—Tasmanian, adj., n./taz may"nee euh, -mayn"yeuh/, n.an island S of Australia: a state of the commonwealth of Australia. 418,957; 26,382 sq. mi. (68,330 sq. km). Cap.: Hobart. Formerly, Van Diemen's Land.
* * *formerly Van Diemen's LandIsland (pop., 2001: 472,931) and state, Australia.Located off the southeastern corner of the continent and separated from it by Bass Strait, the state has an area of 26,410 sq mi (68,400 sq km) that also includes numerous smaller islands. Hobart is the capital. Originally inhabited by Australian Aboriginals, it was explored and named Van Diemen's Land by Abel Janszoon Tasman in 1642. Taken by the British in the early 1800s and made a colony in 1825, it was used as an auxiliary penal settlement until the 1850s. It was granted self-government and renamed Tasmania in 1856; it became a state of the Australian Commonwealth in 1901. Chief economic activities include copper, zinc, tin, and tungsten mining and livestock raising, especially for wool.
* * *▪ island and state, AustraliaIntroductionformerly Van Diemen's LandTasmania, flag of island state of Australia. It lies about 150 miles (240 km) south of the state of Victoria, from which it is separated by the relatively shallow Bass Strait. Structurally, Tasmania constitutes a southern extension of the Great Dividing Range. The state comprises a main island called Tasmania; Bruny Island, nestling close to the southeastern coast of the main island; King (King Island) and Flinders (Flinders Island) islands in Bass Strait; numerous smaller islands off the coast of the main island; and subantarctic Macquarie Island, about 900 miles (1,450 km) to the southeast. The main island is roughly heart-shaped, with a maximum length and width of about 200 miles (320 km), and its latitude and climate are broadly comparable with those of northern California and northwestern Spain. With an area slightly larger than that of Sri Lanka, Tasmania is the smallest of Australia's states. Hobart is the state capital.The state owes its name to the Dutch navigator-explorer Abel Janszoon Tasman (Tasman, Abel Janszoon), who in 1642 became the first European to discover the island. Until 1856, however, the island was known as Van Diemen's Land, named for Anthony van Diemen (Diemen, Anthony van), the governor of the Dutch East Indies who had sent Tasman on his voyage of exploration. The island of Tasmania contains some of the most spectacular mountain, lake, and coastal scenery in the country, and much of its land is protected in national parks and reserves. The state also produces a major portion of Australia's hydroelectric power and possesses a great diversity of natural resources. Nevertheless, Tasmania has remained among the poorest of Australia's states, with a steadily decreasing share of the country's population. Although insularity renders much of its political, economic, and social life distinctive, proximity to Melbourne and air travel make Tasmania less isolated and more cosmopolitan than is often assumed in other Australian states. Area 26,410 square miles (68,401 square km). Pop. (2006) 476,481.LandReliefTasmania is essentially a mountainous island. In the west, where the highest peak on the island, Mount Ossa (Ossa, Mount), reaches 5,305 feet (1,617 metres), the landscape comprises several parallel northwest-southeast ridges and valleys. Eastward lies a series of plateaus at various elevations; the highest point is Ben Lomond in the northeast, which rises to 5,161 feet (1,573 metres) at Legges Tor. But the dominant feature of Tasmanian geography is the glaciated, lake-studded Central Plateau, bounded on the north and east by a 2,000-foot (610-metre) fault scarp and sloping gently southeastward from 3,500 to 2,000 feet (1,070 to 610 metres). Much of the east is made up of a low, dissected plateau averaging about 1,200 feet (370 metres). Extensive plains are confined to the far northwest, the lower South Esk River valley, and the northeast. The Bass Strait islands represent outliers of the northern coastal platforms. Fossil-laden cliffs on the northern shore of Tasmania and on Maria Island off the eastern coast indicate areas that once lay beneath the sea. Conversely, postglacial submergence in the southeast has produced one of the finest examples of a drowned coastline.DrainageThere are two major river systems in Tasmania—the Derwent (Derwent River) in the southeast and the South Esk in the northeast. Many smaller systems, especially in the western region, flow to the west coast. The Central Plateau is studded with more than 4,000 lakes in a landscape similar to that of northern Canada and Finland; almost all, including Great Lake, are shallow. Lake St. Clair (Saint Clair, Lake), the deepest lake in Australia (reaching more than 700 feet [215 metres]), is a piedmont lake similar to the lakes of northern Italy. Several of the state's lakes, notably Lake King William, are artificial reservoirs created as a part of hydroelectric power development.SoilsMost Tasmanian soils are leached, acidic, poorly drained, high in humus, and low in fertility. Least fertile and most extensive are the soils of the west and northeast, especially the moor peats. Fertile areas occur extensively in the northwest and locally elsewhere, notably in the northeast and southeast. Brown earths occupy the drier areas east of the Central Plateau; black earths, the southeast; and alluvial soils, the narrow valley floors to the east. Other fertile soils are those of former swamps in the far northwest and the Bass Strait islands.ClimateTasmania, located in the midlatitude westerly wind belt and dominated by southern maritime air masses, generally enjoys a moist, equable climate, with mild to warm summers, mild winters in most settled areas, and rain during all seasons. However, the southwest has much rugged weather, and the southeast can suffer drought. Collision between tropical air masses—in summer from the continent and in spring and autumn from the eastern Tasmanian coast—and the mountainous surface results in greater climatic variety than in other parts of Australia. Annual precipitation, seasonal moisture deficiencies, and temperatures range widely and irregularly across