/seuh loh"mee/ for 1, 3; /sal"euh may'/ for 2, n.
1. Also, Salomé. the daughter of Herodias, who is said to have danced for Herod Antipas and so pleased him that he granted her mother's request for the head of John the Baptist. Matt. 14:6-11 (not mentioned by name here).
2. (italics) a one-act opera (1905) by Richard Strauss based on a drama by Oscar Wilde.
3. a female given name: from a Hebrew word meaning "peace."

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Stepdaughter of Herod Antipas, who caused the death of John the Baptist.

The event is recounted in the gospels of Matthew and Mark, though her name is given only by the historian Josephus. John had been imprisoned for denouncing Herod's adulterous marriage to Herodias, but Herod was afraid to kill him. When Salome, daughter of Herodias, danced before the king, he promised to give her anything she asked as a reward, and she requested John's head on a platter. The scene was a popular subject in Christian art.

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▪ stepdaughter of Herod Antipas

flourished 1st century AD

      according to the Jewish historian Josephus, the daughter of Herodias and stepdaughter of Herod Antipas, tetrarch (ruler appointed by Rome) of Galilee, a region in Palestine. In Biblical literature she is remembered as the immediate agent in the execution of John the Baptist (John the Baptist, Saint). Josephus states that she was twice married, first to the tetrarch Philip (a half brother of her father, Herod, and a son of Herod I the Great) and then to Aristobulus (son of Herod of Chalcis). She is not to be confused with Salome, sister of Herod I the Great.

      According to the Gospels of Mark (6:14–29) and Matthew (14:1–12), Herod Antipas had imprisoned John the Baptist for condemning his marriage to Herodias, the divorced wife of his half brother Herod Philip (the marriage violated Mosaic Law), but Herod was afraid to have the popular prophet killed. Nevertheless, when Salome danced before Herod and his guests at a festival, he promised to give her whatever she asked. Prompted by her mother, Herodias, who was infuriated by John's condemnation of her marriage, the girl demanded the head of John the Baptist on a platter, and the unwilling Herod was forced by his oath to have John beheaded. Salome took the platter with John's head and gave it to her mother.

      This story proved popular in Christian art from an early period and became especially popular during the Renaissance, exemplified by the work of the painter Masolino da Panicale. Salome has also been strikingly portrayed by the 19th-century artists Gustave Moreau and Aubrey Beardsley. Oscar Wilde's one-act play Salomé (published in 1893, first performed in 1896) was translated by Hedwig Lachmann as the libretto for Richard Strauss's one-act opera of the same name (first produced in 1905), in which Herod is portrayed as lusting after Salome, while Salome, in her turn, desires John the Baptist; she finally satisfies her corrupt wishes by kissing the lips of the severed head of John, who had spurned her. Hence, Salome has become an erotic symbol in art, and it is likely that it is her provocative “Dance of the Seven Veils” in the Strauss opera that most people connect with her name, although no such dance is mentioned in the Bible.

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Universalium. 2010.

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