/sach'euh ray"sheuhn/, n.1. the act or process of saturating.2. the state of being saturated.3. Meteorol. a condition in the atmosphere corresponding to 100 percent relative humidity.4. the degree of chroma or purity of a color; the degree of freedom from admixture with white.5. Magnetism. the state of maximum magnetization of a ferromagnetic material.[1545-55; < LL saturation- (s. of saturatio) a filling, equiv. to saturat(us) (see SATURATE) + -ion- -ION]
* * *Saturation also means the state of a solution or vapour (see vaporization) in which it has the highest possible concentration of the dissolved or vaporized material at a given pressure and temperature. Though it is sometimes possible to bring about supersaturation (a concentration exceeding the equilibrium value), such solutions or vapours are unstable and spontaneously revert to the saturated state, accompanied by the transformation of the excess material to the solid or liquid form (precipitation). See also fatty acid; hydrogenation.
* * *▪ chemistry and physicsany of several physical or chemical conditions defined by the existence of an equilibrium between pairs of opposing forces or of an exact balance of the rates of opposing processes. Common examples include the state of a solution left in contact with the pure undissolved solute until no further increase in the concentration of the solution occurs, and the state of a vapour similarly left in contact with the pure solid or liquid form of the substance. In the first example, the solution is saturated when the rate at which the pure substance dissolves in the solvent to enter the solution is exactly equal to the rate at which the dissolved substance leaves the solution (e.g., by crystallizing). In the second example, the rate at which the pure condensed (liquid or solid) material vaporizes is precisely that at which the vapour condenses.A saturated solution or vapour contains the largest concentration of the dissolved or vaporized material attainable under given conditions of pressure and temperature. Although it is possible, in certain circumstances, to bring about supersaturation (a state in which the concentration exceeds the equilibrium value), such solutions or vapours are unstable and spontaneously revert to the saturated state.
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