- Seven Wonders of the World
the seven most remarkable structures of ancient times: the Egyptian pyramids, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the Templeof Artemis at Ephesus, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Colossus of Rhodes, the statue of Zeus by Phidias at Olympia, and the Pharos or lighthouse at Alexandria.
* * *Preeminent architectural and sculptural achievements of antiquity, as listed by various Greco-Roman observers.Included on the best known list were the Pyramids of Giza (the oldest of the wonders and the only one substantially in existence today), the Hanging Gardens of Babylon (a series of landscaped rooftop terraces on a ziggurat, ascribed to either Nebuchadnezzar II or the semilegendary Queen Sammu-ramat), the Statue of Zeus at Olympia (a large gold-and-ivory figure of the god on his throne by Phidias), the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus (a temple, built in 356 BC, famous for its imposing size and the works of art that adorned it), the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, the Colossus of Rhodes, and the Pharos of Alexandria (a lighthouse built с 280 BC on the island of Pharos off Alexandria, said to have been more than 350 ft, or 110 m, high). These wonders inspired the compilation of many other lists of seven attractions, or "wonders," by later generations.
* * *preeminent architectural and sculptural achievements of the ancient Mediterranean and Middle East, as listed by various observers. The best known are those of the 2nd-century-BC writer Antipater of Sidon and of a later but unknown observer of the 2nd century BC who claimed to be the mathematician Philon of Byzantium. Included on the list in its eventual form were the following:Pyramids of Giza (Giza, Pyramids of), the oldest of the wonders and the only one of the seven substantially in existence today.Hanging Gardens of Babylon, thought to be a series of landscaped terraces, exact location unknown, generally ascribed to Queen Sammu-ramat, King Nebuchadrezzar II, or the Assyrian king Sennacherib.Statue of Zeus (Zeus, Statue of) at Olympia, a large, ornate figure of the god on his throne, made about 430 BC by Phidias of Athens.Temple of Artemis (Artemis, Temple of) at Ephesus, a structure famous for its imposing size and for the works of art that adorned it.Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (Halicarnassus, Mausoleum of), monumental tomb of the Anatolian king Mausolus built by his widow Artemisia (Artemisia II).Colossus of Rhodes (Rhodes, Colossus of), a huge bronze statue built at the harbour of Rhodes in commemoration of the raising of the siege of Rhodes (305–304 BC).Pharos of Alexandria, the most famous lighthouse of the ancient world, built for Ptolemy II (Ptolemy II Philadelphus) of Egypt about 280 BC on the island of Pharos off Alexandria.Some early lists included the Walls of Babylon or the Palace of King Cyrus of Persia in place of one of the sites noted above.(See also Artemis, Temple of; Rhodes, Colossus of; Giza, Pyramids of; Hanging Gardens of Babylon; Halicarnassus, Mausoleum of; Pharos of Alexandria; Zeus, Statue of.)The seven wonders of Greco-Roman antiquity inspired the compilation of many other lists of attractions, both natural and man-made, by successive generations. Among such lists, all of which are limited to seven “wonders,” are the (architectural) wonders of the Middle Ages, the natural wonders of the world, the natural wonders of the United States, the (architectural) wonders of the modern world, and the wonders of American engineering.
* * *