/spring"feeld'/, n.
1. a city in S Massachusetts, on the Connecticut River. 152,319.
2. a city in SW Missouri. 133,116.
3. a city in and the capital of Illinois, in the central part. 99,637.
4. a city in W Ohio. 72,563.
5. a city in W Oregon. 41,621.
6. a town in SE Pennsylvania, near Philadelphia. 25,326.
7. a town in N Tennessee. 10,814.
8. a town in SE Vermont. 10,190.

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City (pop., 2000: 111,454), capital of Illinois, U.S. Springfield lies along the Sangamon River in the central part of the state.

The first settler there built a cabin in 1818; in 1837, largely through the efforts of Abraham Lincoln and other members of the Illinois legislature, the state capital was transferred there. Lincoln lived in Springfield until he became president in 1861; he is buried there. An educational and government services centre, it also is a market centre for a rich farming area.
City (pop., 2000: 151,580), southwestern Missouri, U.S. Settled in 1829, Springfield grew slowly until the period of heavy westward migration began in the U.S. Confederate forces held it briefly during the American Civil War, and Wild Bill Hickok lived there in the 1860s.

Its agriculture-based economy is augmented by its educational institutions. The international headquarters of the Assemblies of God church is in the city.
City (pop., 2000: 152,082), southwestern Massachusetts, U.S. Located on the Connecticut River, Springfield was settled in 1636 and was incorporated in 1641.

It was burned during King Philip's War (1675). In 1786 it was the site of an arsenal targeted by Shays' Rebellion; during the American Civil War the U.S. Armory (see Springfield Armory) there produced the Springfield musket. Springfield is home to several colleges and the Basketball Hall of Fame. It was the birthplace of Theodor Geisel (Dr. Seuss).

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 city, seat (1821) of Sangamon county and capital of Illinois, U.S. Lying along the Sangamon River in the central part of the state, Springfield is situated about 100 miles (160 km) northeast of St. Louis (Saint Louis), Missouri, and some 185 miles (300 km) southwest of Chicago.

      Settlement of the area began in 1820 when John Kelly built a cabin on what is now the corner of Second and Jefferson streets. Originally named Calhoun for U.S. Senator and Vice President John C. Calhoun, it took its current name, derived from nearby Spring Creek, in 1832. Abraham Lincoln (Lincoln, Abraham) moved to Springfield from New Salem on April 15, 1837, and lived there until he became president in 1861. Springfield had a population of less than 3,000 when it was chosen as the state capital in 1837 (government offices moved to Springfield from Vandalia in 1839), largely through the efforts of Lincoln and eight other members of the Illinois legislature (known as the “Long Nine” because they were all over 6 feet [1.8 metres] tall).

      In the Old State Capitol (1837–53; rebuilt in the 1960s as a state historic site), Lincoln served his last term in the legislature (1840–41), practiced before the state Supreme Court, delivered his famous “House Divided” address (see text (Abraham Lincoln: A House Divided)), and maintained an office as president-elect. His body lay in state there (May 3 and 4, 1865), and there is a collection of Lincolniana in the historical library. Lincoln-Herndon Law Offices State Historic Site preserves the building where Lincoln practiced law from 1843 to about 1852. Lincoln's unpretentious house at Eighth and Jackson streets has been restored. This home, along with the four-block area surrounding it, was designated a national historic site in 1972. In Oak Ridge Cemetery, in the northwestern part of the city, is the Lincoln Tomb (another state historic site), which holds the bodies of Lincoln, his wife, Mary (Lincoln, Mary Todd), and their sons Edward, William, and Tad. The memorial is 117 feet (36 metres) tall and is surmounted by a granite shaft. The First Presbyterian Church contains the Lincoln family pew. Lincoln left for Washington, D.C., in 1861 from the Great Western (now Lincoln) Depot, which has been restored. The city is also the home of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum (opened 2004–05).

      The Illinois State Capitol (1868–88) is 361 feet (110 metres) high at the top of its dome. The Illinois State Museum (opened 1877) is nearby. The Centennial Building (1918–23; now the Michael J. Howlett Building) commemorates the 100th anniversary of Illinois statehood. The Illinois Executive Mansion has been home to the state's governors since 1855.

