/sowth amp"teuhn, -hamp"-/, n.
1. Henry Wriothesley /ruy"euhths lee/, 3rd Earl of, 1573-1624, English nobleman, soldier, and patron of writers, including William Shakespeare.
2. a former administrative county in S England: a part of Hampshire.
3. a town on SE Long Island, in SE New York: resort town. 4000.
4. a seaport in Hampshire county in S England. 215,400.

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City and unitary authority (pop., 2001: 217,478), historic county of Hampshire, England.

First settled by Romans, it was chartered (с 1155) by King Henry II and incorporated in 1445. In the Middle Ages its location on the English Channel helped it to become a major British port. Southampton declined in the 17th–18th centuries but revived in the 19th with the arrival of railways. It is England's second largest port. Historic buildings include the 11th-century St. Michael's Church and the 12th-century King John's Palace, one of Britain's oldest domestic buildings.
(as used in expressions)
Southampton Thomas Wriothesley 1st earl of
Southampton Henry Wriothesley 3rd earl of

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      village and town (township), Suffolk county, southeastern New York, U.S., lying along the south shore of eastern Long Island. Settlers from Lynn, Massachusetts, landed at Conscience Point in 1640, founding the first English community in New York. The original Shinnecock (Montauk) Indian land deed (December 13, 1640) is preserved. Many colonial buildings in Southampton town have been restored, including the Halsey Homestead (1648; the state's oldest English saltbox house) and the Old Water Mill (1644). Within the town is the Shinnecock Indian Reservation (1703) and Sag Harbor, once a whaling port. The Southampton campus of Long Island University was founded in 1963. The Parrish Art Museum is in Southampton village. Area town, 139 square miles (360 square km). Pop. (1990) village, 3,980; town, 44,976; (2000) village, 3,965; town, 54,712.

▪ city and unitary authority, England, United Kingdom
      city and English Channel port, a unitary authority in the historic county of Hampshire, England. It lies near the head of Southampton Water, on a peninsula between the estuaries of the Rivers Test and Itchen.

      In 43 CE there was a Roman settlement, Clausentum, on the east bank of the Itchen, and inscribed stones, coins, pottery, and other artifacts have been found. Southampton (Hamtun, Suhampton) superseded the Saxon Hamtun and was a royal borough before 1086. The earliest town charter was given by King Henry II, probably in 1154–55, but the borough was not incorporated until 1445. Henry VI, in 1447, created Southampton a county in itself. A charter that remained in force until 1835 was granted by Charles I in 1640.

      In the European Middle Ages Southampton became one of England's major ports, exporting wool and hides from the hinterland and importing wine from Bordeaux. For the Norman and Plantagenet (Plantagenet, house of) kings, it was the chief link with their domains across the Channel in France. Remnants of the city's medieval prosperity include St. Michael's Church (11th century and later); King John's Palace (12th century), one of England's oldest domestic buildings; and parts of the city walls, built of Caen limestone from Normandy and featuring the guildhall over the archway of Bargate, the north gate.

      The port and city declined in the 17th and 18th centuries but revived in the 19th with the introduction of railways, especially the London-Southampton railway of 1840. New dock development took advantage of the spacious harbour and the prolonged high-water period, which results from a double tide caused by the presence of the Isle of Wight (Wight, Isle of) off the coast. A major oil-tanker terminal and refinery were established on the western shore in 1951 and began to use North Sea oil in 1978. By 1980 Southampton had become Britain's second largest port. The city centre was rebuilt after it incurred extensive damage during World War II. New manufactures (aircraft, automobiles, cables, electrical-engineering products, and petrochemicals) have joined the port's traditional industries of shipbuilding and repairing, grain milling, and tobacco processing. Construction of major new centre-city commercial and industrial development took place in the late 20th century. The university (1862) is in the northern suburbs. Area, city and unitary authority, 19 square miles (49 square km). Pop. (2005 est.) city and unitary authority, 222,000; (2001) Southampton Urban Area, 304,400.

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Universalium. 2010.

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