/feuh tog"reuh fee/, n.
1. the process or art of producing images of objects on sensitized surfaces by the chemical action of light or of other forms of radiant energy, as x-rays, gamma rays, or cosmic rays.
2. cinematography.
[1839; PHOTO- + -GRAPHY]

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Method of recording permanent images by the action of light projected by a lens in a camera onto a film or other light-sensitive material.

It was developed in the 19th century through the artistic aspirations of two Frenchmen, Nicéphore Niepce and Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre, whose combined discoveries led to the invention of the first commercially successful process, the daguerreotype (1837). In addition, two Englishmen, Thomas Wedgwood and William Henry Fox Talbot, patented the negative-positive calotype process (1839) that became the forerunner of modern photographic technique. Photography was initially used for portraiture and landscapes. In the 1850s and '60s, Mathew B. Brady and Roger Fenton pioneered war photography and photojournalism. From its inception, two views of photography predominated: one approach held that the camera and its resulting images truthfully document the real world, while the other considered the camera simply to be a tool, much like a paintbrush, with which to create artistic statements. The latter notion, known as Pictorialism, held sway from the late 1860s through the first decade of the 20th century, as photographers manipulated their negatives and prints to create hazy, elaborately staged images that resembled paintings. By the 1920s and '30s, a new, more realistic style of photography gained prominence, as photographers such as Paul Strand, Edward Weston, and Ansel Adams began to pursue sharply focused, detailed images. The Great Depression and two world wars inspired many photographers, including Walker Evans and Dorothea Lange, to pursue documentary, often socially conscious photography. Inspired by such work, many photojournalists, including Alfred Eisenstaedt and Margaret Bourke-White, also emerged during this period. In the second half of the 20th century, the urban social scene became a subject of much interest to photographers, as did celebrity portraiture and fashion photography. At the turn of the 21st century, photographers took advantage of digital capabilities by experimenting with enormous formats and new manipulative techniques. As technological advances improve photographic equipment, materials, and techniques, the scope of photography continues to expand enormously. See also digital camera.

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▪ 1994

      Advances in film technology outpaced innovations in camera design in 1993 with the introduction of significantly improved emulsions for colour transparencies and prints. For the camera industry the segment of the market showing the most vigorous growth was that for 35-mm single-use cameras. Culturally it was a record-breaking year for the price paid for a single photograph at auction. Richard Avedon's highly touted and widely praised autobiography dominated the photographic cocktail-table-book category.

Photo Equipment.
      Captiva, Polaroid's newest system of instant photography, reached the U.S. in 1993. Originally code-named Joshua and first shown at Germany's Photokina exhibition in late 1992, Captiva was a compact, folding single-lens-reflex (SLR) camera that used a 10-exposure Vision 95 film cartridge loaded with ISO 600 fine-grained film. Weighing 740 g (26 oz) and measuring 5.7× 8.3×17.8 cm (2 1/4× 3 3/4×7 in) when folded, the camera was designed to compete with conventional 35-mm point-and-shoot compacts in terms of size and ease of operation. It produced unconventionally small colour prints—about the size of a credit card—on a white backing. The Captiva featured a 107-mm f/12 lens, shutter speeds from 1/4 to 1/180 second, a wink-light autofocus system, and built-in flash.

      After the impressive number of innovative, high-technology 35-mm SLR cameras introduced in 1992, including the Nikon N90, the Canon EOS A2E, and the Maxxum 9xi, 1993 was a relatively quiet year for SLR design. A new player in the field, the lens manufacturer Sigma, introduced its first SLR camera, the Sigma SA-300. Made in Sigma's own factory, it was a multifeatured autofocus model with a unique Sigma SA dual lens mount that had an inner bayonet for most lenses and an outer one to minimize vignetting with wide-aperture lenses and telephotos. The camera accepted SA-mount Sigma lenses with built-in motors to control autofocus and lens aperture, had shutter speeds from 30 seconds to 1/4,000 second, and included a pop-up flash.

