/rob"euhrt/, n.
1. Henry Martyn /mahr"tn/, 1837-1923, U.S. engineer and authority on parliamentary procedure: author of Robert's Rules of Order (1876, revised 1915).
2. a male given name: from Germanic words meaning "glory" and "bright."

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(as used in expressions)
Adam Robert
Aldrich Robert
Altman Robert B.
Ashe Arthur Robert Jr.
Baden Powell of Gilwell Robert Stephenson Smyth 1st Baron
Bakewell Robert
Baldwin Robert
Ballard Robert Duane
Bellarmine Saint Robert
Benchley Robert Charles
Bly Robert Elwood
Robert Brackett Elliott
Borden Sir Robert Laird
David Robert Jones
Boyle Robert
Bresson Robert
Bridges Robert Seymour
Brown Robert
Browning Robert
Bunsen Robert Wilhelm
Burns Robert
Burton Robert
Campin Robert
Capa Robert
Robert Leroy Parker
Castlereagh Robert Stewart Viscount
Cech Thomas Robert
Cecil Robert 1st earl of Salisbury
Chambers Robert and William
Charles Robert of Anjou
Clive of Plassey Robert 1st Baron
Cotton Sir Robert Bruce
Robert Joseph Cousy
Crumb Robert
Darwin Charles Robert
De Niro Robert
Delaunay Robert
Dinwiddie Robert
Robert Joseph Dole
Dornberger Walter Robert
Robert Allen Zimmerman
Eden Robert Anthony 1st earl of Avon
Essex Robert Devereux 2nd earl of
Essex Robert Devereux 3rd earl of
Robert William Andrew Feller
Robert James Fischer
Flaherty Robert Joseph
Robert Louis Fosse
Fowles John Robert
Frank Robert
Franz Robert
Robert Franz Knauth
Frost Robert Lee
Fulton Robert
Furchgott Robert Francis
Pack Robert Gibson
Gissing George Robert
Goddard Robert Hutchings
Graves Robert von Ranke
Graves Robert James
Grosseteste Robert
Guggenheim Solomon Robert
Harley Robert 1st earl of Oxford
Hauptmann Gerhart Johann Robert
Robert Lee Hayes
Hayne Robert Young
Heinlein Robert Anson
Helpmann Sir Robert Murray
Henri Robert
Robert Henry Cozad
Herrick Robert
Hill David Octavius and Robert Adamson
Hoe Robert and Hoe Richard March
Holley Robert William
Hooke Robert
Robert Martin Hull
Hutchins Robert Maynard
Indiana Robert
Robert Clark
Jackson Robert Houghwout
James Cyril Lionel Robert
Joffrey Robert
Johnson Robert
Johnson Robert Wood
Kennedy Robert Francis
Kirchhoff Gustav Robert
Koch Heinrich Hermann Robert
La Follette Robert Marion
La Salle René Robert Cavelier sieur de
Lamennais Hugues Félicité Robert de
Lee Robert Edward
Leicester Robert Dudley earl of
Liverpool Robert Banks Jenkinson 2nd earl of
Livingston Robert R.
Lowell Robert
Lucas Robert E. Jr.
Ludlum Robert
Lynd Robert Staughton and Lynd Helen
MacIver Robert Morrison
Mallet Robert
Malthus Thomas Robert
Mapplethorpe Robert
Robert Nesta Marley
Robert Bruce Mathias
Maxwell Ian Robert
McCormick Robert Rutherford
McNamara Robert Strange
Menzies Sir Robert Gordon
Merton Robert King
Millikan Robert Andrews
Mitchum Robert Charles Duran
Morris Robert
Moses Robert
Motherwell Robert
Mugabe Robert Gabriel
Mundell Robert Alexander
Mushet Robert Forester
Nesselrode Karl Robert Vasilyevich Count
Noyce Robert Norton
Oppenheimer Julius Robert
Robert Gordon Orr
Owen Robert
Owen Robert Dale
Leroy Robert Paige
Paine Robert Treat
Park Robert Ezra
Peary Robert Edwin
Peel Sir Robert 2nd Baronet
Pinsky Robert
Rauschenberg Robert
Redford Jr. Charles Robert
Remak Robert
Robert MacGregor
Robert Curthose
Robert Houdin Jean Eugène
Jean Eugène Robert
Rogers Robert
Ryan Robert
Schuman Robert
Schumann Robert Alexander
Scott Robert Falcon
Service Robert William
Sherwood Robert Emmet
Smalls Robert
Sobukwe Robert Mangaliso
Solow Robert Merton
Southey Robert
Stephenson Robert
Steptoe Patrick Christopher and Edwards Robert Geoffrey
Stevens Robert Livingston
Stevenson Robert Louis Balfour
Stibitz George Robert
Stockton Robert Field
Stone Robert Anthony
Sunderland Robert Spencer 2nd earl of
Surtees Robert Smith
Taft Robert Alphonso
Toombs Robert Augustus
Travis Merle Robert
Turgot Anne Robert Jacques baron de l'Aulne
Robert Edward Turner III
Robert William Unser
Van de Graaff Robert Jemison
Venturi Robert Charles
Wagner Robert Ferdinand
Walpole Robert 1st earl of Orford
Warren Robert Penn
Watson Watt Sir Robert Alexander
James Robert Wills
Wilson Robert Woodrow
Woodward Robert Burns
Cecil of Chelwood Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne Cecil 1st Viscount
Salisbury Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne Cecil 3rd marquess of

