/shang"huy, shang huy"/, v.t., shanghaied, shanghaiing. Naut.
to enroll or obtain (a sailor) for the crew of a ship by unscrupulous means, as by force or the use of liquor or drugs.
[1855-60; after SHANGHAI]

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or Shang-hai

Municipality with provincial status (pop., 1999 est.: city, 8,937,175; 2000 est.: municipality, 16,740,000), east-central China.

The municipality, on the East China Sea, is bordered by Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces and has an area of 2,400 sq mi (6,200 sq km). The city is located on the Huangpu River, which gives oceangoing vessels access to it. Shanghai was settled c. AD 1000, and later under the Ming dynasty it was an area of intense cotton production. This changed when it became the first Chinese port opened to trade with the West after China's defeat by Britain in the Opium Wars (1842); it came to dominate the nation's commerce. The site of the Chinese Communist Party's founding in 1921, it saw severe fighting in the Sino-Japanese War of 1937–45 and was occupied by Japan during World War II. Since the communist victory in 1949, it has become China's chief industrial and commercial centre and one of its leading centres of higher education and scientific research.

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also spelled  Shang-hai  
 city and province-level shi (municipality), east-central China. It is one of the world's largest seaports and a major industrial and commercial centre of China. The city is located on the coast of the East China Sea between the mouth of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) to the north and the bay of Hangzhou to the south. The municipality's area includes the city itself, surrounding suburbs, and an agricultural hinterland; it is China's most populous urban area.

      Shanghai was one of the first Chinese ports to be opened to Western trade, and it long dominated the nation's commerce. Since the communist victory in 1949, however, it has become an industrial giant whose products supply China's growing domestic demands. The city has also undergone extensive physical changes with the establishment of industrial suburbs and housing complexes, the improvement of public works, and the provision of parks and other recreational facilities. Shanghai has attempted to eradicate the economic and psychological legacies of its exploited past through physical and social transformation to support its major role in the modernization of China. Area Shanghai municipality, 2,400 square miles (6,200 square km). Pop (2002 est.) city, 10,030,800; (2007 est.) urban agglom., 14,987,000; (2005 est.) Shanghai municipality, 17,420,000.

Physical and human geography

The landscape
      Shanghai municipality is bordered by Jiangsu province to the north and west and Zhejiang province to the southwest. It includes the 18 districts constituting the city of Shanghai and several islands in the mouth of the Yangtze and offshore to the southeast in the East China Sea. The largest island, Chongming (Chongming Island), has an area of 489 square miles (1,267 square km) and extends more than 50 miles (80 km) upstream from the mouth of the Yangtze; it and the islands of Changxing and Hengsha administratively comprise a county under Shanghai municipality.

      The mainland portion of the city lies on an almost level deltaic plain with an average elevation of 10 to 16 feet (3 to 5 metres) above sea level. It is crisscrossed by an intricate network of canals and waterways that connect the municipality with the Lake Tai region to the west.

      The city's maritime location fosters a mild climate characterized by minimal seasonal contrast. The average annual temperature is about 61 °F (16 °C); the July maximum averages about 80 °F (27 °C), and the average January minimum is about 37 °F (3 °C). About 45 inches (1,140 mm) of precipitation fall annually, with the heaviest rainfall in June and the lightest in December.

 As China's main industrial centre, Shanghai has serious air, water, and noise pollution. Industrial relocation and construction in the suburbs since the 1950s initially helped alleviate central city air pollution, although high population density and mixed industrial-residential land use continued to cause problems. The Suzhou River (the lower reach of Wusong River) and the Huangpu River (a tributary of the Yangtze), which flow through the city, are severely polluted from industrial discharges, domestic sewage, and ships' wastes; nonetheless, the Huangpu is Shanghai's main water source. Environmental protection and urban cleanliness are enhanced by industrial and solid waste resource-recovery operations run by a municipal corporation. More than 1,000 different materials are recycled, including plastic, chemical fibre and residues, machine components, oil and grease, rags, human hair, and animal bones.

