clay or loam, with lighter-coloured sandy soil on the coastal islands, bars, and spits. The soil of the southern Texas coast and inland to the Rio Grande is sandy, like that of East Texas, but it is less eroded and leached.

      The Blackland Prairie, a belt of fertile black clay to the west of the Piney Woods, extends southwesterly from the Red River to San Antonio. The soil of the Grand Prairie region, just to the west of the Blackland Prairie, is more rocky and resistant to erosion.

      The Cross Timbers, a forest region with light-coloured, slightly acid sandy loam soil, stretches across the prairies of northern Texas, enclosing part of the Grand Prairie. Red sandy and dark clay soils are found in the Llano Basin, in the centre of the state. The Edwards Plateau has thin, stony soil with a limestone bedrock.

      Most of the soils of the western North Central Plains are red or tan-coloured and sandy, but some black clay is found in the region. The High Plains, just to the west, has dark brown to reddish clay loams, sandy loams, and sands. In the Trans-Pecos region are found reddish brown sandy soil in the mountains and grayish brown to reddish brown clay soil in the basins.

 Virtually every kind of weather condition has been known to occur in Texas. January temperatures in the Rio Grande valley have been known to register well into the 90s F (about 32 °C), while blizzards have blocked highways in the Panhandle section of the state during the same month. The Gulf Coast area around Houston has average annual temperatures in the low 70s F (about 21 °C) and precipitation of some 45 inches (1,100 mm), whereas the Panhandle averages in the low 60s F (about 16 °C) with less than 20 inches (500 mm) of rain. The driest region is the Trans-Pecos, and the wettest is the southeast. Southern areas have freezing weather only rarely. In Brownsville, the southernmost Texas city, snow is rare, but the northwestern corner of the state averages about 23 inches (580 mm) annually. The Gulf Coast of Texas is especially prone to hurricanes. The deadliest storm to hit the area was in 1900, when more than 8,000 people were killed and the island of Galveston was inundated.

Plant and animal life
      A great variety of vegetation is found in Texas because of variations in the amount of precipitation and types of soils. Native longleaf, shortleaf, and loblolly pine provide most of the commercial timber in East Texas. A belt of post oak grows just west of the Piney Woods, as do blackjack oak, elm, pecan, and walnut. Marsh and salt grasses are found along the Texas coast, with bluestem and tall grasses growing a little farther inland.

      Bluestem, grama, Indian grass, switch grass, and buffalo grass grow in the prairies and plains regions of West Texas. Oak, pecan, elm, Osage orange, and mesquite are native trees found in the prairies and the Cross Timbers region. Cedar, mesquite, yucca, cactus, and some islands of cypress make up the vegetation of the Edwards Plateau.

      Desert plants provide much of the vegetation of the Trans-Pecos region. Piñon pine, ponderosa pine, spruce, cedar, and oak grow in the higher mountains of the region. The region south of San Antonio was originally brush country, with mesquite, small live and post oak, prickly pear cactus, bluestem, buffalo grass, and bunchgrass. Much of this native vegetation has been replaced with agricultural crops.

      Hundreds of species of birds (nearly three-fourths of all species found in the United States) have been identified in Texas. Among the more exotic are the once nearly extinct whooping cranes that winter in the protected Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, near Corpus Christi; the endangered Attwater's prairie chicken, now bred in a number of Texas zoos and protected at a national wildlife refuge near Houston; and the rare ivory-billed woodpeckers, found mainly in the Big Thicket National Preserve of East Texas.

      Many of the domestic animals that are important in the economy of the state—cattle, horses, sheep, goats, and hogs—were introduced by the Spanish, but some 150 mammals are native to Texas. Some, such as the bison, black bear, mountain lion, pronghorn, and red wolf, almost disappeared in the late 19th century but have been saved from extinction through the efforts of conservationists. More than 100 species of snakes, including the poisonous copperhead, cottonmouth, rattlesnake, and Texas coral snake, are native to the state. The alligator is found in the lower reaches of all the major rivers and bayous.


Population composition
      The population of Texas has long been ethnically diverse. Throughout the 19th century there were mass migrations into Texas. One of the largest influxes occurred between 1821 and 1836, when an estimated 38,000 settlers, in response to promises of 4,000 acres (1,620 hectares) of land per family, trekked from the United States into the territory. Moreover, in the three decades before the American Civil War, shiploads of German, Polish, Czech, Swedish, Norwegian, and Irish immigrants made their way from the Eastern Seaboard to Texas. These Europeans were generally adherents to the Roman Catholic and Protestant faiths. As a result, some churches in Texas still conduct services in Swedish, Czech, and other languages.