the state. Average annual precipitation exceeds 100 inches (2,500 mm) on the western ranges and declines eastward to less than 20 inches (510 mm) in some places; along the north coast it exceeds 30 inches (760 mm) in all locations. The seasonal incidence in the north and west is greatest in winter, and in the south and east it is greatest in spring. Summer rainfall may vary markedly from year to year, especially in the drier east. Mean January temperatures are higher in the north and east than elsewhere, reaching 64 °F (18 °C) at Launceston; mean July temperatures are 46 to 49 °F (8 tο 9 °C) in all coastal stations, declining sharply with elevation.Plant and animal lifeIn general, the wettest areas have temperate rainforests, largely of beech or myrtle; areas having 30 to 60 inches (760 to 1,520 mm) of precipitation annually support good-quality eucalypt forests, and the drier areas carry poor-quality eucalypt forests or savanna woodland. In certain areas, particularly in the forests of the south and southwest, an almost impenetrable thicket known as horizontal scrub develops. This is caused by the growth of a remarkable small tree called the horizontal (Anodopetalum biglandulosum). The slender trunk of the tree falls over under its own weight, and from it branches arise that behave in the same way. On the mountain plateaus are found many plants having subantarctic affinities. These include Tasmania's only deciduous tree or shrub, the myrtle beech, and certain cushion plants. Rainforests would be more widespread in the absence of fires, most of which are caused by natural forces. There are softwood plantations in the Fingal and Scottsdale areas and inland from the northwest coast. Other vegetation zones include the sedge land along the west coast, the high moorlands, and the coastal heaths of the far northwest, the far northeast, and the Bass Strait islands.Animal life is virtually absent from the true rainforests but abounds in the extensive eucalypt forests. Birds include honey eaters, black jays, masked plovers, black magpies, black cockatoos, and various parrots. Among the mammals are wallabies, brushtail and ringtail possums, and marsupial carnivores—the various “native cats (native cat),” including the spotted-tailed and eastern quoll, and the Tasmanian devil. The thylacine (Tasmanian tiger) became extinct in the 1930s. The sedge land and moorlands are distinctive for wombats, and the coastal heaths for green rosellas, platypuses, and short-nosed echidnas.PeoplePopulation compositionWithin Australia, the population of Tasmania has a distinctive composition both by birthplace and by ethnic heritage. Of all the states, Tasmania has the highest proportion born in Australia—nearly nine-tenths of the population—and the lowest proportion born elsewhere in the world. The majority of the residents are of British descent. However, non-British immigration has increased since the late 20th century, though it is not as pronounced as in other states.The ethnic origins of the population are reflected in religious affiliations. Compared with Australia as a whole, Tasmania has long had a greater proportion of Anglicans and a smaller proportion of Roman Catholics, although the latter community grew somewhat after World War II. Among the smaller religious groups to have had long-term strength in Tasmania are the Society of Friends (Quakers), Dutch Calvinists, Brethren, and various other autonomous groups. In tandem with trends in the rest of the country, however, the number of Tasmanians adhering to no specific religion has continued to rise, and the strength of traditional churches has continued to decline.Settlement patternsThe inhospitable terrain of much of Tasmania naturally has had much influence on settlement patterns. The nomadic original Tasmanians have left a few archaeological traces, including geometric designs on exposed rock surfaces and evidence of cremations and corroborees, or ceremonial gatherings. European settlers have left their imprint largely through economic activity—in the mining settlements of the west, in the intensive cropping or dairying of the northern coastal belt and the southeast lowlands, and in the dryland sheep farming of most of the eastern sector. The uninhabited southwestern part of the island, one of the three great temperate wilderness areas remaining in the Southern Hemisphere, collectively was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1982.Historically, the pattern of rural settlement has differed by region, with contrasts stemming from farm size and the length of settlement. In general, the older settled areas, including the midlands between Launceston and Hobart, the central north, the east coast, and the southeast, had larger properties, dispersed homesteads, buildings often built of stone or brick, some Georgian architecture, and nucleated villages laid out on a grid. Areas with more precipitation that have been settled since 1850, chiefly the northwest, the northeast, and the Huon River valley region, generally had small farms, buildings mostly of weatherboard, and houses and villages mainly aligned narrowly along roads. Villages in all areas typically had a post office and store, as well as a primary school, public hall, church, service station, and transport services.Although the state has remained somewhat less urbanized than its mainland counterparts, Tasmania's cities and metropolitan areas have been growing rapidly, exhibiting a dispersed pattern of peripheral growth in three major urban regions. The state capital, Hobart, at the foot of Mount Wellington on the Derwent estuary, is a major port and the leading industrial centre. It is also the metropolitan focus for the southeast, the upper Derwent, the Central Plateau, the midlands south of Oatlands, and the east coast south of Swansea. Launceston, at the head of the Tamar River (Tamar, River) valley, is a secondary administrative centre and the hub of the state's transport network; it is also the home of several important engineering industries. Its sphere of influence extends westward to Deloraine and incorporates the entire north and northeast. The third region centres on both Burnie and Devonport