/say"leuhm/, n.
1. a seaport in NE Massachusetts: founded 1626; execution of persons accused of being witches 1692; home of Nathaniel Hawthorne. 38,220.
2. a city in and the capital of Oregon, in the NW part, on the Willamette River. 89,233.
3. a town in SE New Hampshire. 24,124.
4. a town in SW Virginia, near Roanoke. 23,958.
5. a city in E Ohio. 12,869.
6. a city in central Tamil Nadu, in S India. 308,303.
7. an ancient city of Canaan, later identified with Jerusalem. Gen. 14:18; Psalms 76:2.

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City (pop., 2000: 136,924), capital of Oregon, U.S. It lies along the Willamette River, southwest of Portland.

Founded in 1840, the town prospered as migration increased over the Oregon Trail. It became the state capital in 1859. It was an early river port whose growth was stimulated by rail connections in the 1870s. It is a food-processing centre for a fruit-growing and dairy area and has wood and light manufacturing industries.

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      city, seat (1823) of Marion county, south-central Illinois, U.S. It lies about 70 miles (115 km) east of St. Louis (Saint Louis), Missouri. It was first settled about 1811, soon after the devastating earthquake along the New Madrid Fault, and quickly became a stop on the stagecoach route from St. Louis to Vincennes, Indiana; Halfway Tavern State Memorial, east of the city, marks the midpoint of the route. Salem was laid out in 1823 and made the county seat. Its economy was based largely on agriculture until the discovery of oil in the 1930s.

      Nearby oil fields and agriculture (corn [maize], soybeans, livestock, and wheat) contribute to the city's economy. Manufactures include automotive lighting, sporting goods, and abrasives. Printing is also important. The family home (1852) of William Jennings Bryan (Bryan, William Jennings), the lawyer and three-time candidate for the U.S. presidency, who was born in Salem, is maintained as a museum. Gutzon Borglum (Borglum, Gutzon)'s statue of Bryan that once stood in Washington, D.C., is across from Bryan Memorial Park. The city also claims to be the birthplace of the G.I. Bill of Rights, which provided benefits to returning soldiers after World War II. Stephen A. Forbes State Park is northeast. Inc. 1855. Pop. (1990) 7,470; (2000) 7,909.

      city, north-central Tamil Nadu (Tamil Nādu) state, southeastern India. It is on the Tirumanimuttar River near Attur Gap between the Kalrayan and Pachamalai hills. Situated at the junction of the Bangalore (Bengaluru), Tiruchchirappalli, and Cuddalore roads, 200 miles (332 km) southwest of Chennai (Madras), the city's name derives from sela nad (cera nad), a term denoting the visit of an early Cera king. Well known for cotton and silk hand-loom weaving, it has developed as a large-scale industrial centre, with electrical and chemical factories, tool workshops, and brass rolling mills. It has numerous colleges affiliated with the University of Madras.

      The area around Salem is composed of a series of hills—the Shevaroy, Kalrayan, Kollaimalai, and Pachaimalai hills—in the east and a section of the Kaveri (Cauvery) River (Kaveri River) valley in the west. It is primarily an agricultural area specializing in fruit, coffee, cotton, and peanuts (groundnuts). Minerals include iron ore, bauxite, and manganese deposits. The completion of the Mettur Dam on the Kaveri in 1937 facilitated the development of large-scale industry.

      Archaeological remains show that the region was occupied during the Neolithic Period. In historical times the land formed part of independent Kongu Nad but was later conquered by Chola, Vijayanagar, and Muslim rulers. It was ceded to the British in 1797. Pop. (2001) city, 696,760; urban agglom., 751,438.

