public school

public school
public-school, adj.
1. (in the U.S.) a school that is maintained at public expense for the education of the children of a community or district and that constitutes a part of a system of free public education commonly including primary and secondary schools.
2. (in England) any of a number of endowed secondary boarding schools that prepare students chiefly for the universities or for public service.

* * *

In Britain, any of a small group of tuition-charging secondary schools that specialize in preparing students for university and for public service.

The name public school dates from the 18th century, when the schools began attracting students from beyond their immediate environs and thus became "public" as opposed to local. Such schools are thus in fact "private" schools independent of the state system. Important boys' schools include Winchester (1394), Eton, Westminster (1560), and Harrow (1571); well-known girls' schools include Cheltenham, Roedean, and Wycomb Abbey. Public schools cultivated a class-conscious code of behaviour, speech, and appearance that set the standard for British officialdom from the early 19th century. See also secondary education.

* * *

▪ British education
also called  independent school 

      in the United Kingdom, one of a relatively small group of institutions educating secondary-level students for a fee and independent of the state system as regards both endowment and administration. The term public school emerged in the 18th century when the reputation of certain grammar schools spread beyond their immediate environs. They began taking students whose parents could afford residential fees and thus became known as public, in contrast to local, schools. By the late 20th century the term independent school was increasingly preferred by the institutions themselves.

      The typical great public school—such as Eton, Harrow, Winchester, Westminster, Rugby, Shrewsbury, or Charterhouse—evolved from an institution founded by a single benefactor during the late European Middle Ages or Renaissance. Such charitable foundations, almost invariably for males only, had usually been intended to educate local boys from relatively humble backgrounds. From about the 17th century the upper classes took increasing advantage of the tuition afforded by these foundations. As pupils paying the market rate became more numerous, the schools were increasingly transformed into boarding establishments. (Some, however, such as St. Paul's or Merchant Taylors' in London, remained day schools; others took both day boys and boarders.) The public schools were seen as preparing students for the ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge (though not all students proceeded then or proceed now to a university) and for public service—another origin of the appellation “public” school.

      The curriculum from the beginning placed heavy emphasis on the Greek and Roman classics and continued to do so until well into the 20th century. Organized games, in contrast, were a late development, and before their introduction disorderly conduct was intermittently considerable, particularly in the early 19th century. When the demand for men to administer the British Empire led to scores of new foundations during the 19th century, however, the schools tended to adopt the more disciplined, duty-bound, and athletic model established at Rugby by Dr. Thomas Arnold in the 1830s.

      From late in the 19th century a number of girls' public schools were established, as were also denominational or other special-purpose schools, though such Roman Catholic foundations as Ampleforth and Downside had existed for some time already. Institutions loosely termed public schools also sprang up overseas, predominantly in countries under British cultural influence.

      The impact of the public schools in Britain was historically immense. Perhaps in no other post-Renaissance country did an ethos directly and concentratedly inculcated in so few citizens exercise such influence nationally—and internationally, given the crucial role of the public school ethos in helping Britain build its empire. The ethos in question was less an academic one than a class-conscious code of behaviour, speech, and appearance. It set the standard for conduct in the life of officialdom in Britain from the early 19th century to the mid-20th.

      Since the end of World War II, the style and content of education at the public schools have changed as the schools have become more consciously part of wider groupings of independent schools and have developed multifarious links with schools in the state sector.

      The following is a list of the nine best-known public schools, in the order of their founding.

      Winchester College, in Winchester, Hampshire, was chartered in 1382 by William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, and opened by him in 1394.

      Eton College, in Eton, Berkshire, was founded by King Henry VI in 1440.

      St. Paul's School, in Hammersmith, west London, was founded and endowed by John Colet in 1509.

      Shrewsbury School, in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, was founded by King Edward VI in 1552.

      Westminster School, also called St. Peter's College, in west London, was probably a cathedral school and was reestablished by Queen Elizabeth I in 1560.

      Merchant Taylors' School, in London, was founded, endowed, and controlled by the Merchant Taylors' Company of London in 1560; it moved to the Charterhouse buildings in 1875.

      Rugby School, in Rugby, Warwickshire, was founded by Lawrence Sheriff, a wealthy London merchant, in 1567. It began rugby football (1823).

      Harrow School, at Harrow (or Harrow-on-the-Hill), northwest of London, was founded in 1571.

      Charterhouse School, in Godalming, Surrey, was founded by Thomas Sutton in 1611. In 1872 Charterhouse School was moved from London to Godalming.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Public school — (Royaume Uni) En Angleterre et au Pays de Galles, le terme Public School désigne une école privée dont le recrutement n’est pas limité par des restrictions géographiques ni religieuses, mais par des frais généralement très élevés. En général, le… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • public school — public schools 1) N VAR In Britain, a public school is a private school that provides secondary education which parents have to pay for. The pupils often live at the school during the school term. He was headmaster of a public school in the West… …   English dictionary

  • Public School —   [ pʌblɪk skuːl; englisch »öffentliche Schule«] die, / s, 1) in England traditionsreiche Privatschule der Sekundarstufe (13. 18. Lebensjahr) mit angeschlossenem Internationalem Public Schools besitzen meist ein größeres Vermögen und erhalten… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Public school — (a) In Great Britain, any of various schools maintained by the community, wholly or partly under public control, or maintained largely by endowment and not carried on chiefly for profit; specif., and commonly, any of various select and usually… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • public school — [pœblikskul; pyblikskul] n. f. ÉTYM. 1894, Lavisse et Rambaud; mot angl. (v. 1580), de public, et school « école ». ❖ ♦ En Grande Bretagne, École secondaire payante (souvent réservée aux classes supérieures) qui prépare à l Université. REM. L… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • public school — ► NOUN 1) (in the UK) a private fee paying secondary school. 2) (chiefly in North America) a school supported by public funds …   English terms dictionary

  • public school — n 1.) in Britain, a private school for children aged between 13 and 18, whose parents pay for their education. The children often live at the school while they are studying →↑state school 2.) a free local school, especially in the US and Scotland …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • public school — n. ☆ 1. in the U.S., an elementary or secondary school that is part of a system of free schools maintained by public taxes and supervised by local authorities 2. in much of Great Britain, any of a number of endowed, private boarding schools,… …   English World dictionary

  • public school — noun count or uncount ** 1. ) AMERICAN a school that is controlled and paid for by the government 2. ) BRITISH an expensive private school where students usually live as well as study …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • Public school — The term public school has two distinct (and virtually opposite) meanings depending on the location of usage: * in the United States, Australia and Canada: A school funded from tax revenue and most commonly administered to some degree by… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”