and includes the northwest and the west coast ( Queenstown and Rosebery area). Regional pride has always been an extremely potent force in Tasmanian life and politics.Demographic trendsTasmania has long maintained a higher birth rate than most other states. Birth rates have generally been lower in the cities than in the smaller towns and rural areas. Death rates have remained fairly constant. Infant mortality rates in Tasmania are roughly comparable to the Australian average.After World War II Tasmania experienced in-migration from other states and overseas, but since about 1960 the out-migration resumed to the mainland, consisting primarily of young people entering the workforce. This has been accompanied by a pronounced internal rural-to-urban migration, largely because of the increasing scale of farming and the mechanization of agriculture. Tasmania thus differs from the mainland in having the smallest proportion of population in the labour force and the lowest growth rate of any state. A drop in birth rate in the late 20th century indeed brought Tasmania's population growth to a halt by 2000, though the number of births increased slightly in the early 21st century.Because more than two-fifths of the island—comprising areas in the west and the south—is too rugged and too wet for agriculture, the population is largely confined to the northern and the southeastern regions, which are connected to an isolated cluster of settlements on the west coast by the sparsely settled midlands. Hobart and the surrounding area has nearly two-fifths of the state's population, while most of the remainder of Tasmania's residents are distributed more or less equally between the greater Launceston and Burnie-Devonport areas. No other Australian state has had a population so evenly distributed between the capital city, other urban centres, and rural areas; the nearest equivalent has been Queensland. However, increased urbanization after 1950 modified this pattern.EconomyTasmania possesses mineral, forest, water, and tourist resources. It has a diversity of economic activity and fairly stable labour relations. Its economy, however, suffers markedly from the small scale of much of its resource base, from restricted local markets, and from problems of transport to external markets. Various official agencies have sought to foster manufacturing growth by providing financial and other assistance. The state government also is active in promoting tourism and trade. From the 1970s the number of jobs in the primary (agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining) and secondary (manufacturing and processing) sectors has steadily declined, with the tertiary (services) sector emerging as the state's dominant employer.Agriculture, forestry, and fishingAgriculture, forestry, and fishing rank small in terms of their total contribution to the state economy and employ a comparably small proportion of the workforce. The sector, however, is a significant producer of export commodities. Although the state's cool temperate climate favours agriculture, the mountainous terrain and generally poor soils largely confine arable farming to the southeast, north, and northwest. Roughly one-fourth of Tasmania's area is agricultural land, almost all of which is used for grazing; nevertheless, crops contribute almost half of the total value of agricultural production. Since the late 20th century, there has been a trend to reduce the number of farms and land under cultivation, owing in part to an increase in land used for timber plantations; more striking has been the reduction of employment in the agricultural sector. Meanwhile, productivity has greatly increased, largely as a result of improved water management and technical and entrepreneurial skills. Seasonal irrigation, mainly spray for crops and some pasture, is used on many farms.Beef production, dairy farming, and the raising of sheep (for wool and meat) form the largest component of the state's agricultural activity. Sheep raising is important in the eastern third of the state (north of Hobart), where larger farms prevail. Cattle raising is prominent in the north and northwest. Wheat and barley are the major grains and are used primarily for stock feed; oil poppies, used for pharmaceutical purposes, also are a significant broad-acre crop. Production of vegetables—especially potatoes, onions, carrots, and legumes—is concentrated in the north and northwest. Fruit production is strongest farther to the south, with apples retaining some of their traditional salience. Berries and stone fruits (cherries, apricots, plums, peaches, and nectarines) are also notable. Since the 1980s, viticulture has emerged as a major activity. Lavender, peppermint, and boronia are important for their essential oils.Forestry and the processing associated with it have long figured significantly in Tasmania's economy. The western forests contain excellent hardwoods and pulpwoods, while the drier, poor-quality eastern forests yield wood for chips. Although timber production from hardwoods declined in the 1970s and '80s, the industry had regained strength by the early 21st century to account for nearly one-fifth of the country's total annual hardwood yield. The production of softwood timber has also greatly expanded, as has wood-chip production, with Tasmania providing a substantial proportion of the country's export of the commodity.Fishing also has increased significantly since the early 1990s, with most of the catch being shipped to the mainland and to overseas markets. Abalone and rock lobster are the primary products of open-water fisheries, while salmon is the focus of a rapidly expanding aquaculture industry. In addition, Tasmanian fisheries produce other shellfish (including crab) and various finfish, such as wrasse and needlefish.Resources and powerMineral production fluctuates with market conditions. Demand for zinc, lead, silver, and gold has been fairly steady, but markets for other metals have proved to be less stable. Around the turn of the 21st century, however, the overall mineral-production industry strengthened, reaffirming its importance to Tasmania's economy. Major deposits include iron ore