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▪ Byzantine emperor
byname  Robert Of Courtenay  
died 1228, Morea

      Latin emperor of Constantinople from 1221 to 1228. He was so ineffective that the Latin Empire (consolidated by his uncle, Henry of Flanders) was largely dissolved at the end of his reign.

      Robert was a younger son of Peter of Courtenay (died early 1219?) and Yolande of Flanders and Hainaut, who was empress regent for her sons until her death in September 1219. Their eldest son, Philip of Namur, refused to leave France and renounced the succession in favour of Robert, an irresponsible youth, who was crowned in Constantinople on March 25, 1221. Robert was betrothed to Eudocia, daughter of the Greek emperor at Nicaea, Theodore I Lascaris. In 1225 Theodore's successor, John III Vatatzes (John III Ducas Vatatzes), forced Robert to cede most of the eastern lands of his Latin Empire in Asia Minor, and by 1228 Theodore Angelus, ruler of Epirus, a city-state in Asia Minor, seized Thessalonica and was crowned emperor there. In the meantime Robert had repudiated Eudocia and taken a French mistress, who was mutilated in the ensuing revolt by Robert's own barons. He died while fleeing to take refuge with Pope Gregory IX.

▪ duke of Apulia
byname  Robert Guiscard, or Robert de Hauteville,  Italian  Roberto Guiscardo, or Roberto d'Altavilla 
born c. 1015, Normandy [France]
died July 17, 1085, near Cephalonia, Greece, Byzantine Empire

       Norman adventurer who settled in Apulia, in southern Italy, about 1047 and became duke of Apulia (1059). He eventually extended Norman (Normandy) rule over Naples, Calabria, and Sicily and laid the foundations of the Kingdom of Sicily.

Arrival in Apulia
      Robert was born into a family of knights. Arriving in Apulia, in southern Italy, around 1047 to join his half brother Drogo, he found that it and Campania, though they were southern Italy's most flourishing regions, were plagued by political disturbances. These regions attracted hordes of fortune-seeking Norman immigrants, who were to transform the political role of both regions in the following decades.

      In Campania, the Lombards of Capua were launching wars against the Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) dukes of Naples in order to gain possession of that important seaport. In Apulia, William (William de Hauteville) (“Iron Arm”) de Hauteville, Robert's eldest half brother, having successfully defeated the Byzantine Greeks who controlled that region, had been elected count of Apulia (Puglia) in 1042. In 1046 he had been succeeded by his brother Drogo.

