sky diver.
/skuy"duy'ving/, n.
the sport of jumping from an airplane at a moderate or high altitude and free-falling and using one's body to control direction or movements before opening one's parachute.
Also, sky diving.
[1955-60; SKY + DIVE + -ING1]

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Sport of jumping from an airplane at a moderate altitude (e.g., 6,000 ft [1,800 m]) and executing various body maneuvers before pulling the rip cord of a parachute.

Competitive events include jumping for style, landing with accuracy, and performing in teams (e.g., making free-fall formations). The sport parachute is designed to be more maneuverable than the safety parachute.

Seven-man freefall hookup.

Guy Sauvage
Agence Vandystadt/Photo Researchers

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also called  parachuting 
 use of a parachute—for either recreational or competitive purposes—to slow a diver's descent to the ground after jumping from an airplane or other high place. The sport traces its beginnings to the descents made from a hot-air balloon by the French aeronaut André-Jacques Garnerin (Garnerin, André-Jacques) in 1797, but modern skydiving is usually performed from a propeller-driven airplane. At events such as the annual World Free Fall Convention in Quincy, Illinois, however, parachutists are afforded the opportunity to jump from such diverse craft as hot-air balloons, helicopters, and a Boeing 727.

Skydiving aerodynamics
      Typical jump altitudes in modern times for experienced skydivers range from 7,500 to 15,000 feet (2,300 to 4,600 metres) above ground level, yielding a freefall time of between 40 and 85 seconds. The length of the freefall (the time between exiting the aircraft and deploying the parachute) is dependent upon such factors as exit altitude, opening altitude, and fall rate. The fall rate is determined by the jumpsuit the skydiver wears and the way in which the suit conforms to the body during the freefall (a looser suit offers more resistance to the air and slows the fall) and by the diver's body configuration relative to the ground. Freefall speeds for skydivers falling “belly to earth” (the standard arched position) range from 110 to 130 miles per hour (180 to 210 km per hour). Descent speeds in excess of 330 mph have been recoded for those skydivers in speed skydiving competitions (in which the diver falls headfirst with the body in a streamlined position), and those as slow as 40 mph have been noted for skydivers using extended-wing “birdman” suits. The altitude at which a parachutist opens the canopy varies, but 2,500 feet is usual. With most parachutes, the skydiver initiates deployment by throwing a pilot chute into the airstream (other parachutes have pilot chutes that are automatically released by pulling an attached cord). The pilot chute is a small chute opened by air resistance that acts to pull the main parachute out from the bag in which the parachutes are encased. The main parachute increases the skydiver's air resistance and slows the diver's fall to the ground to a speed of about 10 mph. Modern ram-air parachutes are made of seven to nine nylon cells that inflate and act as a wing, or glider; these canopies allow the parachutist to steer and sail gently to the ground.

      To maximize safety, sport skydivers wear two parachutes, one main and one reserve. This is prescribed by law in the U.S. Federal Aviation Regulations and in the aviation regulations of many other countries as well. Additionally, skydivers use a variety of altitude-sensing devices in order to know when to deploy their parachutes.

Competitive skydiving
 The first world parachuting championships were held in Yugoslavia in 1951, and later world championships followed under the auspices of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (Féderátion Aéronautique Internationale) (FAI). Since that time, the sport has grown worldwide, and competitive skydiving events now include: classical style, in which the diver completes a series of timed acrobatic maneuvers; accuracy trials, in which the diver has to land on (or as close as possible to) a 5-cm (1.97-inch) target for a number of jumps; relative work in freefall, wherein a number of divers build a prescribed series of formations (see photograph—>); canopy relative work, in which divers build formations after their chutes have opened; and freestyle, which involves a mixture of free-form acrobatic and gymnastic maneuvers by the diver combined with relative work involving a videographer (another skydiver who jumps with a video camera to document the activity). Recently, competitive events such as skysurfing (the use of a small snowboardlike device to act as a maneuvering platform for freestyle acrobatics during freefall) and blade running (maneuvering a high-performance parachute through a pyloned course of wind flags—known as airblades—mounted about 15 feet above the ground on thin poles) have been added.

Learning to skydive
      There are several training programs in skydiving. In the original military training, known as a static-line program, a skydiver exits the aircraft and wears a chute that is deployed by a tether line. With the United States Parachute Association's Accelerated Freefall program, two “jumpmasters” dive with the student—at altitudes usually 10,000 feet or more above ground level—and assist the student in remaining stable while performing a series of tasks designed to train the student to maintain stability in freefall and appropriately deploy the parachute. Finally, in the Tandem training program, a dual parachute harness capable of carrying two skydivers (the student in front of the instructor) is used to introduce students to the sport of skydiving under the direct control of the experienced, specially rated Tandem Instructor.

Other parachute sports
 There are other forms of sport parachuting that do not utilize aircraft as a launching platform. One such sport is paragliding, in which a pilot seated in a harness connected to a parachute canopy launches from a high place and glides, using air currents. In parasailing (paragliding), a parachute is linked by a long line to a boat or land vehicle, and the forward motion of the vehicle tows the parachute and its wearer skyward. Finally, in BASE (an acronym for building, antenna, span, earth) jumping, the parachutist leaps from a very high point, such as a building, bridge, or cliff, rather than an airplane. It should be noted, however, that—owing to the relatively low altitudes from which the jump takes place—BASE jumping has a much higher risk level than other sport uses of a parachute; because of this and the possibility of injuring bystanders below, BASE jumping is usually illegal.

Michael L.H. Turoff

Additional Reading
For information on diverse types of skydiving, a text for both beginners and the more advanced parachutist is Dan Poynter and Mike Turoff, Parachuting: The Skydiver's Handbook (2000). For information specific to a location, numerous national organizations publish guidelines and recommendations concerning training on and performance of skydiving in their countries. In the United States this national organization is the United States Parachute Association.

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Universalium. 2010.

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