at Savage River; lead, zinc, and silver at Williamsford and Rosebery; copper at Mount Lyell near Queenstown; gold at Beaconsfield, Henty, and Mount Lyell; and tin at Renison Bell. Other products of mining include silica flour, extracted at Corinna; kaolin, mined at various locations; and limestone, drawn primarily from a large reserve at Railton. Coal from the Fingal Rivulet valley is used, though on a small scale, in manufacturing industries.Tasmania has been notably active in renewable energy production, with these sources constituting up to nine-tenths of its total power supply. Hydroelectric generators supply the bulk of the state's energy needs; power stations are located in the Derwent River valley and elsewhere in central and western Tasmania, where precipitation is heavy but well-distributed and the terrain is rugged. Wind farms have operated intermittently in the state since 2002, and there has been growing interest in establishing wind power as a major source of energy. Significant investment has also been made since 2000 to pipe natural gas from the Australian mainland to provide a supplemental source of energy; the state was also linked to the national electricity grid.ManufacturingAlthough the contribution of manufacturing to the state economy has declined from previous times, it still is a significant share. Production and processing of minerals and metals furnishes nearly half of the total value of Tasmania's exports. Another one-third of export value is split about equally between food products (especially meat and dairy), including beverages, and wood and paper products.Tasmania's few large industries include an electrolytic refinery, which treats zinc concentrates; aluminum, ferromanganese, and silicomanganese plants; and a cement plant. There are also mills that produce pulp, paper, and wood chips. Other important industries include meat, dairy, and seafood processing; manufacture of aluminum catamarans and of machinery; vegetable processing; and chocolate production. Although the construction industry has tended to fluctuate with economic conditions, it has remained a significant component of the Tasmanian economy, typically employing nearly as high a proportion of the state's workforce as agriculture, forestry, and fishing. Beyond construction, the manufacturing sector supplies about another 10 percent of Tasmania's jobs.ServicesThe service sector has grown slowly but steadily in the early 21st century to contribute the major share of the state's economy and to provide nearly three-fourths of its employment. Trade—both wholesale and retail—constitutes the largest of the service activities, employing roughly one-fifth of the Tasmanian workforce; health services employs about another one-tenth.Tourism, including hotels, restaurants, and cultural and recreational services, also accounts for about one-tenth of Tasmanian employment. With the state's natural environment as its primary attraction, the sector has undergone rapid expansion since the end of the 20th century. The overwhelming majority of visitors are from elsewhere in Australia, especially the states of Victoria and New South Wales; most overseas tourists come from the United Kingdom or the United States.Transportation and telecommunicationsGiven its island setting and dispersed development, transportation is especially important to Tasmania. The settled areas have an extensive network of good-quality roads. In 1975 control of the state's railways was transferred to the federal government, and in 1978 regular passenger services ceased. By the early 21st century, rail transport had largely become a private enterprise, offering primarily freight service. The state government operates a passenger ferry service on Bass Strait between Devonport and Melbourne. Ferries and passenger ships also operate between Tasmania and Bruny, Maria, and Flinders islands. Most interstate travel is by air. Of Tasmania's airports, only the one at Hobart is equipped to handle international flights. Hobart also is the state hub for domestic traffic. Launceston accommodates less passenger travel but moves most of the freight. Regular air services also operate from Devonport, Wynyard, King Island, and Flinders Island. Of the four major deepwater seaports, Launceston is the busiest, handling about one-third of Tasmania's trade. The ports at Hobart, Burnie, and Devonport share the bulk of the remainder; port administration is decentralized. Minor seaports include Port Latta, King Island, and Flinders Island.Government and societyConstitutional frameworkTasmania's constitution, created by the Constitution Act 1854, provides for a bicameral state parliament, with a House of Assembly as its lower house and a Legislative Council as its upper house, the latter a largely nonpartisan body. The system of elections for the House of Assembly is proportional representation by the single transferable vote; for the Legislative Council the preferential system is used. Voting is compulsory for citizens aged 18 and older.Governments win validity by gaining majority support in the House of Assembly. Since about 1910, Assembly members generally have gathered into Labor Party (Australian Labor Party) and non-Labor groupings. The former have embraced mainly trade unionists and somewhat liberal professionals; the latter have consisted mostly of farmers, businessmen, and more conservative professionals. Various individuals and splinter groups always have exercised much influence; by the system of proportional representation, the environmentalist Greens (Greens, the) have achieved full parliamentary voice through the small but significant group of voters who support them. The Legislative Council has virtual veto over government decisions.Executive government is by the cabinet system, with the governor representing the British monarch and presiding over the Executive Council of Ministers of State. On the local level, Tasmania is divided into 29 administrative areas, including six cities (Hobart, Launceston, Glenorchy, Devonport, Burnie, and Clarence). Each of these areas has an elected local government council broadly charged with providing for the health and well-being of the