      The population explosion of compact 35-mm point-and-shoot cameras continued with new entries ranging from basic fixed-focus types to sophisticated, elegantly designed luxury models. Manufacturers competed in attempts to increase the focal range of built-in zoom lenses while retaining compactness and offering attractive features. Cameras with midrange zooms from 35 or 38 mm to 70, 80, or 90 mm were widely available, and an increasing number of cameras had zooms that reached a focal length of 105, 110, or 115 mm. In the latter category was Canon's stylish Sure Shot Z115 with an anodized-aluminum-clad body, a 38-115-mm f/3.6-8.5 lens focusing to 41 cm (16 in), and a 4-1/1,200-second shutter. The Pentax IQZoom 280-P was the first compact to offer a 28-80-mm f/3.5-f/8 zoom range. The Ricoh Shotmaster Zoom 105 Plus went a step further with a 28-105-mm zoom capacity, achieved with a converter lens that could be placed behind the camera's basic 38-105-mm f/3.6-5.5 lens to give 28-mm coverage, but at the cost of slowing the lens to f/8. Among new fixed-focal-length models was Nikon's ultracompact Lite-Touch, claimed to be the smallest and lightest autofocus point-and-shoot yet made. The Lite-Touch weighed only 170 g (6 oz) with battery, came with a 28-mm f/3.5 lens, and provided shutter speeds from 1/4 to 1/450 second. The generously wide-angle lens lent itself well to making panoramic-format pictures, which one could take at any point on a roll by turning a switch.

      During a year when camera sales were mostly slack, by far the fastest-growing segment of the camera industry was the single-use type. These cardboard-encased, plastic 35-mm fixed-focus models were purchased preloaded with film. After the roll was exposed, both camera and film were turned over to a photofinisher, who processed the film and returned the camera to the manufacturer for recycling or disposal. Very popular among casual snapshooters, for special occasions, or as a substitute when a conventional camera was left behind, some 22 million single-use cameras were sold in the U.S. alone in 1992, with higher sales expected in 1993.

      Kodak updated its Fun Saver and Fun Saver with Flash single-use models. The new cameras were slimmed to 29 mm (slightly more than an inch) thick and given a large grip, an optical viewfinder, and a bubble magnifier for the film counter. Both came loaded with a 27-exposure roll of Kodak Gold Ultra 400 film. Kodak also introduced a Fun Saver portrait camera whose hinged flap diffused the flash to soften the lighting and lessen the chance of red-eye. Fuji redesigned its QuickSnap line of general-purpose, flash, panoramic, and waterproof models, loading them with Super G 400 film and providing 27 rather than 24 exposures.

      For films it was another year of extraordinary modifications and improvements that resulted in greater sharpness, finer grain, and rich colour at higher speeds. Kodak introduced two new families of E-6 Ektachrome colour transparency film. Lumiere, designed for professionals, was available in ISO 50 and 100 speeds and in warm (designated X) or neutral colour balance. The films incorporated T-grain emulsion technology in every imaging layer and were claimed to have exceptional sharpness, low granularity, accurate flesh tones, and improved "pushability" (extension of sensitivity by special processing). Elite, designed for general consumers, was available in ISO 50, 100, and 200 speeds and provided increased sharpness, improved skin tones, and brilliant colour. (Elite 400 was the existing Ektachrome 400 under a new name.) An ISO 50 Ektachrome for underwater use had an increased sensitivity to red light to compensate for the blue filtering effect of water. A new Kodak colour print film, Gold Ultra 400, offered excellent sharpness, improved exposure latitude, and rich colour saturation at ISO 400. Konica announced new Konica Color Super XG 100, 200, and 400 to replace its Super-SR series.

Cultural Trends.
      The New York Metropolitan Museum of Art's department of photography, established in 1992, produced its first major exhibition, "The Waking Dream: Photography's First Century." It won enthusiastic critical and public response when it opened in New York City before going on tour. The 253 pictures from the Gilman Paper Co. collection traced the evolution of photography from its primitive beginnings in 1839 to its maturing as a sophisticated creative medium some 100 years later.

