/pawrt"leuhnd, pohrt"-/, n.
1. a seaport in NW Oregon, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers. 366,383.
2. a seaport in SW Maine, on Casco Bay. 61,572.
3. a town in S Texas. 12,023.

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City (pop., 2000: 529,121) and port, northwestern Oregon, U.S. Situated on the Willamette River, southeast of its confluence with the Columbia River, Portland was settled in 1829 on the site of an early Indian campground.

It was laid out in 1844 and incorporated in 1851. Early growth was stimulated by gold rushes and the flow of immigrants along the Oregon Trail. It is the state's largest city and principal port. Exports include lumber, aluminum, and wheat. Shipbuilding and meat-packing are important industries. It is the site of many educational institutions, including Lewis and Clark College (1867) and Reed College.
Seaport city (pop., 2000: 64,249), southwestern Maine, U.S. First settled in 1632, it was destroyed by Indians in 1676 and 1690.

It was incorporated as a town in 1786 and was the state capital 1820–32. A fire destroyed much of the city centre in 1866, but Portland was again rebuilt. The state's largest city, it is the hub of a metropolitan area that includes the cities of South Portland and Westbrook and many towns. It is built largely on two hilly peninsulas overlooking Casco Bay. Industries include pulp and paper, shipbuilding, publishing, commercial fishing, and lumber. It was the birthplace of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.
(as used in expressions)
Chase Salmon Portland

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      city, seat (1760) of Cumberland county, southwestern Maine, U.S. The state's largest city, it is the hub of a metropolitan statistical area that includes the cities of South Portland and Westbrook and the towns of Falmouth, Cape Elizabeth, Cumberland, Freeport, Gorham, Scarborough, Windham, and Yarmouth and, in York county, the town of Old Orchard Beach. The city is built largely on two hilly peninsulas overlooking Casco Bay and its many islands.

      Portland was settled in 1633 by the Englishmen Richard Tucker and George Cleeve. During its early years it was known by several names (Machigonne, Indigreat, Elbow, The Neck, Casco, and Falmouth). It was raided in 1676 by Indians and in 1690 by French and Indians. In 1775 the settlement (then known as Falmouth) was bombarded and burned by the British. Rebuilt, it was incorporated as a town in 1786 and named for the Isle of Portland in Dorsetshire, England. When Maine became a state in 1820, Portland served as the capital until 1831. A fire that resulted from an Independence Day celebration destroyed much of the city centre in 1866. Reconstruction soon took place, however, and the city continued to grow. Portland's traditional fishing, shipping, and commercial activities were increasingly supplemented by manufacturing industries. Naval shipbuilding was important in World Wars I and II.

      Portland is a busy transportation and commercial centre and a major petroleum port, the eastern terminus of the Portland-Montreal oil pipeline. It has extensive foreign and coastal trade. The city's diversified manufactures include semiconductors, food products, stainless steel, and printed materials; ship modernization and repair and commercial fishing also are important. Within the metropolitan area pulp and paper, lumber and wood products, footwear, electromechanical products, electronics, and plastic components are produced. The city is the location of the Westbrook College Campus (1831) of the University of New England and has an art museum and a symphony orchestra. The University of Southern Maine (Maine, University of) (founded 1878) has campuses in Portland and nearby Gorham. Colonial landmarks include the childhood home (1785) of the poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth), Tate House (1755), and the Portland Head Light (1791), one of the oldest lighthouses in the United States. The renovated Old Port Exchange area along Portland's waterfront is now the site of trendy shops and restaurants. The Two Lights and Crescent Beach state parks are nearby. Inc. city, 1832. Pop. (1990) city, 64,358; Portland MSA, 221,095; (2000) city, 64,249; Portland MSA, 243,537.

 city, seat (1854) of Multnomah county, northwestern Oregon, U.S. The state's largest city, it lies just south of Vancouver, Washington, on the Willamette River near its confluence with the Columbia River, about 100 miles (160 km) by river from the Pacific Ocean. Portland is the focus of a large surrounding urban area that, in addition to Vancouver, includes such Oregon cities as Beaverton and Gresham. Inc. 1851. Pop. (2000) city, 529,121; Portland-Vancouver-Beaverton MSA, 1,927,881; (2006 est.) city, 537,081; Portland-Vancouver-Beaverton MSA, 2,133,775.

