/sooh dan"/, n.
1. a region in N Africa, S of the Sahara and Libyan deserts, extending from the Atlantic to the Red Sea.
2. Republic of the. Formerly, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. a republic in NE Africa, S of Egypt and bordering on the Red Sea: a former condominium of Egypt and Great Britain. 32,594,128; 967,500 sq. mi. (2,505,825 sq. km). Cap.: Khartoum.

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Introduction Sudan
Background: Military dictatorships favoring an Islamic-oriented government have dominated national politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan has been embroiled in a civil war for all but 10 years of this period (1972-82). Since 1983, the war and war- and famine-related effects have led to more than 2 million deaths and over 4 million people displaced. The war pits the Arab/Muslim majority in Khartoum against the non-Muslim African rebels in the south. Since 1989, traditional northern Muslim parties have made common cause with the southern rebels and entered the war as a part of an anti-government alliance. Geography Sudan -
Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 30 00 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 2,505,810 sq km water: 129,810 sq km land: 2.376 million sq km
Area - comparative: slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US
Land boundaries: total: 7,687 km border countries: Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 628 km, Egypt 1,273 km, Eritrea 605 km, Ethiopia 1,606 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya 383 km, Uganda 435 km
Coastline: 853 km
Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 18 NM continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate: tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season (April to October)
Terrain: generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in east and west
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Red Sea 0 m highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m
Natural resources: petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 7.03% permanent crops: 0.08% other: 92.89% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: 19,500 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: dust storms and periodic persistent droughts Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: largest country in Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries People Sudan
Population: 37,090,298 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.2% (male 8,385,554; female 8,023,847) 15-64 years: 53.6% (male 9,945,683; female 9,933,383) 65 years and over: 2.2% (male 447,214; female 354,617) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.73% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 37.21 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate: 9.81 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.26 male(s)/ female total population: 1.03 male(s)/ female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 67.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 57.33 years female: 58.5 years (2002 est.) male: 56.22 years
Total fertility rate: 5.22 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.99% (1999 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 186,000 (1998)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Sudanese (singular and plural) adjective: Sudanese
Ethnic groups: black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%
Religions: Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum)
Languages: Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English note: program of "Arabization" in process
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 46.1% male: 57.7% female: 34.6% (1995 est.) Government Sudan
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan conventional short form: Sudan local short form: As-Sudan local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Government type: authoritarian regime - ruling military junta took power in 1989; government is run by an alliance of the military and the National Congress Party (NCP), formerly the National Islamic Front (NIF), which espouses an Islamist platform
Capital: Khartoum Administrative divisions: 26 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); A'ali an Nil, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrat, Al Jazirah, Al Khartum, Al Qadarif, Al Wahdah, An Nil al Abyad, An Nil al Azraq, Ash Shamaliyah, Bahr al Jabal, Gharb al Istiwa'iyah, Gharb Bahr al Ghazal, Gharb Darfur, Gharb Kurdufan, Janub Darfur, Janub Kurdufan, Junqali, Kassala, Nahr an Nil, Shamal Bahr al Ghazal, Shamal Darfur, Shamal Kurdufan, Sharq al Istiwa'iyah, Sinnar, Warab
Independence: 1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1956)
Constitution: 12 April 1973, suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June 1989; new constitution implemented on 30 June 1998 partially suspended 12 December 1999 by President BASHIR
Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20 January 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law in the northern states; Islamic law applies to all residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal, but noncompulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 February 1998), Second Vice President Moses MACHAR (since 12 February 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 13-23 December 2000 (next to be held NA 2005) note: BASHIR assumed supreme executive power in 1989 and retained it through several transitional governments in the early and mid-90s before being popularly elected for the first time in March 1996 election results: Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR 86.5%, Ja'afar Muhammed NUMAYRI 9.6%, three other candidates received less than a combined 4% of the vote; election widely viewed as rigged; all popular opposition parties boycotted elections because of a lack of guarantees for a free and fair poll cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the National Congress Party or NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates BASHIR's cabinet head of government: President Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 February 1998), Second Vice President Moses MACHAR (since 12 February 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (360 seats; 270 popularly elected, 90 elected by supra assembly of interest groups known as National Congress; members serve four-year terms) elections: last held 13-22 December 2000 (next to be held NA December 2004) note: on 12 December 1999, BASHIR dismissed the National Assembly during an internal power struggle between the president and the speaker of the National Assembly Hassan al-TURABI election results: NCP 355, others 5
Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Special Revolutionary Courts Political parties and leaders: the government allows political "associations" under a 1998 law revised in 2000; to obtain government approval parties must accept the constitution and refrain from advocating or using violence against the regime; approved parties include the National Congress Party or NCP [Ibrahim Ahmed UMAR], Popular National Congress or PNC [Hassan al- TURABI], and over 20 minor, pro- government parties Political pressure groups and National Congress Party [Ibrahim