      The municipality radiates toward the north, west, and south from the confluence of the Suzhou and Huangpu rivers. Surrounding the central core is a transitional zone on both banks of the Huangpu, which encompasses a partially rural area of about 160 square miles. The banks of the Suzhou River, an important inland waterway connection to the interior hinterland, are occupied by a westward arterial extension of the transitional zone. To the south, however, the transitional zone terminates abruptly a few miles south of the central Shanghai urban core, at the Huangpu. Pudong, directly east across the Huangpu from the central business district, was founded in 1870 as one of the earliest industrial areas; it was once notorious as the city's most extensive and appalling slum. The Lujiazui finance and trade zone as well as modern business complexes are now located there, and the Pudong New District was established in the area in 1993.

Downtown Shanghai
      For some time before the late 1980s, the physical perspective of downtown Shanghai was much the same as in the precommunist period. Because of the policy of developing integrated residential and industrial complexes in suburban areas, central city development and renewal had been given low priority. Many of the pre-World War II buildings, which housed foreign commercial concerns and diplomatic missions, still dominated the area.

      Extending southward and westward from the confluence of the Suzhou and Huangpu rivers, central Shanghai has a gridded street pattern and includes the area originally contained within the British concession. The area is bounded on the east along the Huangpu by Zhongshan Dong Lu (East Zhongshan Road); on the west by Xizang Zhong Lu; and on the south by Yan'an Dong Lu, which was built on the former Yangjingbang Canal that separated the British from the French concessions. Zhongshan Dong Lu has several hotels, the central administrative offices of Shanghai, and a residence for foreign seamen. On the main commercial artery, Nanjing Dong Lu, which runs westward from the eastern road, lies one of Shanghai's largest retail establishments—the Shanghai Number One Department Store—as well as restaurants, hotels, and the central communications building.

      The Hongkou district lies to the north and east of the Suzhou River. It was originally developed by American and Japanese concessionaires and in 1863 was combined with the British concession to the south to create the International Settlement. It is an important industrial area, with shipyards and factories spread out along the bank of the Huangpu in the eastern section of the district. Its best-known building, the Shanghai Dasha (Shanghai Mansions Hotel), overlooks the Huangpu.

      The old Chinese city, which is now part of central Shanghai, is characterized by a random and labyrinthine street pattern. Until the early 20th century the area was surrounded by a three-mile wall. It is now circumscribed by the two streets of Renmin Lu and Zhonghua Lu, which follow the course of the original wall; and it is bisected by the main north-south artery, Henan Nan Lu (South Henan Road).

      Western Shanghai is primarily residential in character and is the site of the Shanghai Exhibition Center. To the southwest, the district of Xuhui, formerly Xujiahui, became a centre of Christian missionary activity in China in the 17th century. During the late 1800s, Jesuit priests established a major library, a printing establishment, an orphanage, and a meteorological observatory in the area.

      Land use patterns in metropolitan Shanghai mirror pre-1949 real estate market conditions. Much of the high-value land given over to industrial plants, warehouses, and transport facilities lies close to the Huangpu and Suzhou rivers. South of the Suzhou, which is traversed by about 20 bridges within the city, residential areas extend south from the industrial strip to the Huangpu. North of the Suzhou, residential areas are less clearly demarcated, and there is a more gradual merging of city and country in the transitional zone. Continuous urban settlement is bounded on the north by the two major east-west arteries of Zhongshan Bei Lu and Siping Lu.

      Retail trade is concentrated in the old central business district, although the proportional volume of trade conducted there has diminished with the establishment of the industrial satellite towns and villages on the periphery of Shanghai.

      Shanghai has made considerable progress since 1949 in providing housing for its growing population. Construction of self-sufficient residential complexes in conjunction with industrial, agricultural, and commercial development throughout metropolitan and suburban Shanghai has helped disperse population from the overcrowded central city and has led to dramatic changes in the urban and suburban landscape. A prolonged period of housing-complex construction has been under way since the 1980s to replace shanties, some of which still persist in some areas.

      The concept of state-supported housing was introduced in 1951 with the development of Caoyang Xin Cun (Caoyang New Village) in an existing industrial zone on Shanghai's western periphery. Following the construction of the Caoyang Xin Cun, many other residential complexes were built. Some of them were constructed with the partial support of government bureaus or state-owned industrial enterprises to satisfy the needs of their employees. Two of the earliest complexes in this category were the Railroad Village and the Post and Telegraph Village.