community.The hierarchy of courts in Tasmania is relatively straightforward. Courts of petty sessions, or magistrate's courts, have jurisdiction over all summary offenses and certain indictable offenses at the option of the defendant. Minor civil proceedings are dealt with by courts of request in the cities and some municipalities or by courts of general sessions. The Supreme Court of Tasmania sits regularly in Hobart, Launceston, and Burnie; it has jurisdiction over all cases except those reserved to the High Court of Australia under the federal constitution. Children's courts have jurisdiction over persons younger than age 17. A number of special tribunals handle disputes involving professional conduct, antidiscrimination, land use, workers' compensation, and other matters.Health and welfareThe state government controls directly or through hospital boards general hospitals at Hobart, Launceston, and Burnie; numerous district hospitals; district nursing centres; and nursing homes for senior citizens and those with disabilities. It also provides district medical officers for the more remote areas, a district nursing service, a school health service, a school dental health service, and a child-health service. Especially since the 1990s, health care provided by private hospitals and nursing homes has been increasing. Owing partly to the greater proportion of elderly citizens, however, the state's death rate has remained above the national average. Despite mounting government expenditure, the gap has widened between public expectations of health services and the government's ability to meet them.Wages and working conditions of Tasmanian employees are regulated either by awards of the Australian Conciliation and Arbitration Commission or by state wages boards. Tasmania tends to have among the lowest average individual weekly earnings of all the states. Relative to weekly earnings, the cost of living is somewhat high, partly because of freight charges on imported goods.Social service benefits provided by the federal government include family and child disability allowances; unemployment, sickness, and special benefits; age, disability, double orphans', and widows' pensions; and funeral benefits. The federal government also provides paid employment for people with disabilities, a rehabilitation service, and subsidies for senior citizens' homes. State agencies provide assistance to single parents, those whose spouses are in prison, homeless youths, handicapped persons, and neglected or abandoned children. It also maintains homes for delinquent children and wards of the state, women's shelters, neighbourhood houses, and a crisis intervention unit.Most Tasmanian households own their homes, and apartments make up only a small proportion of all occupied dwellings. Various Commonwealth and state agencies assist lower-income, first-home buyers with grants and low-interest loans. The state government provides some housing—formerly on the city fringe but now mostly in the inner city—for the lower-income groups. Rental rebates are allowed as necessary. Advances for home building are made available by the cooperative building societies and commercial banks. In the early 21st century, Tasmanians began to demand more-active involvement by the government in the housing sector.EducationSchool attendance is compulsory for children between the ages of 5 and 16. Government-supported schools include infant, primary (some with preschool facilities), area, district, and high schools (nonselective, comprehensive, mostly coeducational), together with matriculation colleges (secondary institutions that prepare students in their final two years) and special schools. Independent (nongovernment) schools, which enroll about one-fourth of the school population, are mostly operated by religious denominations, the majority being Roman Catholic; since 1967 independent schools have received state aid. Chief among institutions of higher learning is the University of Tasmania (founded 1890), which has campuses at Hobart, Launceston, and Burnie and since 2007 includes the Australian Maritime College, centred at Launceston. Both state and Commonwealth governments support technical colleges. Adult education is provided by the state's Department of Education and by volunteer groups, notably the University of the Third Age.Cultural lifeThe artsFor the smallness and dispersion of its population, Tasmania has a vibrant arts community. At the amateur level, there are many musical groups, ranging from the full orchestra to the chamber ensemble, as well as choral societies and repertory companies. The University of Tasmania has a conservatory of music and a school of art. The Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra (TSO), which receives financial support from the Hobart city council and numerous other corporate and public sponsors, gives regular concerts in the main urban centres, often with visiting artists from the mainland or overseas; it also figures prominently in the programming of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. While modest in size, the TSO is highly acclaimed. Fine arts and crafts have many practitioners, some of outstanding merit, often supported in their work by grants from the Department of Tourism, Arts and the Environment.Cultural institutionsIn addition to the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery in Hobart and the Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery in Launceston, many smaller venues exhibit works of cultural and historical value. At Hobart's Battery Point, Narryna—a town house dating from 1839—has been preserved as the Van Diemen's Land Folk Museum, with furniture and furnishings of the early 19th century. Other early houses that have been restored for public benefit include Franklin House near Launceston, and Runnymede, at New Town, Hobart. The Port Arthur Historic Site presents the island's convict history.The state provides lending-library services to adults and children, with books the chief but not the only medium available. Centres of any size have publicly available Internet facilities. The primary reference library and the state archives are located in