leaders: Ahmed UMAR]; Popular National Congress [Hassan al-TURABI]; Umma [Sadiq al-MAHDI]; Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammed Uthman AL- MIRGHANI]; National Democratic Alliance [Muhammed Uthman AL- MIRGHANI, chairman]; Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army [Dr. John GARANG] International organization ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
participation: CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer) Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge D'Affairs, Ad Interim Khidir Haroun AHMED (since April 2001) telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565 FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406 chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 Diplomatic representation from the For security reasons, US officials
US: at the US Embassy in Khartoum were relocated in February 1996 to the US Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Cairo, Egypt, from where they make regular visits to Khartoum; the US Embassy in Khartoum is located on Sharia Abdul Latif Avenue; mailing address - P. O. Box 699, Khartoum; APO AE 09829; telephone - [249] (11) 774611 or 774700; FAX - [249] (11) 774137; the US Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya is located in the Interim Office Building on Mombasa Road, Nairobi; mailing address - P. O. Box 30137, Box 21A, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831; telephone - [254] (2) 751613; FAX - [254] (2) 743204; the US Embassy in Cairo, Egypt is located at (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo; mailing address - Unit 64900, APO AE 09839-4900; telephone - [20] (2) 3557371; FAX - [20] (2) 3573200
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side Economy Sudan -
Economy - overview: Sudan has turned around a struggling economy with sound economic policies and infrastructure investments, but it still faces formidable economic problems. Starting in 1997 Sudan began implementing IMF macroeconomic reforms that have successfully stabilized inflation. In 1999 Sudan began exporting crude oil and in the last quarter of 1999 recorded its first trade surplus, along with monetary policy, has stabilized the exchange rate. Current oil production stands at 220,000 barrels per day, of which some 70% is exported and the rest refined mostly for domestic consumption. Increased oil production, revived light industry, and expanded export processing zones should maintain GDP growth at 5% in 2002. Agriculture production remains Sudan's most important sector, employing 80% of the work force and contributing 43% of GDP, but most farms remain rain- fed and susceptible to drought. Sudan is also constrained by its limited access to international credit; most of Sudan's $24.9 billion debt remains in arrears. The civil war, chronic instability, adverse weather, and weak world agricultural prices ensure that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line for years.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $49.3 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,360 (2001 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 43% industry: 17% services: 40% (1999 est.) Population below poverty line: NA% Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
percentage share: highest 10%: NA% Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (2001 est.)
Labor force: 11 million (1996 est.) Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 7%, government 13% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate: 18.7% (2002 est.)
Budget: revenues: $1.6 billion expenditures: $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Industries: oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly Industrial production growth rate: 8.5% (1999 est.) Electricity - production: 1.97 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 49.24% hydro: 50.76% other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 1,832.1 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products: cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock
Exports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities: oil and petroleum products, cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar
Exports - partners: Japan 25%, China 19%, Saudi Arabia 14%, Germany 4%, (2000)
Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat
Imports - partners: China 12%, Saudi Arabia 10%, UK 10%, Germany 7% (2000)
Debt - external: $24.9 billion (2000 est.) Economic aid - recipient: $187 million (1997)
Currency: Sudanese dinar (SDD)
Currency code: SDD
Exchange rates: Sudanese dinars per US dollar - 261.44 (January 2002), 258.70 (2001), 257.12 (2000), 252.55 (1999), 200.80 (1998), 157.57 (1997)
Fiscal year: calendar year Communications Sudan Telephones - main lines in use: 400,000 (2000) Telephones - mobile cellular: 20,000 (2000)
Telephone system: general assessment: large, well- equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (2000) Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios: 7.55 million (1997) Television broadcast stations: 3 (1997)
Televisions: 2.38 million (1997)
Internet country code: .sd Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2002)
Internet users: 50,000 (2002) Transportation Sudan
Railways: total: 5,995 km narrow gauge: 4,595 km 1.067- m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge plantation line note: the 1.067-m line from Khartoum to Port Sudan carries over two- thirds of Sudan's rail traffic; the 0.600-m gauge system serves Sudan's cotton plantations with over 120 collecting stations (2001)
Highways: total: 11,900 km paved: 4,320 km unpaved: 7,580 km (1996)
Waterways: 5,310 km
Pipelines: refined products 815 km
Ports and harbors: Juba, Khartoum, Kusti, Malakal, Nimule, Port Sudan, Sawakin
Merchant marine: total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 39,545 GRT/51,195 DWT ships by type: cargo 2, roll on/roll off 2 (2002 est.)
Airports: 65 (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 12 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2001) Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 53 under 914 m: 11 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 16 914 to 1,523 m: 26
Heliports: 1 (2001) Military Sudan
Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Popular Defense Force Militia Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 8,739,982 (2002 est.) Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 5,380,917 (2002
service: est.) Military manpower - reaching military males: 398,294 (2002 est.)
age annually: Military expenditures - dollar $581 million (2001 est.)
figure: Military expenditures - percent of 2.5% (1999)
GDP: Transnational Issues Sudan Disputes - international: Sudan agrees in 2002 to demarcate whole boundary with Ethiopia; Egypt and Sudan each claim to administer triangular areas which extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel (the north "Hala'ib Triangle" is the largest with 20,580 sq km); in 2001, the two states agreed to discuss an "area of integration" and withdraw military forces in the overlapping areas; since colonial times, Kenya's administrative boundary has extended beyond its treaty boundary into Sudan creating the "Ilemi Triangle"

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Vast tract of open savanna plains, north-central Africa.