      city, Essex county, northeastern Massachusetts, U.S. It lies on Salem Bay Harbor (an inlet of Massachusetts Bay), 16 miles (26 km) northeast of Boston. Salem was incorporated as a town in 1626 by Roger Conant, who emigrated from Cape Ann (Ann, Cape), 14 miles (22 km) northeast. The first Congregational Church (Congregationalism) in America was organized there in 1629, and Roger Williams (Williams, Roger), founder of Rhode Island colony, served as an early pastor. The town's name is probably the shortened form of the biblical Jerusalem (“City of Peace”). Salem's early history was clouded by religious intolerance that led to the witchcraft trials (Salem witch trials) of 1692. During the 18th and 19th centuries, it developed as one of New England's leading maritime and shipbuilding centres, and during the American Revolution (1775–83) and the War of 1812 its port served as a privateers' base. After the decline in foreign commerce, due mainly to the shallowness of its harbour, the community turned to the production of textiles, leather, and shoes. The economy is now based on health care, financial services, tourism, retail trade, and higher education; diversified light manufacturing is also important.

      Nathaniel Hawthorne (Hawthorne, Nathaniel) was born (1804) in Salem, the setting for several of his novels, notably The House of the Seven Gables, which immortalized the house built (1668) by Captain John Turner; Hawthorne's birthplace (about 1740), the Hathaway House (1682), and the Retire Beckett House (1655) are also preserved on its grounds. Hawthorne was employed (1846–49) as a port surveyor and worked in the Custom House (1819), which, together with the old wharves, is maintained within the Salem Maritime National Historic Site. Other outstanding buildings include the John Ward House (1684), the Witch House (1642; where Judge Jonathan Corwin lived during the witchcraft trials), the Pickering House (1651), and the Federal-style masterpieces designed by Samuel McIntire (McIntire, Samuel), the “architect of Salem,” notably the Pierce-Nichols (1783) and Gardner-Pingree (1804) houses. Collections of art and history are displayed at the Peabody Essex Museum. The campus of Salem State College (founded in 1854 as Salem Normal [teachers-training] School) includes an art gallery, an observatory, and The Chronicle of Salem, a 50-sequence mural. The city's Pioneer Village is a reconstruction of early Salem. Inc. city, 1836. Pop. (1990) 38,091; (2000) 40,407.

      city, seat (1851) of Dent county, southeast-central Missouri, U.S., situated in the Ozark Mountains between the Current and Meramec rivers. Established in 1845 on the site of an inn and trading post, it was named for Salem, N.C. The town was occupied by Union forces during the American Civil War, except briefly in 1864, when raiders burned the courthouse and jail. Union and Confederate troops skirmished in Salem on Dec. 3, 1861. The Dent County Courthouse (rebuilt 1871) is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

      The development of local iron mines in the 1870s and the arrival of the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway Company (Frisco) in 1872 contributed to the community's growth. The economy is based on the mining of lead, zinc, and copper; lumbering; the production of charcoal briquets; the raising of livestock; and the manufacture of oak barrels and clothing. Tourism is an additional source of income, based on Indian Trail Conservation Area (northeast), Montauk State Park (southwest), and sections of Mark Twain National Forest (south, east, and west). Inc. 1881. Pop. (2000) 4,854; (2005 est.) 4,789.

      town (township), Rockingham county, southeastern New Hampshire, U.S., just west of Haverhill, Massachusetts. The town includes the communities of Salem, Salem Depot, and North Salem. Originally a part of Haverhill, it was set off in 1725 and incorporated as Methuen. The final decision of the Massachusetts–New Hampshire boundary line (1741) divided the town; the New Hampshire portion was incorporated as Salem in 1750.

      The village of Salem Depot was important during the American Civil War for the shoe manufacturing developed there by Prescott C. Hall. Today the town's manufacturing industries produce computers, printed circuits, and packaging materials. Nearby are America's Stonehenge (an archaeological site of prehistoric stone structures), Canobie Lake Park (an amusement park), and Rockingham Park Race Track. Area 25 square miles (64 square km). Pop. (1990) 25,746; (2000) 28,112.