      When Robert joined his brothers, they sent him to Calabria to attack Byzantine territory. He began his campaign by pillaging the countryside and ransoming its people. In 1053, at the head of the combined forces of Normans from Apulia and Campania, he defeated the haphazardly led forces of the Byzantines, the Lombards (Lombard), and the papacy at Civitate. Because of the deaths of William and Drogo and of his third half brother, Count Humphrey, in 1057, Robert returned to Apulia to seize control from Humphrey's sons and save the region from disgregating internal conflicts. After becoming the recognized leader of the Apulian Normans, Robert resumed his campaign in Calabria. His brother Roger's (Roger I) arrival from Normandy enabled him to extend and solidify his conquests in Apulia.

      In his progression from gang leader to commander of mercenary troops to conqueror, Robert emerged as a shrewd and perspicacious political figure. In 1059 he entered into a concordat at Melfi with Pope Nicholas II. Until that time the papacy had been hostile toward the Normans, considering them to be an anarchist force that upset the political structure in southern Italy—a structure based on a balance of power between the Byzantines and the Lombards of northern Italy. The schism that took place between the Greek and Latin churches in 1054 temporarily worsened the relations between the Byzantine emperors and the papacy, and eventually the papacy realized that Norman conquests over the Byzantines could work to its advantage. Robert's plan to expel the Arabs from Sicily and restore Christianity to the island also found favour in Nicholas' eyes. This expedition into Sicily got under way in 1060, as soon as the conquest of Calabria was completed. Robert entrusted the command of the expedition to his brother Roger, but on particularly difficult occasions—e.g., the siege of Palermo in 1071—he came to his brother's aid.

      Until this time, Robert's relations with Roger had not always been amicable, since Roger, aware of both his own talent and Robert's dependency on him, would not settle for the subordinate role allotted him. Their differences were resolved when Robert invested Roger, after he had recognized Robert's supreme authority, with “the County of Sicily and Calabria” along with the right to govern and tax both counties.

Expansion of the Duchy
      Robert continued to expand the small county left by Humphrey into a duchy, extending from the Adriatic to the Tyrrhenian sea. The capture of Bari in April 1071 resulted in the end of Byzantine rule in southern Italy. Robert turned next to the neighbouring territories of Salerno, controlled by the Lombards. Instead of fighting them, he dissolved his first marriage and in 1058 married the sister of Salerno's last Lombard prince, Gisulf II (Gisulph II). Hostilities broke out between the two rulers, however, and Gisulf naively tried to bring about a Byzantine counteroffensive against Robert. Fearing that the Norman advances into Campania, Molise, and Abruzzi would threaten the papal dominions, Pope Gregory VII (Gregory VII, Saint) excommunicated Robert and gave Gisulf considerable military aid. The struggle came to a head when Gisulf, determined to display his power, advanced toward the prosperous city of Amalfi. Robert responded to the city's plea for help in 1073 and successfully defended it; in December 1076 he took Salerno from Gisulf and made it the capital of his duchy.

      Robert was now at the height of his power. During his rise he repressed with an iron hand not only the claims of Humphrey's sons but also the uprisings of towns and lords that were fretting under the restraints imposed upon them. The harshness with which Robert chose to deal with these rebels was intended to transform a heterogeneous population into a strong state.

      When, in 1080, the conflict between church and state over the right to control ecclesiastical personnel and property had become more intense, Robert chose to reconcile himself with Gregory VII, entering into the Concordat of Ceprano, which confirmed the commitments of the earlier Council of Melfi. Even the Byzantine court drew closer to him and went as far as trying to establish a familial relationship with Robert. The Byzantine emperor Michael VII (Michael VII Ducas), in need of Robert's help to uphold his unstable throne, married his son, Constantine, to one of Robert's daughters, Helen. The opposition party, however, deposed Michael and confined Helen in a monastery. To guarantee Apulia against attack from the new rulers of Byzantium, Robert wanted the territories on the Adriatic coast of the Balkan (Balkans) Peninsula, and he began to build a large navy. Michael's expulsion and Helen's confinement reawakened his unappeased spirit of adventure and hastened his long-considered expedition. Now his goal was even more ambitious: to march to Byzantium and crown himself emperor in place of the deposed Michael.

