/ree"geuh/, n.
1. a seaport in and the capital of Latvia, on the Gulf of Riga. 915,000.
2. Gulf of, an arm of the Baltic between Latvia and Estonia. 90 mi. (145 km) long.

* * *

City (pop., 2000 prelim.: 764,328), capital of Latvia.

Riga is situated on both banks of the Western Dvina River, above its mouth on the Gulf of Riga. It was founded as a trading post in 1201 on the site of an ancient Liv settlement and joined the Hanseatic League in 1282. In the Middle Ages it was dominated by the Teutonic Order, and it was fought over by the Poles and Russians in the 16th century. Riga was captured by Sweden in 1621 and granted self-government, but it was ceded to Russia in 1721. The city became the capital of an independent Latvia from 1918 to 1940 but was thereafter incorporated into the U.S.S.R. Riga again became the capital of an independent Latvia in 1991. It is a principal Baltic port and a major administrative, cultural, and industrial centre. Its medieval remains include a 13th-century church and a 14th-century castle.

* * *

Latvian  Rīga 
  city and capital of Latvia. It occupies both banks of the Western Dvina River 9 miles (15 km) above its mouth on the Gulf of Riga.

      An ancient settlement of the Livs where the Ridzene River joins the Western Dvina, Riga was founded in 1201 by Bishop Albert I of Livonia, who had landed at the mouth of the Western Dvina two years earlier with 23 ships of Crusaders. He made Riga the seat of his bishopric (raised to an archbishopric in 1253) and founded there the Order of the Brothers of the Sword (Brothers of the Sword, Order of the) (1201; attached as a branch unit to the Teutonic Knights in 1237). Riga joined the Hanseatic League in 1282 and became one of the most important centres of trade on the Baltic. Its episcopal privileges allowed the town to act with considerable independence; but on the dissolution of the Teutonic Knights in 1561, the surrounding territory passed to Poland, and Riga itself passed to Poland in 1581. In 1621 Gustavus II Adolphus (Gustav II Adolf) of Sweden captured Riga, but both Poles and Swedes granted Riga autonomy of government. In 1709–10 the Russians took Riga, and Sweden formally ceded the city by the Treaty of Nystad in 1721. Under Russian rule, its trade grew considerably. By 1914 Riga was the third largest city of Russia.

      In 1918 Riga became the capital of independent Latvia. It was occupied by the Russians and incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1940. Together with other parts of Latvia, Riga suffered in 1940–41 from the Soviet deportations and executions of thousands of Latvian citizens. From 1941 to 1944 the city underwent German occupation and sustained heavy damage, especially in the old central city, destroying the medieval church of St. Peter and the 14th-century headquarters of the Brothers of the Sword. Soviet deportations resumed after the war and again in 1948–49. Russian immigration filled the vacuum left by forced removal of Latvians and a low Latvian birth rate. In 1991 Latvia regained its independence.

  Many historical buildings survived, including the castle on the waterfront, the Doma Cathedral (dating from c. 1215), and several medieval merchants' houses and warehouses. The canal around the old town was the medieval moat, though the former fortifications have been replaced by boulevards. The historic centre of Riga was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1997.

      Modern Riga is a major administrative, cultural, and industrial centre and port, although icebreakers are necessary from December to April. The city's many engineering industries build ships and manufacture electrical and electronic equipment, machine tools, rolling stock, diesel engines, streetcars, and other items. The chemical, glass, and textile industries are important, and there are varied consumer-goods and food-processing industries. Riga's cultural institutions include an academy of sciences; a university (founded 1919), a Polytechnic Institute, and other institutions of higher education; a conservatory; the Latvian Open-Air Ethnographical Museum (founded 1924); and numerous theatres. Along the Gulf of Riga is the resort suburb of Rīgas Jūrmala. Pop. (2006 est.) 727,578.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Riga — Rīga (dt.: Riga) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Rīga — (dt.: Riga) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Rīga — Riga Pour les articles homonymes, voir Riga (homonymie). Riga …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Riga — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Rīga Riga Bandera …   Wikipedia Español

  • RIGA — (Lettish Riga), Baltic port, capital of Latvia; under Russian rule from 1710 to 1917, capital of Livonia (Livland); 1944–1991 in the Latvian S.S.R. The first documentary evidence of Jews in Riga – the record of a sale of merchandise to a Jew… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Riga — Riga, Hauptstadt des russ. Gouv. Livland, an beiden Ufern der Düna, über die eine 250 m lange Schiffbrücke und eine Eisenbahnbrücke führen, liegt 11 km von ihrer Mündung in den Rigaer Busen und an den Eisenbahnlinien R. Orel, R. Petersburg, R.… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • RIGA — Capitale de la Lettonie, Riga était, sous le régime soviétique, la plus peuplée des cités du littoral balte, exception faite de Leningrad. Fondée en 1201 par l’évêque de Livonie, Albert de Buxhövden, près des bouches de la Dvina occidentale,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Riga GP — Riga Grand Prix Riga Grand Prix Informations Nom Riga Grand Prix Pays  Lettonie …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Riga — es una ciudad situada a orillas del mar Báltico, en la desembocadura del río Duina (en letón Daugava), Riga es la capital de Letonia, además de puerto regional y centro industrial. La población de la ciudad ha caído desde la independencia de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • rigă — RÍGĂ, rigi, s.m. 1. (înv.) Rege. 2. Carte de joc cu figura regelui; popă, crai. – Din ngr. ríghas. Trimis de IoanSoleriu, 13.09.2007. Sursa: DEX 98  RÍGĂ s. v. popă. Trimis de siveco, 13.09.2007. Sursa: Sinonime  RÍGĂ s. v. cap încoron …   Dicționar Român

  • riga — s.f. [dal longob. rīga ]. 1. [sottile segmento rettilineo segnato su una superficie: tracciare una r. ] ▶◀ linea, rigo. 2. [linea che segna la spartizione dei capelli: portare la r. in mezzo ] ▶◀ (non com.) divisa, partizione, scriminatura. 3. a …   Enciclopedia Italiana

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”