      Five major housing developments were built in the former slum area of Yangshupu. Other complexes are those at Pengpu, Zhenru, Yichuan, Rihui, and Jiangwan. Some of these are in relatively remote suburban locations in the transitional and hinterland zones near older rural marketing centres. The Pengpu workers' housing project is typical. Those who work in nearby factories live in a garden apartment complex that includes apartment buildings, administrative offices, workshops, clinics, and a nursery. The adjacent fields supply wheat, clover, beans, cabbage, melons, and rapeseed (for cooking oil) for consumption by the inhabitants of the complex.

The people
 The greater municipality can be divided into three distinct population zones—the densely populated central city, the transitional zones, and the rural hinterland, which is one of the world's most densely settled agricultural areas.

      Within metropolitan Shanghai there are few, if any, concentrations of ethnic minority groups. The majority of the population is of Han Chinese origin.

The economy
      For some time Shanghai has been the country's leading industrial and manufacturing centre because of a distinctive combination of factors. These include the availability of a large, highly skilled, and technologically innovative workforce; a well-grounded and broadly based scientific research establishment supportive of industry; a tradition of cooperation among producers; and excellent internal and external communication and supply facilities.

      The iron and steel industry there was one of the earliest to be established in China. In the 1950s the blast furnace capacity of the industry was enlarged, and attempts were made to integrate the operations of the iron and steel industry more closely with the machine-manufacturing industry. Iron and steel companies started to build new facilities north of the city in the Baoshan area in the late 1970s; one of these, the Baosteel Group Corporation, has been one of the world's largest enterprises since the beginning of the 21st century.

      Shanghai's machine and machine tool industry has been especially important in China's modernization plans. Among the varieties of industrial equipment produced are multiple-use lathes, wire-drawing dies, and manufacturing equipment for assembling computers and other electronic devices, precision instruments, and polymer synthetics.

      The chemical and petrochemical industries are almost fully integrated, and there is increasing cooperation among individual plants in the production and supply of chemical raw materials for plastics, synthetic fibres, dyes, paint, pharmaceuticals, agricultural pesticides, chemical fertilizers, synthetic detergents, and refined petroleum products. Heavy industry (especially metallurgical and chemical) predominated until the late 1970s. Light industry is now favoured in an effort to reduce pollution, alleviate transport congestion, and compensate for energy and raw material shortages associated with heavy industry.

      The textile industry has been reorganized to assure efficient utilization of the mills' productive capacity at all stages of the manufacturing process. The textile mills cooperate in their use of raw materials and have established cooperative relationships with plants that manufacture rubber shoes, tires, zippers, industrial abrasives, and conveyor belts.

      Shanghai is a primary source of a wide variety of consumer goods such as watches, cameras, radios, fountain pens, glassware, stationery products, leather goods, and hardware. Factories producing such goods have made a special effort to meet consumer demands and to produce durable and attractive products.

      The retail trade in manufactured consumer goods was managed by the First Commercial Bureau until the bureau was disbanded in 1995; trade is now more market-directed. A number of commercial corporations under the bureau were responsible for the wholesaling, distribution, and warehousing of specific commodity groups; these operations also have been reorganized into independent business groups. A separate corporation manages the larger retail stores, while the smaller retail establishments and some specialized wholesaling organizations are controlled by local commerce bureaus in the various districts of the city.

Finance and trade
      Shanghai's two major banks—the People's Construction Bank and the Bank of China—function as administrative organs of the Ministry of Finance. They are responsible for the disbursement and management of capital investment funds for state enterprises. Two British banks, the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the Chartered Bank, along with other foreign banks, maintain Shanghai branch offices that underwrite foreign trade transactions and exchange foreign currency in connection with trading operations. Remittances from Chinese living in Hong Kong and abroad (mainly in Southeast Asian countries) are managed and collected by several overseas Chinese banks. Since the 1980s many more banks, both domestic and foreign-owned, have established operations in Shanghai.

      Industrial products are exported from Shanghai to all parts of China. Imports are mainly unprocessed food grains, petroleum and coal, construction materials, and such industrial raw materials as pig iron, salt, raw cotton, tobacco, and oils. In domestic trade, Shanghai still imports more than it exports. In foreign trade, however, the value of exported commodities exceeds that of imported goods, and the proportion of manufactured exports is steadily increasing.

      Shanghai is one of China's major transport centres. The central city is both a seaport and a river port, with the Huangpu River serving as an excellent harbour; at high tide, oceangoing vessels can sail up the river to the city.