      In the years following the Civil War, numerous families moved from devastated Southern plantations to farms and ranches in Texas. Farming families of Swedish, Polish, and Irish descent arrived from the north-central U.S. states, seeking relief from the devastated economy. Belgians, Danes, Italians, and Greeks also went to Texas, and many of them became craftsmen and shopkeepers. Whites, excluding those of Hispanic descent, constitute less than half the total population.

      More than one-third of Texans are of Hispanic descent. Many of the communities along the U.S. side of the southwestern border are almost completely Hispanic, and larger cities such as Brownsville, Laredo, Corpus Christi, El Paso, and San Antonio carry the mark of Spain and Mexico in their architecture and place-names. With the urbanization of the state in the late 20th century and the decrease in the demand for agricultural workers, large Hispanic populations have converged on the major metropolitan centres that lie farther from the border. Spanish remains the language of many people in these communities.

      Native Americans account for less than 1 percent of the Texas population. Most of them are city dwellers, but three tribes remain as cohesive units. The Alabama-Coushatta people occupy one of the three reservations in the state, in East Texas. The Tigua live on a reservation in El Paso, and the Kickapoo live near Eagle Pass.

      The Civil War brought freedom for thousands of African American slaves in Texas. In the early 21st century the African American population, slightly less than one-eighth of the state's total population, was clustered in the central parts of the larger cities, and more than two-fifths of African Americans resided in Dallas and Houston.

Settlement patterns
  Some four-fifths of Texans live in urban areas. Access to water transportation, reservoirs of natural gas and oil, and availability of raw materials have made the coastal area the centre of industry in Texas. It is also the most densely populated part of the state. Houston, Texas's largest city, is a focal point, while Fort Worth, Dallas, Waco, Austin, and San Antonio form a line at the inner edges of the Coastal Plains. About one-third of the population lives in the metropolitan areas of Houston, Dallas, and San Antonio, all 3 of which are among the 10 most populous metropolitan areas in the United States.

Demographic trends
      Rapid population growth has been a major factor in the history of the state; in fact, since Texas became a U.S. state, its average population growth has exceeded that of the country as a whole. Since the 1970s urbanization, high-technology industries, and massive migration have drastically altered the state's demographics. Texas has become increasingly ethnically diverse, especially since 1990. One of the most notable changes has been a decrease in the Anglo (a term that refers to those of European descent, not only those of Anglo-Saxon heritage) population and a continuously growing Hispanic population. This was partly due to the entrance of thousands of political and economic refugees into the state from Latin America. In the early 21st century, nearly four-fifths of the foreign-born population in Texas was of Hispanic origin. The state's overall population is aging, and about one-tenth of Texans are over age 65.

      Cotton, cattle, and petroleum—all based on land resources—dominated the successive stages in Texas's economic development until the mid-20th century, and they have continued to undergird the state's basic wealth. Since then, retailing and wholesaling, banking and insurance, and construction have been among the activities reflecting the general affluence, urbanization, and diversification of the state's economy. Despite the growth of manufacturing and other industries, however, the Texas economy has remained heavily dependent on oil and gas, and any fluctuations in oil prices have had a major impact on the state.

      Numerous national and international corporate headquarters are located in Texas. The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, an installation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), is in Houston and is among many federal air installations in Texas, including a number of large military bases. Texas also has become preeminent in its oceanographic investigations into uses of the continental shelf and in the areas of medicine and surgery. The growth of the aerospace, military-related, and health industries has further diversified the state's economy.

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
      Texas has more farms than any other state in the country. The fertile lands of East Texas attracted cotton farmers to the area before the Civil War, and in the years following the conflict cotton became the state's major crop. As mechanized farming developed, cotton production shifted to the High Plains country of West Texas, where irrigation and fertilizer fostered bountiful crops and bolstered Texas's national leadership in cotton production. Occasional crop failures due to drought, however, led to crop diversification. The introduction of irrigation has resulted in extensive vegetable and fruit production along the lower Rio Grande Valley, though citrus farming has occasionally suffered as a result of disastrous freezes. The low coastal lands between Port Lavaca and Port Arthur are well suited for rice cultivation. Since the mid-20th century, Texas has also been a leading producer of sorghum, peanuts (groundnuts), and corn (maize).