      In 1083 Robert landed in Epirus with a well-trained army and immediately succeeded in defeating the Byzantines and their Venetian allies. The pope, however, suddenly recalled him to Italy to help him expel the German king Henry IV, who was marching on Rome en route to claiming southern Italy for the Holy Roman Empire. Having returned home and suppressed the revolts of the lords hostile to himself and to Pope Gregory VII, Robert moved toward Rome, defeated the pope's enemies, and escorted him to Salerno in the summer of 1084. Following this success, he returned to his campaign on the Adriatic coast. He died during the siege of Cephalonia on July 17, 1085.

      Physically attractive, endowed with an acute and unscrupulous intelligence, a brilliant strategist and competent statesman, Robert had begun to organize a state composed of diverse ethnic and civil groups: Latin and Germanic in Lombard territories and Greek in Byzantine domains. The new political structure was built on a monarchial-feudal framework characteristic of the time, but it was controlled by the energetic and uncompromising Robert, who tried to use his ducal power to create a powerful and prosperous state. The other base on which he built was Latin Christianity, the religion of the conquerors and most of the conquered, which he used to reconcile the subjected peoples. An extremely religious man, Robert was distrustful of the Greek clergy because of their ties with Byzantium. On the other hand, his generosity toward the Latin church was bountiful. He endowed it with territories and clerical immunities in order to tie it firmly to himself. Splendid cathedrals and Benedictine abbeys were built in the hope that they would consolidate and diffuse Latin language and culture among the heterogeneous people and tie them into a new, unified state.

Ernesto Pontieri

Additional Reading
G.A. Loud, Conquerors and Churchmen in Norman Italy (1999); and Donald Matthew, The Norman Kingdom of Sicily (1992), are useful introductions to Robert and the Normans.

▪ king of Naples
byname  Robert of Anjou, or Robert the Wise,  Italian  Roberto d'Angiò, or Roberto il Saggio  
born 1278
died Jan. 19, 1343, Naples

      Angevin prince and Guelf (papal party) leader who ruled Naples as king for 34 years (1309–43).

      Robert's early years were clouded by the War of the Sicilian Vespers (1282–88), in which his father, Charles II of Anjou, was taken prisoner by the Aragonese. By the terms of the treaty Charles was freed, and Robert took his place as hostage at the Aragonese court. Taking the title of duke of Calabria (1296), he led an expedition attempting to recover Sicily from the Aragonese prince who ruled it as Frederick III. Robert's military success produced the Peace of Caltabellotta (1302), by which the Aragonese agreed to return Sicily to the House of Anjou when Frederick died.

      On the death of his father in 1309, Robert inherited Naples and extensive territories in northern Italy and southern France. For several years Robert skirmished politically and militarily on the side of the Guelf party in northern Italy against the Ghibelline (pro-imperial) faction led by the Visconti of Milan, whom he defeated at Sesto, west of Genoa, in 1319. His desire to enlist the interest of Pope John XXII in a final defeat of the Ghibellines of northern Italy caused Robert to take up residence at Avignon, the papal seat, but in 1324 the victory of the Visconti over Guelf forces at Vaprio, east of Milan, brought him back to Italy to defend his lands.

      Robert remained neutral when the German king Louis the Bavarian marched into Italy, was crowned emperor in Rome as Louis IV (1328), and set up an antipope, Nicholas V. Relations between Robert and John XXII terminated when the Pope allied himself with King John of Bohemia, who invaded northern Italy in 1330. In return for King John's support, the Pope offered him Robert's territories in southern France. The Pope's diplomacy shattered the traditional Guelf–Ghibelline alignments in Italy, and the league that Robert joined, consisting of members of both parties, drove King John out of Italy in 1336. The final years of Robert's reign were marked by defections of his northern Italian towns, and his failure to regain Sicily after Frederick III's death in 1337 brought a steady decline of Angevin power and influence.

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Universalium. 2010.

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