Riemannian geometry

Riemannian geometry
1. Also called elliptic geometry. the branch of non-Euclidean geometry that replaces the parallel postulate of Euclidean geometry with the postulate that in a plane every pair of distinct lines intersects. Cf. hyperbolic geometry.
2. the differential geometry of a metric space that generalizes a Euclidean space.

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also called  elliptic geometry 

      one of the non-Euclidean geometries (Euclidean geometry) that completely rejects the validity of Euclid's fifth postulate and modifies his second postulate. Simply stated, Euclid's fifth postulate is: through a point not on a given line there is only one line parallel to the given line. In Riemannian geometry, there are no lines parallel to the given line. Euclid's second postulate is: a straight line of finite length can be extended continuously without bounds. In Riemannian geometry, a straight line of finite length can be extended continuously without bounds, but all straight lines are of the same length. The tenets of Riemannian geometry, however, admit the other three Euclidean postulates (compare hyperbolic geometry).

      Although some of the theorems of Riemannian geometry are identical to those of Euclidean, most differ. In Euclidean geometry, for example, two parallel lines are taken to be everywhere equidistant. In elliptic geometry, parallel lines do not exist. In Euclidean, the sum of the angles in a triangle is two right angles; in elliptic, the sum is greater than two right angles. In Euclidean, polygons of differing areas can be similar; in elliptic, similar polygons of differing areas do not exist.

      The first published works on non-Euclidean geometries appeared about 1830. Such publications were unknown to the German mathematician Bernhard Riemann (Riemann, Bernhard) who, in 1866, extended the concepts from two to three or more dimensions. Another German mathematician, Felix Klein (Klein, Felix), later discriminated between elliptical space (polar) and double-elliptical space (antipodal).

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Universalium. 2010.

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