      The state leads all others in the raising of cattle, sheep, and goats. Nearly all of the mohair that is produced in the United States comes from the Angora goats of Texas. The vast inland cattle empires of the 19th century tended to shift to coastal areas during the 20th century, reversing the path of cotton.

      Forests of pine and cypress grow extensively from Beaumont to the Red River and spill into Louisiana and Arkansas, making lumbering and paper mills important industries. commercial fishing is a major contributor to the state's economy, with small fleets operating out of more than 60 ports along the Gulf Coast. Brownsville is the centre of one of the country's largest shrimp trawl fleets, and shrimping is economically the largest and most important component of the Texas fishing industry. Catfish farming is also prevalent throughout the state.

Resources and power
      Texas leads all other states in oil and natural gas production. It also ranks first in oil-refining capacity. Oil deposits have been found under more than two-thirds of the state's area, though many finds have been too small for commercial development. The Gulf Coast area is the centre for the state's petrochemical industrial complexes. A large percentage of the basic petrochemicals that are produced in the United States come from plants that are located between the cities of Beaumont and Corpus Christi. Texas is also a principal producer of magnesium, sulfur, and gypsum.

      Texas leads the country in the production of wind energy and generates about one-third of total U.S. wind capacity. Most of the state's wind turbines are located in the Panhandle and in the Trans-Pecos region. The largest wind farm in the world, the Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center, is spread across some 50,000 acres (20,000 hectares) near Abilene. Other renewable sources of growing importance in Texas are solar and geothermal energy.

      Traditional manufacturing in Texas was based on the processing of local raw materials in cotton gins and cottonseed mills, meat-packing plants, flour mills, and fruit- and vegetable-canning plants. Since the late 20th century, the production of electric and electronic equipment has been the largest manufacturing employer, followed closely by nonelectric machinery. Chief manufactures include computers, air conditioners, furniture, boats, aircraft, household appliances, machinery, leather goods, and clothing.

  More than one-fourth of the state's workforce is employed in the services sector. Tourism has become a major industry. Among the state's top tourist destinations are the Alamo and River Walk (Paseo del Rio) in San Antonio, the Padre Island National Seashore (a mecca for college students during Spring Break), and the Space Center in Houston. Other entertainment centres include Six Flags over Texas, an amusement park between Dallas and Fort Worth, and, about 75 miles (120 km) southwest of Dallas, the Fossil Rim Wildlife Center, a reserve into which motorists can drive to view elephants, giraffes, and other African wildlife. SeaWorld (SeaWorld, Inc.) of Texas is an aquatic theme park in San Antonio.

      The vastness of Texas and its contrasts in terrain originally posed great difficulties for transportation, yet they also greatly stimulated its development. In fact, the desire to develop inland areas was one factor leading to the establishment of Austin as the state capital. In 1852 the Texas legislature granted public lands to railroads for each mile of track constructed, and in 1883 it authorized a county road tax for farm-to-market dirt roads. By 1900 dirt roads were passable between most communities, and railroads crisscrossed the state (though by the early 21st century, passenger service had been discontinued on most lines). Texas has a well-developed federal and state highway system, which is concentrated in the more heavily populated east but is supplemented by an extensive network of roads throughout the state.

      Texas was a pioneer in the development of the airplane (aviation). The first army flying schools were established at Fort Sam Houston in 1910. Kelly Field became a training camp for pilots in 1916, and Randolph Field was serving as “the West Point of the Air” by 1931. The need for air power in World War II brought air training to more than 40 military bases in Texas. Dallas–Fort Worth, Houston, and San Antonio are focal points for civilian air transportation. The Dallas–Fort Worth International Airport is one of the country's largest in terms of land area and one of the busiest. Houston is serviced by two major airports.

 The discovery of oil and gas necessitated cheaper routes of water transportation to markets in the eastern and northern United States. Federal aid permitted harbour improvements at Galveston, Sabine Pass (opening water routes to Port Arthur and Beaumont), Aransas Pass, and Corpus Christi. The opening of the 44-mile (71-km) Houston Ship Channel has made Houston a major international port for cargo and cruise ships. In the 1930s an intercoastal canal was completed from New Orleans to Sabine Pass and from Galveston to Corpus Christi, and in 1946 the Gulf Intracoastal Canal was opened from Brownsville to Florida. Continuous dredging operations have opened lanes of ocean commerce to many smaller ports. Galveston, oldest among the major ports, is the headquarters for extensive commercial fishing enterprises.