      "John Heartfield: Photomontages" opened at New York City's Museum of Modern Art with a display of that artist's use of photographs, headlines, and other graphic elements to create savage satires attacking fascist brutality in Europe in the 1930s. The National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C., presented a retrospective exhibition covering 80 years of work by Harlem's great Afro-American photographer James VanDerZee. In a more contemporary vein at the California Museum of Photography, Riverside, was "Documentary Fictions/Digital Truths: New Photographs by Pedro Meyer," in which the noted Mexican photographer used computer imaging to create effects of magic realism.

      "In Human Effort," an exhibition of pictures by Brazilian-born Sebastião Salgado at the Tokyo National Museum of Modern Art, was the first in the history of Japan's national museums to display works of an individual photographer. "The Photographs of Shoji Ueda," shown at the Tokyo Station Gallery, illustrated through numerous vintage prints the "modernism, realism, attitude, and vision" of this creative photographer. Other major exhibitions included "Love You, Tokyo" at the Setagaya (Tokyo) Museum, featuring renowned photographers Kineo Kuwabara and Nobuyoshi Araki.

      Avedon's An Autobiography was launched amid a major media blitz in national magazines and on television shows. The sumptuously produced book gave a fascinating, highly personal survey of this influential, multifaceted photographer's lifework to date in fashion, reportage, portraiture, and photomontage. Richard Lorenz in Imogen Cunningham: Ideas Without End presented a revisionist view of the late long-lived member of California's famed Group f.64. Using 179 Cunningham photographs, many never before published, he asserted that she was not only a photographer in the "straight" tradition of Edward Weston and Ansel Adams but also a radical experimentalist. Adams, too, was presented in an unaccustomed guise as a colour photographer in Ansel Adams in Color with 50 colour transparencies selected by Harry Callahan. The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs by Henry Wilhelm with Carol Brower, decades in the making, provided an exhaustive and authoritative account of this important subject.

      It was a record-breaking year for prices paid at auction for single photographs. The previous world record of $181,000 in 1992 for "Girl with Leica" by Alexander Rodchenko was toppled by $193,895 paid for Man Ray's "Glass Tears" at Sotheby's in London in mid-1993. This, in turn, was surpassed at a later auction of rare Alfred Stieglitz prints at the Pace/MacGill Gallery, New York City, where a 1920 photograph by Stieglitz, "Georgia O'Keeffe: A Portrait—Hands and Thimble," sold for an extraordinary $398,500.

      The Pulitzer Prize for spot news photography went to William Snyder and Ken Geiger of the Dallas (Texas) Morning News for images of the Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain. Winning a Pulitzer for the third straight year, the Associated Press took the prize for feature photography, awarded for 20 images by 10 staff photographers documenting Bill Clinton's U.S. presidential campaign. At the 50th Pictures of the Year competition sponsored by the National Press Photographers Association and the University of Missouri School of Journalism, James Nachtwey of Magnum was named Magazine Photographer of the Year for his reportage from Somalia. Carol Guzy of the Washington (D.C.) Post won the Newspaper Photographer of the Year award for her portfolio. At the 36th Annual World Press Photo competition, the Press Photo of the Year had two recipients, Nachtwey for photography in South Africa and Marc Asnin of Saba Pictures for an ongoing documentation of the life of his "Uncle Charlie." At the International Center of Photography's 1993 awards program, recipients included Avedon for the Master of Photography Award and Stefan Lorant, famed photographic editor from the early days of modern photojournalism, for the Lifetime Achievement Award. The W. Eugene Smith Grant in Humanistic Photography was yet another award received by Nachtwey for his coverage of Somalia. (ARTHUR GOLDSMITH)

      See also Motion Pictures .

      This updates the article photography (photography, history of).

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Universalium. 2010.

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