      Springfield's economy grew in the mid-19th century with the arrival of the railroad. An agricultural centre, Springfield became known for coal mining at the turn of the 20th century. The city is a wholesale and retail centre for a rich farming area producing corn (maize), soybeans, and livestock. It is the site of the Illinois State Fair, held annually since 1853. Principal manufactures include agricultural equipment, electric meters and electronic equipment, chemicals, and building materials. Tourism is an economic asset. Springfield is the national headquarters of several insurance companies. It is the seat of Springfield College in Illinois (1929), Lincoln Land Community College (1967), and a campus of the University of Illinois (Illinois, University of) (1969; formerly Sangamon State University).

      Dana-Thomas House State Historic Site preserves a house (1902–04) designed by Frank Lloyd Wright (Wright, Frank Lloyd). The Lincoln Memorial Garden and Nature Center is near Lake Springfield (a reservoir completed in 1935) at the southeastern edge of the city. The home of the poet Vachel Lindsay (Lindsay, Vachel), a Springfield native, is maintained as a museum. The Daughters of Union Veterans of the Civil War have their headquarters and a memorial museum in Springfield. Other notable museums in the area include the Museum of Funeral Customs, the Illinois Fire Museum, the Illinois State Military Museum, and the Under the Prairie Frontier Archaeological Museum (located just north of the city). Camp Butler National Cemetery, formerly the site of a Civil War prison camp, is immediately east. Lincoln's New Salem State Historic Site is about 20 miles (30 km) northwest. Clayville Stagecoach Stop, a restored wayside inn (built in 1824 and named for Henry Clay (Clay, Henry), the statesman and orator), is 14 miles (23 km) northwest. Sangchris Lake State Park is southeast of the city. Inc. town, 1832; city, 1840. Pop. (1990) city, 105,227; Springfield MSA, 189,550; (2000) city, 111,454; Springfield MSA, 201,437.

 city, seat (1812) of Hampden county, southwestern Massachusetts, U.S., on the Connecticut River. It forms a contiguous urban area with Agawam and West Springfield (west), Chicopee and Holyoke (north), Ludlow (northeast), Wilbraham and Hampden (east), and East Longmeadow (south). William Pynchon, one of the original patentees of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, founded a settlement (now Agawam) on the river's west bank in 1635. The colonists' livestock did so much damage to the Native Americans' cornfields, however, that the community moved to the present east-bank site in 1636. It was incorporated as a town in 1636 and named for Pynchon's birthplace in England. Pynchon's autocratic rule ended in 1652, when he returned to England after being condemned by the Massachusetts General Court for a book attacking the Calvinist doctrine of atonement. The town was nearly destroyed by Native Americans in 1675, during King Philip's War.

      Springfield's transformation from a farming to a manufacturing community was hastened by the building of an arsenal in 1777, which supplied arms during the American Revolution and was a target of attack during Shays's Rebellion in 1786. During the American Civil War the Armory (built 1794 and now a national historic site) produced the well-known Springfield muskets; it became a principal manufactory of small arms and later developed the Springfield (Springfield rifle) and Garand rifles. The Organ of Muskets (so called for the resemblance of rifles on the double racks to organ pipes), made famous by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem “The Arsenal at Springfield,” is displayed in the museum of the Armory. The Armory was closed in the 1960s.

      Possessing abundant waterpower and connected by railroad to Boston in 1835, Springfield soon became an industrial town, producing (in addition to arms) paper, railroad coaches, locomotives, and ice skates. The main sources of income are now health care, insurance, and other services. Manufactures include electrical equipment, chemicals, plastics, and printed matter. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated (formerly G. & C. Merriam Co.), publisher of Merriam-Webster dictionaries (Merriam-Webster dictionary) since 1847, has its headquarters there. Springfield College was founded in 1885; other colleges are the American International College (1885), the Western New England College (1919), and the Springfield Technical Community College (1964). The city's Basketball Hall of Fame commemorates James Naismith (Naismith, James A.), who invented the game of basketball in Springfield in 1891. Eastern States Exposition Park in West Springfield is the site of one of the largest annual (September) industrial-agricultural fairs in the eastern United States; Storrowtown (a reconstructed old New England village) and two theatres are within the park. The Dr. Seuss National Memorial (2002) commemorates the renowned children's writer Theodor Seuss Geisel (Geisel, Theodor Seuss), who was born in Springfield. Inc. city, 1852. Pop. (1990) city, 156,983; Springfield MSA, 587,884; (2000) city, 152,082; Springfield MSA, 591,932.