Government and society

Constitutional framework
 Texas is governed by a constitution adopted in 1876. It has a bicameral legislature composed of 31 senators, who serve four-year terms, and 150 representatives, who are elected to two-year terms. The governor, elected to a four-year term, may initiate legislation, call special legislative sessions, veto bills, and appoint boards and commissions. There is no constitutional limit on how many terms a governor may serve, but the governor's power is limited in that numerous officials and executive boards are elected rather than appointed.

      The top court for civil matters is the Supreme Court, with a chief justice and eight associate justices elected to six-year terms. The highest court for criminal matters is the Court of Criminal Appeals, with nine justices elected to six-year terms. There are courts of civil appeal and hundreds of state district courts, with judges elected to four-year terms. Lower courts comprise county courts, justice of the peace courts, and municipal courts.

      Texas comprises 254 counties; the largest of them, Brewster, occupying some 6,200 square miles (16,000 square km), is roughly equal to the combined areas of Connecticut and Rhode Island. Within constitutional limitations the legislature may create new counties. Each county is administered by a commissioners' court, which is an administrative rather than a trial body. Cities with a population of more than 5,000 may adopt their own home-rule charters.

      The Democratic Party dominated elections from the Reconstruction period that began in the 1860s until the late 1980s, pitting the many splinters of the party against one another in primaries that usually determined the eventual winners of state offices. Within the party the political philosophies of candidates have ranged from extreme liberalism to extreme conservatism. The influx of new businesses and industries in Texas attracted many Republicans to the state near the end of the 20th century, and the Republican Party grew markedly in strength. Beginning particularly in the late 1960s, some conservative Democrats and influential Texas liberals began subtly to support Republicans, whom they considered more liberal than the old-line Democratic leaders. In 1978 William P. Clements, Jr., was elected the state's first Republican governor since the Reconstruction era. The Reform Party, founded by businessman and philanthropist Ross Perot (Perot, Ross), also garnered many members in the 1990s. Many Texans have played a prominent role in national politics, and several (Lyndon B. Johnson (Johnson, Lyndon B.), George Bush (Bush, George), and George W. Bush (Bush, George W.)) have been elected president.

Health and welfare
      Texas is among the top U.S. states in medical education, research, and preventive medicine. The Texas Children's Hospital and the Texas Medical Center, both in Houston, and the University of Texas Health Science Center at Dallas are notable institutions. Increasing attention has been given to outpatient clinic services. Although mental health programs developed slowly in Texas, by the early 21st century there were several mental health hospitals in the state. About one-fourth of the state's population does not have health insurance, one of the highest amounts of any state. Health care in rural areas of Texas is generally underfunded, and there is a lack of providers and facilities.

      Since the 1830s public lands have been set aside in each county of Texas to build schools. The state constitution of 1876 affirmed the endowment of 52 million acres (21 million hectares) for public schools and another 2 million acres (800,000 hectares) for a state university and agricultural college.

      Efforts to address educational problems arising from social, economic, and other changes since World War II have brought mixed results. The Texas local school systems, despite minimum standards established by the state, vary greatly in accordance with local financial resources, prevailing adult educational levels, and demands for equal education for all segments of the population.

      The University of Texas (Texas, University of) system enrolls more than 150,000 students, nearly one-third of whom attend classes on the main campus in Austin. The state has some 140 colleges and universities, including junior colleges. The University of Texas and Texas A&M University (Texas A&M University) have outstanding graduate and research programs. Rice University, a private institution in Houston, long has been recognized for its high academic standards. Baylor University, in Waco, founded in 1845, is the only remaining university of the five established during the republic years. Southern Methodist University, in Dallas, is a private institution affiliated with the United Methodist Church.

Cultural life
      The sense of the past and of the heroics of living in a frontier land have traditionally been strong in born-and-bred Texans. Throughout the state regional historical associations have helped restore striking examples of 19th-century homes. San Antonio has re-created the early 18th-century Mexican-Spanish flavour both in restoration and in public shopping and walking areas in the heart of the city. Fredericksburg, a former German settlement, preserves many 19th-century customs, and many of its inhabitants still speak German. Even Houston has found space adjacent to its downtown area for restored historical homes. Particularly evident are influences from Mexican culture. Laredo vividly dramatizes the mix of Mexican and Anglo cultures with its annual (George) Washington's Birthday Celebration parade.