      In the early 1950s the harbour was divided into a number of specialized sections. Pudong, on the east bank of the Huangpu and in the Huangpu district, is used for the storage of bulk commodities and for transportation maintenance and repair facilities. Puxi, in the Nanshi district on the west bank, and Fuxing Island are the sites of general cargo wharves. Since then, oceangoing terminals along the Huangpu have been constructed at Zhanghuabang, Jungong Lu, Gongqing, Longwu, and Zhujiamen. More terminals constructed at the southern bank of the Yangtze, including those at Baoshan, Luojing, and Waigaoqiao, have greatly increased the handling capacity of the city's port. A deepwater port operation off the coast at Hangzhou Bay started in 2005.

      Heavily used inland waterway connections, via the Suzhou and Wusong rivers, and an extensive canal network are maintained with Suzhou, Wuxi, and Yangzhou in Jiangsu province and with Hangzhou in Zhejiang province.

      The railway network reflects the efforts that have been made since 1949 to reorient the city's industrial economy to balance export and domestic development needs. Shanghai is the terminus of two major rail lines south of the Yangtze—the Hu-Ning line, from Shanghai to Nanjing, and the Hu-Hang-Yong line, from Shanghai via Hangzhou to the port of Ningbo in Zhejiang province. A short spur line also runs from Shanghai to Wusong. Additional spur lines built since 1949 connect the industrial districts to the main trunk routes.

      Shanghai is served by two major airports. Hongqiao Airport, southwest of Shanghai, is now used mainly for domestic flights; Pudong International Airport, 19 miles (30 km) southeast of the city and on the bank of the Yangtze, has been in service since 1999 and has become one of China's busiest. Intraurban transport by electric trolleybus, trolley, and motorbus has been substantially improved since 1949.

Administrative and social conditions
      As a first-order, province-level administrative unit, Shanghai municipality is, in theory, directly controlled by the central government in Beijing. It is difficult, however, to gauge the precise nature of this relationship. Since the Cultural Revolution of the late 1960s, China's administrative apparatus at all levels of the hierarchy has been in a process of readjustment so as to bring governmental organization in line with political reality. In 1967, early in the Cultural Revolution, the Shanghai Municipal Revolutionary Committee was established as the top governing body in the municipality after a chaotic period in which a number of popular-based revolutionary organizations seized control of the city for brief periods. The committee at that time was composed of representatives of the army, the mass revolutionary organizations, and some former Communist Party officials. By the mid-1970s this was replaced by a municipal government made up of commissions, offices, and bureaus responsible to the Shanghai People's Congress, an elected body. These units serve both policy advisory and administrative functions and function as administrative links to both the national government in Beijing as well as the local governing bodies.

Public utilities
      Modern public works improvements include the installation and improvement of drainage and sewage-treatment facilities, public water supply systems, street lights, and public refuse bins. Roads have been widened and repaired, flood walls constructed in low-lying areas subject to tidal inundation, and housing built. The sea walls surrounding Shanghai have been strengthened and enlarged; two long sea walls extend east of the Huangpu for a total of more than 13 miles (21 km).

 Shanghai is one of China's major electric power-generating centres. Electricity is produced mainly by coal-fired thermal plants, and the Shanghai area is linked via a major transmission network with Nanjing to the northwest and with Hangzhou and Xin'anjiang (the site of a hydroelectric generating facility) in Zhejiang province to the southwest. A large gasworks is located at Longhua. Increased energy demands for industry and domestic use beginning in the early 1980s led to a decision by the national authorities to construct one of China's first two nuclear power plants at Qinshan, in nearby Zhejiang province.

      Shanghai's health care facilities range from thousands of small clinics associated with factories, schools, retail establishments, and government offices to numerous major research and teaching hospitals. Most hospitals have facilities for practicing and teaching both traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Medical schools had once concentrated on the training of “barefoot” doctors—practitioners with sufficient medical skills to supply basic care to people in rural areas—especially during the Cultural Revolution.

      Shanghai is China's leading centre of higher education and scientific research. There are numerous universities and other institutions of higher learning—including Fudan, Jiaotong, Tongji, and the Huadong Shifan Daxue—as well as technical and higher education institutes. At one time, many factories had affiliated work-study colleges to equip workers for more highly skilled jobs. Notable was the Shanghai Municipal Part-Work Part-Study Industrial University (1960), which was established through the cooperation of more than 1,000 industrial establishments. A large segment of the city's total workforce was once enrolled in one of these schools, but different, market-oriented types of higher-education institutions have become more typical since the late 1980s.

