/shrap"nl/, n.
1. Mil.
a. a hollow projectile containing bullets or the like and a bursting charge, designed to explode before reaching the target, and to set free a shower of missiles.
b. such projectiles collectively.
2. shell fragments.
[1800-10; named after Henry Shrapnel (1761-1842), English army officer, its inventor]

* * *

Originally, a type of projectile invented by the British artillery officer Henry Shrapnel (1761–1842), containing small spherical bullets and an explosive charge to scatter the shot and fragments of the shell casing.

A time fuse set off the explosive charge late in the shell's flight, when it was near opposing troops. The resulting hail of high-velocity debris was often lethal; it caused most of the artillery-inflicted wounds in World War I. In World War II a high-explosive bursting charge that fragmented the shell's iron casing made shrapnel balls unnecessary; the term shrapnel came to be used for the shell-casing fragments.

* * *

      originally a type of antipersonnel projectile named for its inventor, Henry Shrapnel (Shrapnel, Henry) (1761–1842), an English artillery officer. Shrapnel projectiles contained small shot or spherical bullets, usually of lead, along with an explosive charge to scatter the shot as well as fragments of the shell casing. A time fuze set off the explosive charge in the latter part of the shell's flight, while it was near opposing troops. The resulting hail of high-velocity debris was often lethal; shrapnel caused the majority of artillery-inflicted wounds in World War I.

      During World War II it was found that a high-explosive bursting charge fragmented the shell's iron casing so effectively that the use of shrapnel balls was unnecessary, and it thus was discontinued. The term shrapnel continued to be used to designate the shell-casing fragments. Before explosive projectiles were used, the purposes of shrapnel were served by charging a cannon with small iron balls, called grapeshot (q.v.), or with lengths of chain.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Shrapnel — is the term originally applied to an anti personnel artillery shell which carried a large number of individual bullets to the target and then ejected them forwards, relying almost entirely on the shell s velocity for their lethality. Today the… …   Wikipedia

  • shrapnel — ou shrapnell [ ʃrapnɛl ] n. m. • 1827; mot angl., du nom de l inventeur ♦ Obus rempli de balles, qu il projette en éclatant. ● shrapnell ou shrapnel nom masculin (de H. Shrapnel, nom propre) Obus rempli de balles. ● shrapnell ou shrapnel… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Shrapnel — Shrap nel, a. Applied as an appellation to a kind of shell invented by Gen. H. Shrapnel of the British army. n. A shrapnel shell; shrapnel shells, collectively. [1913 Webster] {Shrapnel shell} (Gunnery), a projectile for a cannon, consisting of a …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • shrapnel — ► NOUN 1) small metal fragments thrown out by the explosion of a shell, bomb, etc. 2) shells designed to burst short of the target and shower it with shrapnel. ORIGIN named after the British soldier General Henry Shrapnel (1761 1842), inventor of …   English terms dictionary

  • Shrapnel — ist der Name folgender Personen: Henry Shrapnel (1761–1842), britischer Offizier und Erfinder John Shrapnel (* 1942), britischer Schauspieler Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit demselben Wo …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • shrapnel — (n.) 1806, from Gen. Henry Shrapnel (1761 1842), who invented a type of exploding, fragmenting shell when he was a lieutenant in the Royal Artillery during the Peninsular War. The invention consisted of a hollow cannon ball, filled with shot,… …   Etymology dictionary

  • shrapnel — /ˈʃrapnel, ingl. ˈʃræpnæl/ [vc. ingl., dal n. del generale H. Shrapnel, che la inventò] s. m. inv. granata, bomba …   Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione

  • shrapnel — [shrap′nəl] n. [after H. Shrapnel (1761 1842), Brit general who invented it] 1. an artillery shell filled with an explosive charge and many small metal balls, designed to explode in the air over the objective 2. the balls scattered by such an… …   English World dictionary

  • Shrapnel — (engl., spr. schräppnel), s. Schrapnells …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Shrapnel — (Shrapnell), ein Geschoß mit dünner Wandung, welches mit Kugeln und Sprengstücken gefüllt ist. S. Munition …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • Shrapnel — Shrapnel, s. Schrapnell …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”