The arts
      Art, music, and literature occupy significant places in the lives of many communities in Texas. Mexican American folk arts and crafts have been prominent in border towns and rural South Texas since the mid-19th century and today are created and sold throughout the state, especially at fairs and festivals. Popular crafts produced are quilts, ceramics, shrines, wrought-iron crosses, piñatas, and saddles, all of which have been influenced by the Caddo, Spanish, and Tejano (Texans of Latin American heritage) cultures of Texas. The state has been a forerunner in contemporary art as well. The town of Marfa in the Trans-Peco region has become an artists' community; there, sculptor Donald Judd (Judd, Donald) founded the Chianti Foundation, a contemporary art museum exhibiting the works of national and international artists. The town of Round Top has also become an arts centre.

   The music of Texas is as diverse as its population. The state is the birthplace of conjunto, a mix of traditional Mexican music and European polkas, and, along with Oklahoma, is the fulcrum of western swing, whose driving force was Texas music legend Bob Wills (Wills, Bob). Fiddling is another long-standing Texas musical tradition, and fiddle contests are held across the state. One of the best-known fiddlers was Eck Robertson from Amarillo, who made the first country recording with the fiddle in 1922. Texas also has an important legacy of blues music stretching from the country blues of Blind Lemon Jefferson (Jefferson, Blind Lemon) and Lightnin' Hopkins to the rhythm and blues of Bobby (“Blue”) Bland (Bland, Bobby “Blue”)—who had his first success on Houston's African American-owned Duke Records—and including the contributions of Johnny Winter and Stevie Ray Vaughan. An even-longer list of Texans who have been forces in country and rock music includes Willie Nelson (Nelson, Willie), Janis Joplin (Joplin, Janis), Buddy Holly (Holly, Buddy), Waylon Jennings, Roy Orbison (Orbison, Roy), Freddy Fender, Townes Van Zandt, Steve Earle (Earle, Steve), Doug Sahm (of the Sir Douglas Quintet), Guy Clark, Flaco Jiménez, Roky Erickson, and Alejandro Escovedo. Austin is known as the live-music capital of the world and hosts one of the largest live-music festivals in the country, South by Southwest.

      Many notable writers have depicted the frontier life of Texas. Among the most prominent are Larry McMurtry (McMurtry, Larry), who won a Pulitzer Prize for the novel Lonesome Dove (1986); J. Frank Dobie (1888–1964), who captured the essence of “old Texas” in stories of cowboys and gold mines as well as in folktales of the region's unique physical features and animals; Pulitzer Prize-winning dramatist and screenwriter Horton Foote of Wharton, who set dozens of plays in a fictional Texas town; Elmer Kelton, a novelist whose work treats the modern oil and ranching industries as well as the state's frontier era; and Rolando Hinojosa of Mercedes, who has written extensively about Mexican American and Chicano culture in Texas.

Cultural institutions
      Houston's Humble Civic Center and Arena nestles in 150 acres (60 hectares) amid the city's tall downtown buildings. It serves as the home of the Houston Symphony Orchestra and the Houston Grand Opera. The Alley Theater, home of a renowned regional theatre company, is located nearby. In Dallas the Margo Jones Theatre and the Dallas Theater Center provide outlets for cultural and educational groups. The Dallas Symphony Orchestra is among the better-known classical ensembles in the country.

      The Amon Carter Museum of Western Art in Fort Worth houses many paintings and bronzes of Western artists and maintains a microfilm collection of Western newspapers published before 1900. Also in the city are the Fort Worth Art Museum, the William Edrington Scott Theatre, the Kimbell Art Museum, and the Fort Worth Children's Theater. The University of Texas at San Antonio's Institute of Texan Cultures is a museum and an important centre of research on the many ethnic groups that have contributed to Texas history.

      Cultural interests, however, are not restricted to large metropolitan areas. Odessa, for example, supports the unique Presidential Museum, showing extensive memorabilia of the U.S. presidents, as well as an accurate replica of London's Globe Theatre, in which a summer program of Shakespearean and other Elizabethan plays is produced.

      The Armstrong Browning Library at Baylor University houses thousands of books, manuscripts, and musical scores by and about Robert Browning (Browning, Robert) and Elizabeth Barrett Browning (Browning, Elizabeth Barrett). At the University of Texas (Texas, University of) at Austin, the Lyndon Baines Johnson (Johnson, Lyndon B.) Presidential Library, operated as a branch of the Library of Congress, houses millions of documents on public affairs since the mid-1930s related to Johnson's public career. Also at the university are a Latin American collection, the Michener Collection of Art, the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, and other special collections. The George H.W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum at Texas A&M University is devoted to research and exhibitions on the former president's life and family.

