/suf"euhk/, n.
1. a county in E England. 570,000; 1470 sq. mi. (3805 sq. km).
2. one of an English breed of sheep having a black face and legs, noted for mutton of high quality.
3. one of an English breed of chestnut draft horses having a deep body and short legs.
4. one of an English breed of small, black hogs.
5. a city in SE Virginia. 47,621.

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Administrative (pop., 2001: 668,548) and historic county, eastern England, on the North Sea.

There are prehistoric flint mines in the north of the county. During Anglo-Saxon times Suffolk formed part of the kingdom of East Anglia; the Sutton Hoo ship burial dates from this time. Its medieval prosperity was based largely on the woolen cloth industry. Since then, agriculture has been the major economic activity; crops include cereals, sugar beets, and vegetables. The Suffolk town of Newmarket is famous for its racing stables, and the Suffolk coast is dotted with holiday resorts. The county seat is Ipswich.
Breed of medium-wool, dark-faced, hornless sheep developed in England in the early 19th century by mating Norfolk horned ewes (females) with Southdown rams (males).

Suffolks are prolific, early-maturing sheep with excellent mutton carcasses. They are energetic and have an alert carriage and great stamina. Introduced into the U.S. in 1888, the Suffolk is a popular lamb producer.

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      city, southeastern Virginia, U.S., at the head of navigation of the Nansemond River. It lies near the Great Dismal Swamp (Great Dismal Swamp), immediately southwest of the cities of Portsmouth and Chesapeake in the Hampton Roads region. In 1974 it merged with the former Nansemond county and the towns of Holland and Whaleyville to form a single administrative unit; the city now extends southward to the North Carolina border, making it the largest city in land area in the state, with 430 square miles (1,114 square km).

      Settled in 1720, the town was early known as Constance Warehouse for John Constant, who established a tobacco business there; it was chartered in 1742 and renamed by the colonial legislature for Suffolk, England. The town was burned by British forces in 1779 during the American Revolution, and it was destroyed by fire in 1837 but was soon rebuilt. During the American Civil War it fell to Union troops in May 1862 and was attacked by Confederate general James Longstreet (Longstreet, James) in April 1863.

      Since 1912 Suffolk has been an important centre for the marketing and processing of peanuts (groundnuts); it also handles tea, and its manufactures include bricks, fertilizer, wood products, and farm machinery. Fishing and boating facilities are available in six local lakes and in Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. Inc. town, 1808; city, 1910. Pop. (1990) 52,141; (2000) 63,677.

▪ breed of horse
also called  Suffolk Punch,  
 smallest draft- horse breed, which originated in Suffolk, Eng. Descended from the medieval “great horse,” the Suffolk is an old breed that has probably had less crossing with other lines than most draft breeds. All registered Suffolks in Britain and North America trace their lineage to “Crisp's Horse” (born 1768). Suffolks are unusually compact and rotund, with thick, short necks, legs, and backs; they are docile but powerful. They stand 15.2 to 16.2 hands (about 62 to 66 inches, or 157 to 168 cm) high and weigh from 1,600 to 2,000 pounds (725 to 900 kg). The coat is always chestnut-coloured.

      The Suffolk Horse Society of Great Britain was organized in 1880. That same year the breed was imported to the United States.

▪ breed of sheep
 breed of medium-wool, dark-faced, hornless sheep developed in England during the years 1800 to 1850 by mating Norfolk horned ewes with Southdown rams. Suffolks are prolific, early maturing sheep with excellent mutton carcasses. They are energetic, and the whole carriage is alert, showing stamina and quality. The breed is not desirable for wool production. The fleeces are short in staple and light in weight, and they have black fibres. Introduced into the United States in 1888, the Suffolk is a popular lamb producer throughout the country, including the rangeland.

       Selected Breeds of SheepSee the Table of Selected Breeds of Sheep (Selected Breeds of Sheep) for further information.

      administrative and historic county in East Anglia, eastern England, bounded to the north by Norfolk, to the west by Cambridgeshire, to the south by Essex, and to the east by the North Sea. The administrative county comprises seven districts: Forest Heath and the borough of Saint Edmundsbury in the west, Mid Suffolk in the middle, Babergh and the borough of Ipswich in the south, and Suffolk Coastal and Waveney on the North Sea coast. The administrative county is nearly coterminous with the historic county, but the historic county also includes the area south of Breydon Water in Great Yarmouth borough in the administrative county of Norfolk.