      The Shanghai Branch of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China's leading scientific research and development body, is located in Shanghai. During the Cultural Revolution, practical applications of scientific work in agriculture and industry were encouraged. Since the late 1970s, extensive research investments have been made in such high-technology areas as nuclear energy, computers, semiconductors, laser and infrared technology, and satellites.

Cultural life
      Shanghai's cultural attractions include museums, historical sites, and scenic gardens. The Shanghai Museum houses an extensive collection of bronzes, ceramics, and other artifacts dating over several thousand years. In 2000 the former Shanghai Revolutionary History Memorial Hall was combined with the former residence of revolutionary leader Chen Yun to create a new museum based on Chen's life. The Dashijie (“Great World”), founded in the 1920s, is Shanghai's leading theatrical centre and offers folk operas, dance performances, plays, story readings, and specialized entertainment forms typical of China's national minority groups. The city also has many workers' and children's recreational clubs and several large motion-picture theatres, including the Daguangming Theatre.

      The old Chinese city houses the 16th-century Yuyuan Garden (Garden of the Mandarin Yu), an outstanding example of late Ming garden architecture, and the Temple of Confucius. Other points of attraction are the Longhua Pagoda of the Bei (Northern) Song dynasty, the Industrial Exhibition Hall, and the tomb and former residence of Lu Xun, a 20th-century revolutionary writer.

      The major publishing houses of Shanghai are a branch of the People's Literature Publishing House (at Beijing), Shanghai Translation Publishing House, Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, and the Shanghai Educational Publishing House. In addition to the large branch of the library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai has numerous other libraries. Shanghai's art and music schools include a branch of the Central Conservatory (relocated to Beijing in 1958), the Shanghai Conservatory, and the Shanghai Theatre Academy. There are a variety of professional performing arts troupes, including ballet and opera companies, symphonies, and puppet troupes.

      Parks, open spaces, and playing fields were notably expanded after 1949. Two of the earliest to be opened for public use were the People's Park in central Shanghai and the Huangpu Park on the shore of the Huangpu River. Every section of the city has large parks and playing fields. Among the largest are the Hongkou Arboretum and Stadium in the north; the Peace Park (Heping Park) and playing field in the northeast; the Pudong Park in eastern Shanghai, the Longhua and Fuxing parks in the south, and the Zhongshan Park on the western periphery of the central city. The Shanghai Gymnasium, completed in 1975 and expanded in the late 1990s, is one of the largest of its kind in China.

Baruch Boxer Ed.


Evolution of the city
      As late as the 5th to 7th centuries CE the Shanghai area, then known as Shen or Hudu, was sparsely populated and undeveloped. Despite the steady southward progression of Chinese settlement, the exposed deltaic position of the area retarded its economic growth.

      During the Song dynasty (960–1126) Shanghai emerged from its somnolent state as a small, isolated fishing village. The area to the west around Lake Tai had developed a self-sustaining agricultural economy on protected reclaimed land and was stimulated by an increase in population resulting from the southward migration of Chinese fleeing the invading Mongols in the north. The natural advantages of Shanghai as a deepwater port and shipping centre were recognized as coastal and inland shipping expanded rapidly. By the beginning of the 11th century a customs office was established, and by the end of the 13th century Shanghai was designated as a county seat and placed under the jurisdiction of Jiangsu province.

      During the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) roughly 70 percent of the cultivated acreage around Shanghai was given to the production of cotton to feed the city's cotton- and silk-spinning industry. By the middle of the 18th century there were more than 20,000 persons employed as cotton spinners.

      After the 1850s the predominantly agricultural focus of the economy was quickly transformed. At this time the city became the major Chinese base for commercial imperialism by nations of the West. Following a humiliating defeat by Great Britain in 1842, the Chinese surrendered Shanghai and signed the Treaty of Nanjing, which opened the city to unrestricted foreign trade. The British, French, and Americans took possession of designated areas in the city within which they were granted special rights and privileges, and the Japanese received a concession in 1895 under the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki (Shimonoseki, Treaty of).