Sports and recreation
   Most major sports and many minor ones are popular in Texas, but gridiron football is king. Fall weekends begin under Friday night lights with stands packed for high school games throughout the state, progress to the Saturday spectacles of traditional college football powers such as the University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M University (both members of the Big 12 Conference), and culminate on Sunday with the National Football League's Houston Texans (an expansion team that replaced the Oilers, who relocated to Nashville) and the Dallas Cowboys, whose long stretches of dominance won them the sobriquet “America's Team.” Texas also hosts several of collegiate football's most prestigious bowl games, among them the Cotton Bowl in Dallas, the Sun Bowl in El Paso, and the Alamo Bowl in San Antonio. Major league baseball is a relative newcomer to the Texas sports scene (the Houston Astros, an expansion team first called the Colt .45s, began play in 1962; and the Texas Rangers arrived in Arlington, between Dallas and Fort Worth, in 1972 by way of Washington, D.C., where they had been the Senators), but Texans have long made their mark on the game, from Rogers Hornsby (Hornsby, Rogers) and Tris Speaker (Speaker, Tris) to Rube Foster (Foster, Rube) and Ernie Banks (Banks, Ernie), on to Nolan Ryan (Ryan, Nolan) and Roger Clemens (Clemens, Roger). Likewise, Texas has produced its share of great golfers, most notably Ben Hogan (Hogan, Ben) and Byron Nelson (Nelson, Byron).

 The Houston Rockets, Dallas Mavericks, and San Antonio Spurs constitute the National Basketball Association's “Texas Triangle”; and the San Antonio Silver Stars and Houston Comets are members of the Women's National Basketball Association. At various times in the history of their programs, basketball teams from the University of Texas at Austin, the University of Houston, and Texas A&M University have enjoyed national prominence. Colleges and universities in Texas have also thrived at athletics, especially in track and field and baseball. Dallas (FC Dallas) and Houston (Dynamo) both have Major League Soccer (football) franchises, and the Dallas Stars play in the National Hockey League.

      Several national parks, forests, and wildlife refuges are found in Texas, and more than 100 state parks are scattered throughout the state, many of which offer fishing, swimming, camping, and picnicking facilities. Sportfishing has developed into a major recreation along the Gulf Coast. Rodeos have been part of Texas culture since the 1880s, when cowboys worked on ranches on the dusty plains of the Pecos region, and many Texans consider rodeos to be the official state sport. Bullfighting has become a popular pastime in Texas (U.S. law prohibits killing of the bulls). The first bullring in the state opened in 2002.

Media and publishing
      There are hundreds of newspapers published throughout Texas, in almost every city and town. The major daily newspapers are Dallas Morning News, Fort-Worth Star-Telegram, Houston Chronicle, Austin American-Statesman, and San Antonio Express-News. Book publishing, though not a big business within the state, has gained a strong foothold. The University of Texas Press, Texas A&M University Press, Southern Methodist University Press, and Trinity University Press have gained national acclaim through their scholarly and historical works. Several commercial publishing companies concentrate on books and monographs related to the history of the Southwest.


Early history
      The ancestors of the West Texas Native Americans lived in camps perhaps as long as 37,000 years ago. Possessing only crude spears and flint-pointed darts, these hunters survived primarily on wild game. In the more fertile areas of East Texas, some of the Native American tribes established permanent villages and well-managed farms and developed political and religious systems. Forming a loose federation in order to preserve peace and to provide for mutual protection, they came to be known as the Caddo confederacies. By 1528, when the first Europeans entered the interior of Texas, the area was sparsely settled, but the culture and habitation of the Native Americans exerted measurable influence on the later history of the region.

      By the 1730s the Spanish had sent more than 30 expeditions into Texas. San Antonio, which by 1718 housed a military post and a mission (the Alamo), had become the administrative centre. With military support, missions were established in Nacogdoches in East Texas, in Goliad in the south, and near El Paso in the far west. The French also explored Texas. The explorations of René-Robert Cavelier, sieur (lord) de La Salle (La Salle, René-Robert Cavelier, sieur (lord) de), and his colony at Matagorda Bay were the bases of French claims to East Texas.