      Suffolk exhibits a wide variety of landscapes. The coastline has fine sandy beaches, crumbling cliffs (the former town of Dunwich has been washed into the sea), deep estuaries, and the spit of Orford Ness. The centre of the county has low rolling hills, and in the west rises a chalk ridge covered by broad, hedgeless fields. The northwestern corner of Suffolk, where it borders Norfolk and Cambridgeshire, forms part of the Fens and is below sea level. East of the Fens lies the Breckland, a region of sand, heath, and long lines of trees planted originally for windbreaks and game cover.

      The area prospered from early times. Prehistoric flint mines have been found in Breckland. The Mildenhall silver treasure, now on display in the British Museum, dates from the Roman period. During Anglo-Saxon times Suffolk formed part of the kingdom of East Anglia; the wealth of the kings of this period is indicated in the Sutton Hoo ship burial discovered near Woodbridge. The county's medieval prosperity, which lasted until the 18th century, was based largely upon the woolen cloth industry and is reflected in the many large village churches such as those at Lavenham, Blythburgh, and Southwold. The villages of Lindsey and Kersey gave their names to specific wool fabrics.

      Agriculture has been a major economic activity in Suffolk since the 18th century. The most important crops are cereals, sugar beets, and vegetables; food processing is a significant industry. Newmarket in the west is famous for its racing stables, and the county was formerly known for its Suffolk draft horses, also called Suffolk Punch. Lowestoft is a fishing port, and the coast is dotted with holiday resorts. The entry of the United Kingdom into the European Community brought rapid port development at Felixstowe. Area 1,468 square miles (3,802 square km). Pop. (2005 est.) 692,100.

      county, eastern Massachusetts, U.S., bordered on the east by Massachusetts Bay and Boston Harbor. It consists of a hilly coastal region and includes several islands. The primary waterways are the Charles (Charles River), Mystic, and Chelsea rivers, as well as Chestnut Hill Reservoir and Jamaica and Sprague ponds. Parklands include Boston National Historic Park, Boston Harbor Islands State Park, and Boston Common.

      Suffolk was created in May 1643 as one of Massachusetts's three original counties and was named for Suffolk, England. The county seat is Boston, which is also the state capital. Founded in 1630 by English Puritan colonists, Boston has been the long-time cultural and commercial centre of New England and, with dozens of colleges and universities in and around it, the nation's hub of higher education. The other main communities are Revere, Chelsea, and Winthrop.

      Economic activity in the county centres on financial services such as banking, insurance, and investment management and on food processing, printing, and telecommunications. The tourist industry benefits from Boston's rich colonial heritage and status as a centre for conventions. Area 59 square miles (152 square km). Pop. (1990) 663,906; (2000) 689,807.

      county, southeastern New York state, U.S., on central and eastern Long Island. It consists of a coastal lowland bounded by Long Island Sound to the north, Block Island Sound to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the south. Embayments along the northern and eastern shores include Smithtown and Gardiners bays, while a string of barrier islands and beaches along the southern shore (notably Fire Island) enclose such bodies of water as Great South and Shinnecock bays. Also included in the county are such small islands as Shelter Island and, farther east, Fishers Island. The county is dotted with recreational areas, including Fire Island National Seashore, Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge, and Robert Moses, Connetquot River, and Montauk Point state parks.

      The region was occupied by Montauk Indians when white settlers began arriving in the 17th century. Established in 1683 as one of New York's original counties, it was named for Suffolk, Eng. The area was occupied by the British during the U.S. War of Independence (American Revolution) and was again harassed by the British during the War of 1812 (1812, War of). The completion of the railroad to Greenport in 1844 spurred economic and population growth. The county became a market gardening centre for New York City and also a popular location for fashionable suburban and resort communities, especially in the eastern portion known as the Hamptons.

      Administratively, the county comprises 10 towns (townships), including Huntington, Southampton, and Riverhead (the county seat), and numerous villages, including Sag Harbor and Stony Brook. Institutions of higher education include the State University of New York (New York, State University of (SUNY)) at Stony Brook (founded 1957) and Suffolk County Community College (1959) at Selden, Brentwood, and Riverhead. Also located in the county are Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Poospatuck and Shinnecock Indian reservations.

      Wholesale and retail trade, services, and manufacturing are the major economic activities; agriculture, once a mainstay, now plays only a minor role. Area 911 square miles (2,360 square km). Pop. (2000) 1,419,369; (2007 est.) 1,453,229.

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Universalium. 2010.

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