      city, seat (1694) of Salem county, southwestern New Jersey, U.S. It lies along the Salem River near the latter's confluence with the Delaware River, 34 miles (55 km) southwest of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was established in 1675 by John Fenwick, an English Quaker. The Friends (Quakers) Burial Ground in Salem has the Salem Oak—a tree 80 feet (25 metres) high that is said to be more than 500 years old—under which Fenwick signed a treaty with the Delaware Indians. The Alexander Grant House (1721) is now headquarters of the Salem County Historical Society. Fort Mott State Park, site of an American Civil War fortification, and Finns Point National Cemetery, containing the graves of more than 2,400 Confederate prisoners and 300 Union soldiers, are immediately northwest, fronting the Delaware River. Salem's industries include the manufacture of glass containers, floor coverings, canned goods, and clothing. Inc. village, 1695; city, 1858. Pop. (1990) 6,883; (2000) 5,857.

      city, Columbiana county, northeastern Ohio, U.S., 20 miles (32 km) southwest of Youngstown. It was settled in 1803 by Quakers from Salem, N.J., and was laid out in 1806. Before the American Civil War it was a station on the Underground Railroad for escaping slaves, and it was also the western headquarters of the Anti-Slavery (abolitionism) Society, which published the Anti-Slavery Bugle.

      Salem's manufactures include tools and dies, hoses, filters, pumps and valves, and manufacturing equipment. The Salem campus of Kent State University was opened in 1962. The Salem Jubilee (July) commemorates the city's founding. The Salem Historical Society curates a historical museum and a replica of Liberty Hall, the Anti-Slavery Society's headquarters in the city. Inc. village, 1830; city, 1887. Pop. (2000) 12,197; (2005 est.) 12,005.

      capital of Oregon, U.S., and the seat (1849) of Marion county. It lies along the Willamette River, 43 miles (69 km) southwest of Portland. Methodist missionaries, led by Jason Lee, settled the site in 1840. Its Kalapuya Indian name, Chemeketa, meaning “place of rest,” was translated into the biblical name of Salem (from Hebrew shalom, “peace”). A settlement was laid out in 1844, and home sites were sold by the missionaries to finance the Oregon Institute (1842), which later became Willamette University. Prospering as migration increased over the Oregon Trail, the city became the territorial capital of Oregon in 1851. The capital was briefly moved to Corvallis, but in 1864 Salem was confirmed as the state capital by popular vote. The city was an early river port whose growth was stimulated by railroad connections in the 1870s. Salem became the food-processing centre for a vast dairying, fruit, and truck-garden area; wood and light manufacturing industries also developed in the city.

      The Neoclassical State Capitol (adjoining Wilson Park), completed in 1938, dominates Capitol Mall. The city is the site of Chemeketa Community College (1955), founded as Salem Technical-Vocational School; a branch campus of Tokyo International University in America (1989); Western Baptist College (chartered 1935 in Phoenix, Arizona); and the Oregon School for the Deaf (1960). Salem is the focus of an urban complex encompassing Marion and Polk counties. Inc. 1860. Pop. (1990) city, 107,793; Salem PMSA 278,024; Portland-Salem CMSA 1,793,476; (2000) city, 136,924; Salem PMSA, 347,214; Portland-Salem CMSA 2,265,223.

      county, southwestern New Jersey, U.S. It comprises a coastal lowland bounded by Delaware to the west (the Delaware River constituting the border), Oldmans Creek to the north, the Maurice River to the southeast, and Stow Creek to the southwest. The county is connected to Wilmington, Del., by way of the Delaware Memorial Bridge. Other waterways are the Salem and Cohansey rivers and Alloways and Muddy Run creeks. Forested areas contain pine and oak trees. State parklands are located at Fort Mott, Parvin Lake, and Hancock House.

      The historic city of Salem, the county seat, is one of the region's oldest settlements; in 1675 Delaware Indians sold the land to English Quakers (Quaker). The county was formed in 1694 and named for the county seat. E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (DuPont Company) built a plant at Carneys Point (1890) that became New Jersey's largest employer during World War I and a plant at Deepwater (1917) that later became the world's largest chemical plant. Other communities include Woodstown and Penns Grove.

      Salem county's economy depends mainly on agriculture (wheat, barley, and soybeans) and manufacturing (particularly chemicals). Area 338 square miles (875 square km). Pop. (2000) 64,285; (2007 est.) 66,016.

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Universalium. 2010.

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