      American colonization gained impetus when the United States purchased the Louisiana Territory (Louisiana Purchase) from France in 1803 and claimed title to lands as far west as the Rio Grande. By 1819, however, the United States had accepted the Sabine River as the western boundary of the Louisiana Territory. Moses Austin secured permission from the Spanish government to settle 300 families on a grant of 200,000 acres (81,000 hectares) in Tejas (Texas). When Mexico won independence from Spain in 1821, Austin's son, Stephen Austin (Austin, Stephen), received Mexican approval of the grant. He led his first band of settlers to the area along the lower Brazos (Brazos River) and Colorado (Colorado River) rivers. By 1832 Austin's several colonies had about 8,000 inhabitants. Other colonies brought the territory's Anglo (European-descended American or European immigrant) population to about 20,000.

Revolution and the republic
 Unrest throughout Mexico, including the territory of Texas, resulted in a coup by Antonio López de Santa Anna (Santa Anna, Antonio López de), who assumed the presidency in 1833. Texans, hopeful for relief from restrictive governmental measures, supported Santa Anna. Stephen Austin expected a friendly hearing about these grievances but instead was imprisoned in Mexico City for encouraging insurrection. He was freed in 1835 and returned home to find that skirmishes had already developed between the colonists and Mexican troops and that Santa Anna was preparing to send reinforcements. Texans formed a provisional government in 1835, and in 1836 they issued a declaration of independence at Washington-on-the-Brazos (Washington-on-the-Brazos State Historical Site). David G. Burnet was chosen ad interim president of the new Republic of Texas; Sam Houston (Houston, Sam) was appointed its military commander; and Austin became commissioner to the United States with the mission of securing strategic aid and enlisting volunteers.

 The famous siege of the Alamo in San Antonio lasted from February 23 to March 6, 1836. The strategic objective of the stand was to delay Mexican forces and thereby permit military organization of the Texas settlers. As the battle climaxed with a massive attack over the walls, the defenders (about 183) were all killed. Among the dead were the famous frontiersmen James Bowie (Bowie, James) and Davy Crockett (Crockett, Davy). On April 21 Sam Houston led a surprise attack on the Mexican troops at the San Jacinto River (San Jacinto, Battle of), where he succeeded in capturing Santa Anna and in securing victory for the Texans.

      The Texan revolution was not simply a fight between the Anglo settlers and Mexican troops; it was a revolution of the people who were living in Texas against what many of them regarded as tyrannical rule from a distant source. Many of the leaders in the revolution and many of the armed settlers who took part were Mexicans.

      The Republic of Texas was officially established with Sam Houston as president and Stephen Austin as secretary of state. Cities were named in their honour; Houston was the capital until 1839, when Austin was approved as the permanent capital.

      The republic had a difficult 10-year life. Financing proved critical, and efforts to secure loans from foreign countries were unsuccessful. Protection against raids from Mexico and occasional attacks by Native Americans required a mobile armed force. During the republic a squad of armed men, the famous Texas Rangers, was maintained to ride long distances quickly to repel or punish raiding forces.

Annexation and statehood
      As early as 1836, Texans had voted for annexation by the United States, but the proposition was rejected by the Andrew Jackson (Jackson, Andrew) and Martin Van Buren (Van Buren, Martin) administrations. Great Britain favoured continued independence for Texas in order to block further westward expansion of the United States, but this attitude only helped to swing Americans toward annexation. Annexation was approved by the Texas and U.S. congresses in 1845, and the transfer of authority from the republic to the state of Texas took place in 1846. One unique feature of the annexation agreements was a provision permitting Texas to retain title to its public lands.

 The U.S. annexation of Texas and a dispute over the area between the Rio Grande and the Nueces River brought about the Mexican-American War. American troops invaded Mexico in February 1847, and Winfield Scott (Scott, Winfield) captured Mexico City on Sept. 14, 1847. In the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago (Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of), signed on Feb. 2, 1848, Mexico gave up its claim to Texas and also ceded area now in the states of New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, California, and western Colorado. Texas claimed most of this additional area but later relinquished it in the Compromise of 1850 (1850, Compromise of).

      The American Civil War brought disruption to the state. Texas had seceded from the Union on Jan. 28, 1861. Gov. Sam Houston had strongly opposed secession, and, after refusing to take the oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, he was removed from office. During the war Texans had to defend themselves from attacks by Native Americans, from Mexican encroachments, and from federal gunboats and invading soldiers. Federal forces ultimately gained control of the lower Gulf Coast but were unable to move far inland.