Hobart.Sports and recreationIn Tasmania sporting activities are of major importance, with yachting holding a position of particular popularity. Most towns have facilities for football (of various kinds, including soccer), cricket, lawn bowls, swimming, cycling, basketball, netball, and badminton. The state government provides grants to various sporting associations and scholarships to individuals; a Tasmanian Institute of Sport is located at Launceston. Bush walking in the extensive wilderness areas is popular, while the Central Plateau lakes constitute one of the world's finest trout fisheries.Media and publishingTasmania has daily newspapers published in Hobart, Launceston, and Burnie and receives national dailies from Sydney and Melbourne. Despite the weakening of print as a medium in the early 21st century, various small semiregular newspapers attend to special interests and localities.In Tasmania, as throughout Australia, broadcasting and television services are produced by both the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and commercial transmitters. Radio is notable for its service to local and minority interests. There are both national and commercial television stations in Hobart and Launceston, much of the material being transmitted from the mainland. Tasmania's rugged relief necessitates the provision of an elaborate network of translator stations to ensure adequate reception in all districts. Cable television services are available. The Australian Broadcasting Authority exercises control in certain matters over the commercial private-enterprise services.Peter Scott Michael RoeHistoryPrehistory and European explorationHumans (Tasmanian) probably entered Tasmania between 25,000 and 40,000 years ago. They most likely came from what is now the Australian mainland via a land bridge, but it is possible that they migrated directly from the New Hebrides archipelago (present-day Vanuatu) or elsewhere. About 20,000 years ago the inhabitants of Tasmania lived farther south than any other people in the world. Stencil images of an outstretched hand, from about 14,000 years ago, appear in caves in the southwestern part of the island. The flooding of the land bridge (creating the Bass Strait) some 11,000 to 12,000 years ago isolated the Tasmanian population. When the Europeans arrived in the mid-17th century, there were probably more than 100 “bands” of indigenous people, averaging some 50 individuals each, scattered islandwide except in the western mountains.Abel Janszoon Tasman (Tasman, Abel Janszoon), the great Dutch navigator-explorer, landed in southeastern Tasmania in early December 1642. He named the island Anthony Van Diemensland, which was later Anglicized to Van Diemen's Land. Frenchmen under Marion du Fresne came in 1772, and Tobias Furneaux (Furneaux, Tobias) led the first British exploration in 1773. Notable French exploration continued with Bruni d'Entrecasteaux in 1792–93 and Nicholas Baudin in 1802. In 1798 Matthew Flinders (Flinders, Matthew) and George Bass (Bass, George) circumnavigated the island.Britain (British Empire)'s colonization of Tasmania was a ploy to ensure British dominance in international sea power. Both the government in London and its representative in New South Wales, Gov. Philip Gidley King, wanted to secure bases in the south. Accordingly, John Bowen established a camp at Risdon Cove on the Derwent River in September 1803. After the arrival in February 1804 of Lieut. Gov. David Collins (1804–10), following the failure of his colonization venture at Port Phillip (Victoria), the settlement was relocated to Hobart. In November 1804 William Paterson founded a settlement in northern Tasmania, which soon had Launceston as its hub. This subcolony was independent of Hobart until 1812, a harbinger of the intense regional feeling (sometimes becoming acrid jealousy) that has long characterized the Tasmanian experience.The survival of the tiny settlements was precarious. Transported convicts always made up much of the European population at that time, and runaway convicts—many of whom became bandits of the rural regions (“bushrangers”)—challenged formal authority. Scarcity of supplies prompted them to hunt kangaroos, which worsened relations with the Aboriginal population. Collins was passive as lieutenant governor, and his successor, Thomas Davey (1812–17), was certainly no more effective.Thereafter rudiments of order emerged, first under Lieut. Gov. William Sorell (1817–24) and then under George Arthur (1824–36). Van Diemen's Land gained virtual independence from New South Wales in 1825, allowing fuller scope for Arthur's profound efficiency and determination. Subsequent lieutenant governors were the Arctic explorer-hero John Franklin (Franklin, Sir John) (1837–43), Sir John Eardley Eardley-Wilmot (1843–46), and Sir William Thomas Denison (1847–54). All found their task difficult.Tasmania enjoyed much economic prosperity between 1820 and 1840. During that period the European population increased from about 4,350 to more than 57,000. The colony's penal function brought in large sums from the British treasury. Free immigrants and some ex-convicts developed commerce and various resources. Raising sheep for wool advanced quickly from the mid-1820s, and suitable land in the island's eastern sector was soon occupied. Tasmanian entrepreneurs and pastoralists played a dominant role in opening Port Phillip from the mid-1830s. Locals also exploited adjacent seal and whale fisheries, encouraging the growth of shipbuilding and services to support these endeavours. International whalers made use of Hobart's superb harbour; it became a major port for whaling ships. Convict labour assisted in all this and in constructing public works and handsome buildings, in both urban and rural areas.Indigenous Tasmanians (Tasmanian) bore the cost of all this economic development. Murderous encounters dating to the Risdon Cove settlement eventually degenerated into the Black War (1804–30), a period of great physical conflict between the Aboriginal population and European settlers. The hostility became especially intense during the 1820s, as pastoralists extended their dominion. In Bass Strait