      The opening of Shanghai to foreign business immediately led to the establishment of major European banks and multipurpose commercial houses. The city's prospects as a leading centre of foreign trade were further enhanced when Canton, a rival port in the southeastern coastal province of Guangdong, was cut off from its hinterland by the Taiping Rebellion (1850–64). Impelled by this potential threat to the uninterrupted expansion of their commercial operations in China, the British obtained rights of navigation on the Yangtze (Yangtze River) in 1857. As the natural outlet for the vast hinterland of the lower Yangtze, Shanghai rapidly grew to become China's leading port and by 1860 accounted for about 25 percent of the total shipping tonnage entering and departing the country.

      Shanghai did not show promise of becoming a major industrial centre, however, until the 1890s. Except for the Jiangnan Arsenal organized by the Qing dynasty (1644–1911) in the early 1860s, most industrial enterprises were small-scale offshoots of the larger foreign trading houses. As the flow of foreign capital steadily increased after the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95, light industries were established within the foreign concessions, which took advantage of Shanghai's ample and cheap labour supply, local raw materials, and inexpensive power.

The contemporary city
      By contrast, local Chinese investment in Shanghai's industry was minimal until World War I diverted foreign capital from China. From 1914 through the early 1920s, Chinese investors were able to gain a tenuous foothold in the scramble to develop the industrial economy. This initial involvement was short-lived, however, as the post-World War I resurgence of Western and Japanese economic imperialism—followed closely by the Great Depression of the 1930s—overwhelmed many of the newly established Chinese industries. Competition became difficult, as cheaper foreign goods were dumped on the Shanghai market, and labour was attracted to relatively higher paying jobs in foreign-owned factories. Prior to the Sino-Japanese War of 1937–45 the Japanese had gained control over about half of the city's yarn-spinning and textile-weaving capacity.

      The 1920s was also a period of growing political awareness in Shanghai. Members of the working class, students, and intellectuals became increasingly politicized as foreign domination of the city's economic and political life became ever more oppressive. When the agreements signed by the United Kingdom, the United States, and Japan at the Washington Conference of 1922 failed to satisfy Chinese demands, boycotts of foreign goods were instituted. The Chinese Communist Party was founded in Shanghai in 1921, and four years later the Communist Party led the “May 30” uprising of students and workers. This massive political demonstration was directed against feudalism, capitalism, and official connivance in foreign imperialistic ventures. The student-worker coalition actively supported the Nationalist armies under Chiang Kai-shek, but the coalition and the Communist Party were violently suppressed by the Nationalists in 1927.

      Shanghai was occupied by the Japanese during the Sino-Japanese War of 1937–45, and the city's industrial plants suffered extensive war damage. In the brief interim before the fall of Shanghai to the People's Liberation Army (PLA) in 1949, the city's economy suffered even greater dislocation through the haphazard proliferation of small, inefficient shop industries, rampant inflation, and the absence of any overall plan for industrial reconstruction.

      After 1949 Shanghai's development was temporarily slowed because of the emphasis on internal regional development, especially during the period up to 1960 when close cooperation was maintained with the Soviet Union. With the cooling of relations after 1960, Shanghai resumed its key position as China's leading scientific and technological research centre, with the nation's most highly skilled labour force.

Baruch Boxer

Additional Reading
Rhoads Murphey, Shanghai: Key to Modern China (1953), is an authoritative study of Shanghai's pre-World War II political and economic organization. For the post-1949 period, Neale Hunter, Shanghai Journal (1969), recounts the author's experiences as an English teacher in the Shanghai Foreign Language Institute during the Cultural Revolution. Scholarly accounts of the organization and management of Shanghai's industry, trade, and financial institutions through the 1960s may be found in Audrey G. Donnithorne, China's Economic System (1967); and Barry M. Richman, Industrial Society in Communist China (1969). Economic and political developments are treated in Christopher Howe, “The Level and Structure of Employment and the Sources of Labor Supply in Shanghai, 1949–1957,” and Lynn T. White III, “Shanghai's Polity in Cultural Revolution,” in J.W. Lewis (ed.), The City in Communist China (1971). A carefully documented collection of papers on Shanghai's political life, economic development, cultural and ideological milieu, and spatial development is brought together by Christopher Howe (ed.), Shanghai: Revolution and Development in an Asian Metropolis (1981). Lynn T. White III, Careers in Shanghai: The Social Guidance of Personal Energies in a Developing Chinese City, 1949–1966 (1978), examines political and social influences on career choices in relation to national goals.Baruch Boxer

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Universalium. 2010.

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