The modern period
      During the last three decades of the 19th century, there were rapid developments in the population and economy of Texas. The state was readmitted to the Union under a new constitution in 1870. By 1875 the Comanche had been forced onto a reservation in present-day Oklahoma. With the arrival of immigrants, towns were established, farming spread throughout the central areas of the state, and the cattle industry began to thrive on the plains of West Texas. Railroad building and increased shipping fashioned new links with the rest of the world. Manufacturing, encouraged by the Civil War years, continued to grow. By 1900 the population had grown to more than three million.

      The enormous oil gusher that blew in at Spindletop (Beaumont) in 1901 opened a new economic era for the state. Oil companies were formed; oilmen began to search for and find new deposits in the state; and refining and marketing activities provided new jobs and incomes for Texas. Texas suffered throughout the Great Depression of the 1930s but later benefited from the tremendous industrial expansion that took place during World War II.

      Economic and population growth continued in the postwar era. Oil refining, chemicals, and petrochemicals continued to dominate, but electronics, aerospace components, and other high-technology items became increasingly important in the last quarter of the 20th century. The population of Texas increased fourfold between 1900 and 1980, when one-third of all Texans were either African American or Hispanic. The ethnic composition changed even more markedly by the middle of the first decade of the 21st century: about 35 percent of the population was Hispanic and 12 percent was African American.

      Since the mid-20th century, Texans have played an increasingly important role in national politics. Sam Rayburn (Rayburn, Sam), of Bonham, served as speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives for 17 years, a tenure longer than that of any other person. Lyndon B. Johnson (Johnson, Lyndon B.), who earlier had served as a Texas congressman, was majority leader of the U.S. Senate in the late 1950s, vice president of the United States from 1961 to 1963, and president from 1963 to 1969. In 1988 George Bush (Bush, George) of Houston, who had served as vice president of the United States from 1981 to 1989, was elected president, and he served until 1993. His son George W. Bush (Bush, George W.) served two terms as governor of Texas and was elected president of the United States in 2000.

DeWitt C. Reddick Ralph A. Wooster Gregory Lewis McNamee

Additional Reading

General works
A good overview is Terry G. Jordan-Bychjov, John L. Bean, Jr., and William M. Holmes, Texas: A Geography (1984). The Texas State Historical Association, Handbook of Texas, contains a wealth of historical, cultural, and geographical information. Stanley A. Arbingast et al., Atlas of Texas, 5th rev. ed. (1976), is comprehensive; and The Roads of Texas, rev. ed. (2005), published by Mapsco, is a highly useful resource for travelers. A. Ray Stephens, William M. Holmes, and Phyllis M. McCaffree, Historical Atlas of Texas (1989), utilizes maps to show the state's development.The state's geography and people are addressed in Federal Writer's Project, Texas: A Guide to the Lone Star State (1940, reprinted as The WPA Guide to Texas, 1986). Mary G. Ramos and Dick J. Reavis, Texas, 3rd ed. (2004), is an engagingly written travel handbook. Rick Bass and Paul Christensen (eds.), Falling from Grace in Texas (2004), provides an excellent description of the relationship between Texans and the natural environment. Excellent studies of the two largest minority groups in the state are Alwyn Barr, Black Texans: A History of Negroes in Texas, 1528–1971 (1973, reprinted 1982); and Arnoldo De León, The Tejano Community, 1836–1900 (1982). Articles on Texas politics, social issues, people, and travel are found in Texas Highways (monthly) and Texas Monthly. Larry McMurtry, In a Narrow Grave (1968), is a collection of personal essays on Texas that are invaluable.

The best recent history is Randolph B. Campbell, Gone to Texas: A History of the Lone Star State (2003). Other histories include Rupert N. Richardson, Ernest Wallace, and Adrian Anderson, Texas, 7th ed. (1997); Joe B. Frantz, Texas, rev. ed. (1984); and T.R. Fehrenbach, Lone Star (1968, reissued 1985). Robert M. Utley, Lone Star Justice: The First Century of the Texas Rangers (2002), and Lone Star Lawmen: The Second Century of the Texas Rangers (2007), is a comprehensive two-volume history of the state's best-known law-enforcement body. Light Townsend Cummins and Alvin R. Bailey, Jr. (eds.), A Guide to the History of Texas (1988), includes historiographic and topical subject essays. Despite its title, Southwestern Historical Quarterly largely concentrates on the history of Texas.Gregory Lewis McNamee

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Universalium. 2010.

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