sealeries, Aboriginal women—whose status often was that of quasi-slaves—provided domestic and sexual services for the Europeans. Disease ravaged indigenous communities everywhere. Some consciences stirred, and Arthur appointed George Augustus Robinson to “conciliate” the surviving Aboriginal population. Consequently, from 1831 virtually all Aboriginal people (about 140 by that time) were relocated to Flinders Island in Bass Strait in an effort to shield them from hostility on the Tasmanian mainland. Deaths continued, however, and in 1847 the survivors moved back to Tasmania. The last person believed to be of strictly Tasmanian descent, a woman by the name of Truganini, died in 1876.The experience of convicts was also grim, even if it was rarely so terrible as that of the Aborigines. Altogether, at least 55,000 male and 13,000 female convicts came directly from Britain. Once in Tasmania, most of these offenders served their time in public or private employment, with punishment for misdemeanours. About 10 percent offended more seriously and suffered execution or servitude in the jail stations at Macquarie Harbour, Maria Island, and Port Arthur. After they gained their freedom, some former convicts faced hardship, while others led modest lives and yet others achieved material success.Notwithstanding the grim aspects of Van Diemen's Land, aspiration and learning were not wanting. The Society of Friends (Quakers) established a bastion in Hobart in the early 1830s; the group has exercised influence in Tasmania ever since. The Royal Society of Tasmania made continual efforts to promote science from 1843. Liberals and moral reformers led a movement against convict transportation reminiscent of the crusade in the Northern Hemisphere against slavery and helped persuade the British government to end the policy by the early 1850s.Self-government and federationOnce the importation and exploitation of convicts had ended, the way opened for the grant of colonial self-government in 1855–56. Tasmania became the colony's official name, which, it was hoped, would be a portent of a happier age. Although penalism had provided the island with a solid economic undergirding and a position of historical importance, post-1860 Tasmania continued to be shadowed by its Vandiemonian past. Emigration across Bass Strait beckoned many in every generation. Those who remained held on to their rights and property, often with bitter tenacity.The 1860s and early '70s were especially depressed economically. The population numbered about 90,000 in 1861 and 115,000 in 1881. By 1911, however, it had exceeded 190,000, reflecting a generation of growth. The extraction of metallic minerals was key to this expansion. The discovery of tin at Mount Bischoff in 1871 and Mount Heemskirk in 1879 marked the advent of Tasmania's mining industry. In the 1890s a major copper mine opened at Mount Lyell (Lyell, Mount), spurring the growth of Queenstown, Zeehan, and other nearby mining towns. Western Tasmania of the late 19th century had all the drama of a minerals boom. Meanwhile, small-scale farming progressed, especially along the northwest coast, which had the island's best soils—once the fiendish job of forest clearing was done. Orchardists produced the apples that were long Tasmania's symbol. Roads and railways were developed despite topography and cost. Most Tasmanians supported federation of the Australian colonies, hoping that it would further boost the island's economy.Premiers William Robert Giblin (1879–84) and Philip Oakley Fysh (1887–92) introduced administrative, social, and political reforms. An outstanding jurist, Andrew Inglis Clark, led a cadre of youngish men inspired by the day's positive liberalism to help establish the University of Tasmania (1890) and otherwise enrich cultural affairs. Suffrage for men—even for the lower house of Parliament—did not come until 1900–01, but by then there already functioned in urban electorates a form of proportional representation devised by Clark; this system was in use throughout Tasmania from 1909. Women gained the right to vote in 1903 when universal adult suffrage was instituted for the House of Assembly.Conservative and traditional interests retained much strength. Pastoralist families lived on estates granted to them in convict days. The upper-house Legislative Council was elected from a narrow franchise base and had much power to obstruct legislation. The social pyramid was steep.One effect of this was that the Australian Labor Party (ALP) achieved power in Tasmania more slowly than elsewhere in Australia. Under John Earle (1914–16) the government pursued characteristic Labor policies of positive government for the social good, which included securing public control over hydroelectric power generation. Discussion about developing Tasmania's hydroelectric potential had been proceeding for some years; the state's topography promised to make this natural resource one that would compensate for the island's poverty in most other resources.At the end of World War I, these hopes flourished, as hydroelectricity made possible the construction and operation of a massive zinc refinery near Hobart. In the years immediately following, a large confectionery plant was also built near Hobart, and several textile mills sprang up, notably in Launceston. Yet the dream of a manufacturing elysium was delusive: the state's population rose only from 213,000 in 1921 to 227,000 in 1933, and the government often faced bankruptcy.The tiny University of Tasmania gained some renown in the 1920s for its department of economics. Tasmanian writers and journalists of this period include Robert Atkinson, who influenced the Australian-born American musician Percy Grainger (Grainger, Percy); Clive Turnbull, pioneer historian of European aggression against the Aborigines; the novelist Noel Norman, who insisted that true Australianism lay in the continent's physical centre; and Alan John Villiers, author of seafaring sagas. John Henry Butters and Herbert William Gepp, geniuses of hydroelectricity and zinc, respectively, became key national figures. Tasmania's dominant politician of the 1920s, Joseph Aloysius Lyons (Lyons, Joseph