—shoeless, adj./shooh/, n., pl. shoes, (esp. Brit. Dial.) shoon; v., shod or shoed, shod or shoed or shodden, shoeing.n.1. an external covering for the human foot, usually of leather and consisting of a more or less stiff or heavy sole and a lighter upper part ending a short distance above, at, or below the ankle.2. an object or part resembling a shoe in form, position, or use.3. a horseshoe or a similar plate for the hoof of some other animal.4. a ferrule or the like, as of iron, for protecting the end of a staff, pole, etc.5. See brake shoe.6. the outer casing of a pneumatic automobile tire.7. a drag or skid for a wheel of a vehicle.8. a part having a larger area than the end of an object on which it fits, serving to disperse or apply its weight or thrust.9. the sliding contact by which an electric car or locomotive takes its current from the third rail.10. Civ. Engin.a. a member supporting one end of a truss or girder in a bridge.b. a hard and sharp foot of a pile or caisson for piercing underlying soil.11. a small molding, as a quarter round, closing the angle between a baseboard and a floor.12. the outwardly curved portion at the base of a downspout.13. a piece of iron or stone, sunk into the ground, against which the leaves of a gateway are shut.14. a device on a camera that permits an accessory, as a flashgun, to be attached.15. a band of iron on the bottom of the runner of a sleigh.16. Cards. See dealing box.17. Furniture.a. a cuplike metal piece for protecting the bottom of a leg.b. a fillet beneath an ornamental foot, as a pad or scroll foot.18. Print. a box into which unusable type is thrown.19. a chute conveying grain to be ground into flour.20. Carpentry. soleplate.21. Naut. a thickness of planking covering the bottom of the keel of a wooden vessel to protect it against rubbing.22. drop the other shoe, to complete an action or enterprise already begun.23. fill someone's shoes, to take the place and assume the obligations of another person: She felt that no stepmother could ever hope to fill her late mother's shoes.24. in someone's shoes, in a position or situation similar to that of another: I wouldn't like to be in his shoes.25. the shoe is on the other foot, the circumstances are reversed; a change of places has occurred: Now that we are rich and they are poor the shoe is on the other foot.26. where the shoe pinches, the true cause of the trouble or worry.v.t.27. to provide or fit with a shoe or shoes.28. to protect or arm at the point, edge, or face with a ferrule, metal plate, or the like.[bef. 900; (n.) ME scho(o), OE sceo(h), c. G Schuh, ON skor, Goth skohs; (v.) ME schon, OE scog(e)an, c. MLG schoi(g)en, ON skua]
* * *Outer covering for the foot, usually of leather, with a stiff or thick sole and heel, and generally reaching no higher than the ankle (unlike a boot).Early examples from Mesopotamia were moccasinlike wraparounds of leather; not until the Hellenistic Age did shoes become luxurious. The Romans developed shoes fitted for the left and right feet, and differentiated according to sex and rank. In the 14th–15th century, shoes became extremely long and pointed, the points attaining a length of 18 in. (45 cm) or more. In the 16th century, the toes became extremely broad, like a duck's bill. In the 17th century, shoes had moderately high heels and were often decorated with large rosettes of lace and ribbons, which gave way to gold or silver buckles in the 18th century. The first shoe factory opened in 1760, in Massachusetts, but not until the development of modern machinery in the 19th century were shoes made quickly and inexpensively.
* * *▪ footwearIntroductionouter covering for the foot, usually of leather with a stiff or thick sole and heel, and generally (distinguishing it from a boot) reaching no higher than the ankle.HistoryClimatic evidence suggests that people were probably protecting their feet from frigid conditions by about 50,000 years ago. Changes in foot shape and strength indicate that people were using footwear with substantial soles by about 30,000 years ago. However, the earliest examples of actual footwear, a pair of sandals found in California (U.S.), date to only about 9,000 years ago.During the Kassite period (c. 1600–1200 BC) in Mesopotamia, soft shoes were introduced by mountain people on the border of Iran who ruled Babylonia during that time. This first type of shoe was a simple wraparound of leather, with the basic construction of a moccasin, held together on the foot with rawhide lacings. Greek women often went barefoot or wore sandals, but indoors they sometimes wore soft, closed shoes, which became luxurious in the Hellenistic period, with white or red the preferred colours. Until the 5th century BC, when Greek influence became dominant, the Etruscans wore a high, laced shoe with a turned-up toe. The Romans, who established shoe guilds, developed shaped shoes fitted for the left or right foot. Their footwear was differentiated according to sex and rank.Throughout the Middle Ages, shoes were generally simple; at the beginning, moccasin types made of untanned leather were worn, later becoming buckled or tied around the ankle. It was probably in 1305, when Edward I decreed that 1 inch (2.5 cm) should be the measure of three dried barleycorns, that English shoe sizing began; thus, a child's shoe that measured 13 barleycorns became size 13. In the 14th and 15th centuries, shoes became extremely long and pointed. King Edward III enacted a law that the spikes, or points, of shoes should not exceed the length of 2 inches (5 cm), but during the succeeding reign of Richard II (1377–99) shoes (called crakows (crakow)) attained points of 18 inches (45 cm) or more. At the end of the 15th century, pointed toes gave way to rounded. During the 16th century, men's shoes had extremely broad toes, shaped like a duck's bill. Variety in design increased, with shoes having either leather or cork soles and uppers made of velvet, silk, or leather; it was also the fashion, as in clothes, to slash the shoes in order to reveal a lining of a different colour. Women's shoes were similar to men's but were less conspicuous because they were covered by voluminous gowns.In 17th-century Europe, boots were generally worn. Shoes had moderately high heels and were often decorated with large rosettes made of lace and ribbons. In America, men and women wore stout leather shoes with a moderate heel. In the 18th century, shoes were decorated with gold and silver buckles and real or imitation gemstones. In America, women's dress shoes copied those in France and England and were made of brocade and had a French heel and usually a buckle; to protect the shoe, an overshoe, called a patten, often of the same material, was worn.By 1760 the first shoe factory had appeared, in Massachusetts, and shoes began to be produced in quantity. It was not until the 19th century, however, and the development of modern machinery such as the sewing machine, that shoes could be made quickly and inexpensively. In the 20th century, shoes are made in innumerable styles, with various designs and colours.MaterialsSince time immemorial, shoes have been made of leather. The luxury leather used in the finest men's and women's shoes is calf. The most versatile leather, used for many kinds of shoes, is side leather, made from cattle hide and called side because the large hide is cut down the middle lengthwise into two sides for handling.Kid leather, made from goatskin, is used for women's dress shoes and men's slippers. Sheepskin is used in linings and slippers. Reptile leathers (alligator, lizard, and snake) are used in women's and some men's shoes. Cordovan (a small muscle layer obtained from horsehide) is a heavy leather used in men's shoes. Patent leather, usually made from cattle hide, is given a hard, glossy surface finish. Suede is made from any of several leathers (calf, kid, or cattle hide) by buffing the inner surface to produce a napped finish.Though still dominant, leather is being replaced in shoes by rubber and man-made fibres and compositions, particularly for heels and other shoe components. Linings and uppers may be natural or coated fabrics. Welting, heels, and counters (heel stiffeners) may be plastic. Most inner and outer soles are now nonleather. A fabric base coated with a chemical surface finish can be made in a variety of textures and designs, many simulating the grain of leather. Synthetic patent and synthetic suede are also used in shoes. Such modern materials cost less and meet performance standards. Certain fabrics, including linen, satin, and silk, are also used in footwear.
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