      city, seat (1833) of Greene county, southwestern Missouri, U.S., near the James River, at the northern edge of the Ozark Highlands, north of the Table Rock Lake area. Settled in 1829, its growth was slow until the period of heavy westward migration, when pioneers were attracted by its location on important land routes. During the American Civil War the city was held for a few months by Confederate forces after the Battle of Wilson's Creek (Aug. 10, 1861; fought 10 miles [16 km] southwest) until they were expelled by Union troops in February 1862. James Butler (“Wild Bill”) Hickok (Hickok, Wild Bill) lived in Springfield and was a Union scout; he was acquitted there of the murder of gunman Dave Tutt. An extension of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad (1870) resulted in the development of a rival community, North Springfield, which merged with Springfield in 1887.

      The city's agriculture-based economy (dairy products, poultry, stockyards) is augmented by light manufacturing (steel products, paper containers, cleaning products, circuit boards, automotive glass and equipment, food processing), tourism, and educational institutions. The latter include Drury University (1873), Missouri State University (1905), Evangel University (1955), Central Bible College (1922), and Baptist Bible College (1950). The national headquarters of the Assemblies of God Church is in the city. Inc. 1838. Pop. (2000) city, 151,580; Springfield MSA, 368,374; (2005 est.) city, 150,298; (2004 est.) Springfield MSA, 390,986.

      city, seat (1818) of Clark county, west-central Ohio, U.S., on Buck Creek and Mad River, 25 miles (40 km) northeast of Dayton. The original settlement by James Demint and migrant Kentuckians in 1799 was on the site of the village of Old Piqua (birthplace of Tecumseh, the Shawnee chief). It was laid out in 1801 and probably named by the wife of Simon Kenton, an Indian scout who had settled there, for the springs in nearby cliffs. The arrival of the National (Cumberland) Road sustained its growth. The manufacture of farm machinery (for many years a leading industry) began there in 1855 when William Whiteley invented a successful reaper and mower. In the 1880s the journal Farm and Fireside was published in Springfield as a house organ by P.P. Mast; this formed the basis of the Crowell-Collier publishing ventures. One of the earliest programs of the 4-H Club movement of “learning by doing” for young people was started (1902) there by A.B. Graham. George Harrison Shull (born nearby in 1874) conducted his early hybrid corn (maize) experiments in Springfield, which is now the trading centre for a fertile agricultural area. Manufactures are well-diversified and include buses and heavy trucks, hoisting machinery, pumps and hydraulic equipment, metal enclosures, mops and brushes, funeral supplies, tools, and a variety of metal products. The city is the seat of Wittenberg University (Evangelical Lutheran Church in America; 1845) and Clark State Community College (1962). Inc. village, 1827; city, 1850. Pop. (2000) city, 65,358; Springfield MSA, 144,742; (2005 est.) city, 63,302; Springfield MSA, 142,376.

      city, Lane county, western Oregon, U.S., on the Willamette River at its confluence with the McKenzie River, adjacent to Eugene. Once the territory of Kalapuya Indians, the area was settled in 1848 by Elias and Mary Briggs and named for the spring near their home site. It is an industrial and lumbering centre producing plywood, ethyl alcohol, plastics, electronic components, corrugated cardboard, and fibreboard. Diversified agriculture includes dairy and poultry farming. The Springfield Filbert Festival, which celebrates the hazelnut and its role in the city's economy, is held annually, as is Ukrainian Day. In the strategic Willamette River basin, Springfield is at the head of a series of flood-control dams. The resulting reservoirs and lakes and nearby Willamette National Forest provide recreational facilities. Inc. 1885. Pop. (1990) 44,683; (2000) 52,864.

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Universalium. 2010.

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