 The Lewis and Clark Expedition passed near the site on the Columbia River in 1805–06. The city was laid out in 1845 and, after two of its early citizens flipped a penny, was named for Portland, Maine, rather than Boston, Massachusetts. Early growth was stimulated by a number of gold rushes and the flow of immigrants along the Oregon Trail. Portland attracted a large population of Chinese immigrants. The city's area grew in the 1890s when it annexed surrounding communities, and the 1905 exposition celebrating the 100th anniversary of Lewis's and Clark's arrival brought the city national attention. Portland's position at the junction of the Columbia River and the main north-south route from California to Puget Sound made it a valuable commercial centre handling the farm and forest produce of the Cascade Range, Willamette River valley, and Columbia River basin. The construction of deepwater port facilities capable of harbouring oceangoing vessels, the completion of the Northern Pacific transcontinental railroad, and the introduction of cheap hydroelectric power encouraged industry, and during World War II Portland was a major shipbuilding centre. Successful urban revitalization programs were undertaken in the 1970s and '80s.

The contemporary city
 High-technology industries and electronics manufacturing, including software development, computer services, and the production of computers, computer equipment, and measuring instruments, are a major part of Portland's economy. Other manufactures include shoes and apparel, trucks and truck parts, paper products and packaging, aerospace equipment, machinery, and metals and metal products. Food processing, printing and publishing, and services such as health care, education, distribution, and tourism are also important. The city has an international airport, and its port is one of the country's largest handlers of wheat and automobile shipments.

      This heavily forested city contains more than 14 square miles (36 square km) of parkland, including the 5,000-acre (2,000-hectare) Forest Park on the northwest side. The International Rose Test Garden (established in 1917), with hundreds of varieties of roses, is one of several cultivated green spaces throughout the city; there is also an arboretum, a botanic garden, and Chinese and Japanese gardens. The Grotto is a Roman Catholic shrine of gardens and religious statues. Seventeen bridges cross the city's waterways. Portland is the home of the National Basketball Association's Trail Blazers. Educational institutions include the University of Portland (1901), Concordia University (1905), Reed College (1908), Lewis and Clark College (1867), Warner Pacific College (1937), Portland State University (1946), Portland Community College (1961), Cascade College (1993; a centre of the University of Oregon (Oregon, University of)), and Oregon Health and Science University.

      Portland's annual Rose Festival (June) is widely acclaimed, and a blues festival and a brewer's festival are held each July. The city is a centre of small-craft beer brewing, and the Willamette River valley is a scenic wine-producing region. Cultural institutions include symphony, ballet, opera, and theatre organizations as well as art and historical museums. The Oregon Museum of Science and Industry includes a planetarium and a submarine exhibit. The World Forestry Center operates a museum devoted to forest issues, and the American Advertising Museum displays exhibits on the history of advertising. Nearby scenic areas include the 620-foot (190-metre) Multnomah Falls and Vista House, reached by the Historic Columbia River Highway, and Mount Hood National Forest. Snowcapped Mount Hood is about 50 miles (80 km) east-southeast, and Mount Rainier (Rainier, Mount), Mount St. Helens (Saint Helens, Mount), and Mount Adams in Washington are also visible from the city.

      town and port, southern Victoria, Australia. It lies on Portland Bay, an inlet of the Indian Ocean. The bay was first visited by Europeans in 1800 and named for the duke of Portland by James Grant, a British naval officer; two years later Nicolas Baudin, a French navigator, called it Tourville, a name that persists. The first permanent European settlement in Victoria was made on the site by the Henty family, who established a sheep and whaling station there in 1834. It became a borough in 1863 and a town in 1949.

      Connected to Adelaide and Melbourne (185 miles [298 km] northeast) by rail and by the Prince's Highway, Portland has the only deepwater harbour between the two cities. With improved facilities, the port's trade increased after 1950, with oil as the major import commodity and wool, wheat, and frozen meat as the main exports. A fishing fleet supplies a cannery in the town. Pop. (2001) 9,588.

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Universalium. 2010.

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