Red Brigades

Red Brigades
an extreme leftist terrorist organization in Italy.
[trans. of It Brigate rosse]

* * *

Italian Brigate Rosse

Extreme left-wing terrorist organization in Italy.

Its self-proclaimed aim was to undermine the Italian state and pave the way for a Marxist upheaval led by a "revolutionary proletariat." Reputedly founded by Renato Curcio (b. 1945), it began carrying out violent acts with firebombings (1970), escalating to kidnappings (1971) and murders (1974), most notably that of Aldo Moro (1978). At its height, it probably had 400 to 500 full-time members, perhaps 1,000 sporadic members, and a few thousand supporters. Arrest and imprisonment of many leaders and ordinary members greatly weakened the organization in the 1980s. However, a group calling itself the Red Brigades claimed responsibility for several violent attacks in the 1990s and into the 21st century.

* * *

▪ Italian militant organization
Italian  Brigate Rosse 

      militant left-wing organization in Italy that gained notoriety in the 1970s for kidnappings, murders, and sabotage. Its self-proclaimed aim was to undermine the Italian state and pave the way for a Marxist upheaval led by a “revolutionary proletariat.”

      The reputed founder of the Red Brigades was Renato Curcio, who in 1967 set up a leftist study group at the University of Trento dedicated to figures such as Karl Marx (Marx, Karl), Mao Zedong, and Che Guevara (Guevara, Che). In 1969 Curcio married a fellow radical, Margherita Cagol, and moved with her to Milan, where they attracted a coterie of followers. Proclaiming the existence of the Red Brigades in November 1970 through the firebombing of various factories and warehouses in Milan, the group began kidnapping the following year and in 1974 committed its first assassination; among its victims that year was the chief inspector of Turin's antiterrorist squad.

      Despite the arrest and imprisonment of hundreds of alleged terrorists throughout the country—including Curcio himself in 1976—the random assassinations continued. In 1978 the Red Brigades kidnapped and murdered former prime minister Aldo Moro (Moro, Aldo). In December 1981 a U.S. Army officer with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Brigadier General James Dozier, was abducted and held captive by the Red Brigades for 42 days before Italian police rescued him unharmed from a hideout in Padua. Between 1974 and 1988, the Red Brigades carried out about 50 attacks, in which nearly 50 people were killed. A common nonlethal tactic employed by the group was “kneecapping,” in which a victim was shot in the knees so that he could not walk again.

      At its height in the 1970s, the Red Brigades was believed to comprise 400 to 500 full-time members, 1,000 members who helped periodically, and a few thousand supporters who provided funds and shelter. Careful, systematic police work led to the arrest and imprisonment of many of the Red Brigades' leaders and ordinary members from the mid-1970s onward, and by the late 1980s the organization was all but destroyed. However, a group claiming to be the Red Brigades took responsibility in the 1990s for various violent attacks, including those against a senior Italian government adviser, a U.S. base in Aviano, and the NATO Defense College.

John Philip Jenkins

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Red Brigades — This article is about the Italian group. Red Brigade may also refer to the Japanese Red Army/Anti Imperialist International Brigade. The Red Brigades ( Brigate Rosse in Italian, often abbreviated as the BR ) were a communist terrorist group… …   Wikipedia

  • Red Brigades — /ˈrɛd brəgeɪdz/ (say red bruhgaydz) plural noun the, an Italian urban guerilla group …  

  • Red Brigades — noun a former Marxist Leninist militant group based in Italy …   Wiktionary

  • Red Brigades —    See Brigate Rosse (BR) …   Historical Dictionary of modern Italy

  • Red Brigades — n. extreme leftist terrorist militant organization formed in the late 1960s in Italy (group who was responsible for the kidnapping and murder of the Italian prime minister Aldo Moro in 1978) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Red Brigades — noun a Marxist Leninist terrorist organization that arose out of a student protest movement in the late 1960s; wants to separate Italy from NATO and advocates violence in the service of class warfare and revolution; mostly inactive since 1989 •… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Red — /red/, n. a male or female given name. * * * (as used in expressions) red blood corpuscle red blood cell Red Army Faction Barber Red Erik the Red Grange Red Great Red Spot Red Khmer Red Army Red Brigades Red Cloud …   Universalium

  • Red Army Faction — Infobox terrorist organization name = Red Army Faction caption = Later design of the RAF s insignia showing a Red Star and MP5 dates = 1970 – 1998 leader = motives = Armed resistance to perceived fascist tendencies area = West Germany ideology =… …   Wikipedia

  • red — red1 redly, adv. /red/, n. adj., redder, reddest. n. 1. any of various colors resembling the color of blood; the primary color at one extreme end of the visible spectrum, an effect of light with a wavelength between 610 and 780 nm. 2. something… …   Universalium

  • Red Army (disambiguation) — Chiefly, a Red Army is a communist army. A list of all the past and present known Red Armies in existence throughout the world is below (and may need some maintenance):*The (Workers and Peasants ) Red Army of the Soviet Union *The People s… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”