Aloysius), served as federal prime minister in the next decade, the first Tasmanian to hold that office; his wife, Enid, more able and fluent, was one of the first women to become a member of the federal parliament (1943) and the first woman in a federal cabinet (1949–51).The Great Depression of the 1930s had its impact on Tasmania, but the Labor premier (1934–39) Albert George Ogilvie outshone other Australian politicians in responding to the economic problems. One of his skills was obtaining federal grants to diminish Tasmania's comparative poverty. Informed, wholehearted, and realistic in criticizing the Axis Powers, Ogilvie might have challenged Lyons for national leadership had both not died in mid-1939.Tasmania since 1950Through the next several decades, Tasmania benefited much from Australia's general prosperity. By 1970 the population was nearly 400,000, and living standards had approached the national norm. Premiers Robert Cosgrove (1939–58) and Eric Elliott Reece (1958–69 and 1972–75) were tough and efficient and saved the local Labor Party from the blows it was suffering elsewhere in the country. They sustained faith in further developing hydroelectricity, and some heavy industry appeared. Government services in housing, health, education, and libraries were usually good and sometimes excellent. Federal grants continued to be generous. Air travel diminished Tasmania's insularity. Various scandals and tensions erupted, but overall this was arguably the most comfortable period in Tasmania's history.The next generation experienced less material progress. Anticipating what would become national trends, manufacturing suffered many setbacks, as did traditional farming—apple growing included. More than ever, the economy seemed to depend on the exploitation of natural resources, especially timber and metals.A local environmental movement (conservation) sprang up in Tasmania. Although it aroused many opponents, the movement nevertheless developed into a considerable force. Its values were somewhat like those of the anticonvict movement of the mid-19th century; Tasmania's physical beauty, and a long-prevailing chimera that something like a utopia should prevail in such a place, further helped the ecological cause.In the early 1970s environmentalists sought to halt hydroelectric dam construction that would further flood the natural Lake Pedder in the southwest. The campaign failed, but it spawned what many consider the world's first Green Party, the United Tasmania Group (later known as the Tasmanian Greens). Since 1969 the ALP and non-Labor groups had been alternating in government. However, in 1989 the Greens secured enough electoral support to be decisive in maintaining a Labor government. To reduce the power of the Greens, the ALP and the Liberal Party of Australia altered the electoral system for the state legislature in the late 1990s, but the effect was brief.Parallel with the surge in ecological awareness was the growth of the Aboriginal (Tasmanian) movement. While the common assumption was that indigenous Tasmanians were extinct, Tasmanian Aborigines had indeed retained their identity. Encouraged by widespread changes in attitudes about ethnicity, as well as by federal aid to their community, Aboriginal peoples began to reassert their heritage. In the mid-1990s, with the passage of federal legislation, several historic and cultural sites in the state were returned to the Aboriginal community, and the number of individuals declaring themselves to be Aboriginal increased exponentially.The 1990s were marked by economic stagnation in Tasmania, as was most evident in an actual slight decline in population by mid-decade (though the number then began to climb again). The state was struck by tragedy in 1996, when an assassin killed 35 people in Port Arthur. Indifferent performance by successive Liberal governments led in 1998 to a decisive ALP electoral victory under James (“Jim”) Bacon; during his six-year tenure, Bacon achieved more than had any of his most recent predecessors. Management of the state's finances improved; the transportation infrastructure both internally and externally was greatly expanded, facilitating a boost in tourism; power and natural gas lines were laid across Bass Strait; unemployment was reduced to its lowest rate in two decades; major arts venues and events were inaugurated; and funding of health, child care, and other social services increased markedly. Bacon, who was terminally ill, was replaced as premier in 2004 by Paul Lennon. While the state remained reasonably prosperous, the following years were marked by conflict between environmentalist and prodevelopment forces as well as by voluble criticism of welfare services.Michael RoeAdditional ReadingParticularly helpful Web sites are those of the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the State Library of Tasmania. The most comprehensive single reference work on Tasmania is Alison Alexander (ed.), The Companion to Tasmanian History (2005). C.F. Burrett and E.L. Martin (eds.), Geology and Mineral Resources of Tasmania (1989), is also useful. Margaret Stones and Winifred Curtis, The Endemic Flora of Tasmania, 6 pt. (1967–76), presents a definitive study, beautifully illustrated. Intellectually invigorating is John West, The History of Tasmania, 2 vol. (1852, reissued in 1 vol., 1971). Lloyd Robson, A History of Tasmania, 2 vol. (1983–91), and A Short History of Tasmania, 2nd ed., updated by Michael Roe (1997), are comprehensive accounts. A more political emphasis is offered in W.A. Townsley, Tasmania: From Colony to Statehood, 1893–1945 (1991), and Tasmania: Microcosm of the Federation or Vassal State, 1945–1983 (1994). Outstanding historical monographs include Peter Bolger, Hobart Town (1973); Geoffrey Blainey, The Peaks of Lyell, 5th ed. (1993), on copper mining; Marilyn Lake, A Divided Society: Tasmania During World War I (1975); Henry Reynolds, Fate of a Free People (1995); and C.A. Cranston (ed.), Along These Lines: From Trowenna to Tasmania: At Least Two Centuries of Peripatetic Perspectives in Poetry and Prose (2000), a literary anthology.Michael Roe
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