Extending across 2,000,000 sq mi (5,000,000 sq km), it lies between the southern limits of the Sahara and Libyan deserts and the northern limits of the equatorial rainforests. It extends from the western coast more than 3,500 mi (5,500 km) to the mountains of Ethiopia and the Red Sea. The Sahel comprises the northern reaches.

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 the vast tract of open savanna plains extending across Africa between the southern limits of the Sahara (desert) and the northern limits of the equatorial rain forests. The term derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān (“land of the black peoples”) and has been in use from at least the 12th century. The northern reaches of the Sudan comprise the semiarid region known as the Sahel (q.v.).

      The Sudan extends for more than 3,500 miles (5,500 km) west-to-east across Africa from Cape Verde on the Atlantic to the highlands of Ethiopia and the Red Sea, and between about latitudes 8° and 16° N. It borders the Sahara on the north and extends southward to the forests of West Africa and the Congo River basin. The Sudan's mean annual rainfall varies between 10 inches (250 mm) in the north and 60 inches (1,500 mm) in the south, with the hottest months usually from June to September and with a pronounced, and often very prolonged, dry season. Temperatures are generally high throughout the year. Vegetation ranges from semidesert steppe and thorn scrub near the Sahara through vast grass plains, loosely termed savannas, to parkland country where low trees grow among tall grasses, and savanna forest that merges ultimately into equatorial rain forest.

      During the dry season the trees shed their leaves, all but the largest rivers run dry, and brush fires that burn up the grass are common. The rainfall might be adequate for cultivation were it not for the very high rate of evaporation, which makes irrigation essential in many areas.

      Much of the Sudan is a plateau between 1,000 and 1,500 feet (330 and 415 m) above sea level, but there are many higher areas, sometimes exceeding 10,000 feet (3,050 m), as in northern Ethiopia and in the west of The Sudan. The principal rivers include the Sénégal and the Niger, draining to the Atlantic, and the Nile and its tributaries, which derive much of their water from areas beyond the Sudan region. Lake Chad in the western Sudan is a centre for interior drainage.

      The people of the Sudan are predominantly black, and, though these people are primarily Bantu-speaking, there is also a considerable admixture of Arabic- and Berber-speaking peoples, the degree of their influence decreasing westward and southward toward the Gulf of Guinea. Many of the people are Muslims. The density of population is generally low. Livestock raising is a major economic activity, and considerable numbers of people are still (though decreasingly) nomadic or seminomadic, moving with their herds in search of pasturage. Movement across the grasslands is generally uninterrupted, especially during the dry season, and the continuity of a similar environment along the southern boundaries of the Sahara for vast distances has encouraged people to move from the north and east from early times. At first they traveled with the aid of horses and oxen, but migration was greatly expanded and probably accelerated with the introduction of the camel about AD 300, especially as camel caravans were able to cross the Sahara. Thus, the Sudan was linked with the Mediterranean coastlands, whose manufactured articles, together with Saharan salt, were exchanged for the gold, kola nuts, and slaves of Guinea.

      From Arab historians something is known of some of the powerful states that were established by military rule, the largest and most enduring of which were associated in the western Sudan with the termini of the desert trade routes. Ancient Ghana was created by Jewish or Berber settlers about AD 300 in the area west of Timbuktu (Tombouctou) in modern Mali, though its greatest years came when it was ruled by the black Soninke (Sarakolé) dynasty. Almoravid attacks in the 11th century reduced its power and led to its replacement by the Mali, or Mandingo, empire, centred on the upper Niger River. Mali in turn was overthrown during the latter part of the 15th century by the expansion of the Songhai (Songhai empire), or Gao, empire, which developed from Berber settlements established on the lower Niger as early as the 7th century. In 1591 the Songhai towns of Gao, Timbuktu, and Djenné (all in modern Mali) were occupied by Moroccan troops eager to control both the lucrative caravan traffic and the long-established trade in gold. The empire was replaced by numerous black kingdoms, including the Mossi-Dagomba states, the Bambara kingdoms of Ségou and Kaarta, Bornu, and the small Hausa states that were later conquered by the Muslim Fulani early in the 19th century. European penetration in the mid- and late 19th century was followed by the establishment of political control, principally that of the French and the British, which lasted until the emergence of independent states in the region during the 1950s and early '60s.

      On the eastern side of the continent, ancient Egypt's links with the Sudan region were generally strong, notably with Nubia. After the Nubian empire had been overrun by Muslims, it was replaced by kingdoms such as those of Dongola, Darfur, and Sennar. Later there was invasion from Egypt and, in 1899, the establishment of the Anglo-Egyptian condominium. The independent Republic of the Sudan was created in 1956.

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Universalium. 2010.

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