/pawl/ for 1-3, 5; /powl/ for 4, n.
1. Saint, died A.D. c67, a missionary and apostle to the gentiles: author of several of the Epistles. Cf. Saul (def. 2).
2. Alice, 1885-1977, U.S. women's-rights activist.
3. Elliot (Harold), 1891-1958, U.S. novelist.
4. Jean /zhahonn/, pen name of Jean Paul Friedrich Richter.
5. a male given name: from a Latin word meaning "little".

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born Oct. 1, 1754, St. Petersburg, Russia
died March 23, 1801, St. Petersburg

Tsar of Russia (1796–1801).

He was the son of Peter III and Catherine II, whom he succeeded as emperor in 1796. He reversed many of Catherine's policies, strengthened the autocracy, and established the law of succession within the male line of the Romanov dynasty. He provoked the hostility of the nobles and the army with his tyrannical rule and capricious foreign policy, which drew Russia into war with France. In a plot by the nobles to depose him and place his son Alexander (later Alexander I) on the throne, Paul was assassinated.
(as used in expressions)
Barras Paul François Jean Nicolas viscount de
Belmondo Jean Paul
Berg Paul
Bert Paul
Birtwistle Sir Harrison Paul
Borduas Paul Émile
Bowles Paul Frederick
Braudel Paul Achille Fernand
Brazza Pierre Paul François Camille Savorgnan de
Broca Paul
Brook Sir Peter Stephen Paul
Paul William Bryant
Bunyan Paul
Cambon Pierre Paul
Celan Paul
Paul Antschel
Cézanne Paul
Claudel Paul Louis Charles Marie
Creston Paul
de Man Paul
Déroulède Paul
Joseph Paul DiMaggio
Dirac Paul Adrien Maurice
Doré Gustave Paul
Dukas Paul Abraham
Dunbar Paul Laurence
Ehrlich Paul
Ehrlich Paul Ralph
Éluard Paul
Erdös Paul
Foucault Michel Paul
Gauguin Eugène Henri Paul
Getty Museum J. Paul
Getty Trust J. Paul
Getty Jean Paul
Gide André Paul Guillaume
Goebbels Paul Joseph
Greengard Paul
Grévy François Paul Jules
Harvey Paul
Heyse Paul Johann Ludwig von
Hindemith Paul
Indy Paul Marie Theodore Vincent d'
Jobs Steven Paul
Jones John Paul
Kagame Paul
Kane Paul
Klee Paul
Kruger Paul
Lamerie Paul de
Marat Jean Paul
Martin Paul
McCartney Sir James Paul
Newman Paul
Nurse Sir Paul M.
Paul Les
Paul Lewis
Paul Saint
Poiret Paul
Pollock Paul Jackson
Prud'hon Pierre Paul
Erich Paul Kramer
Reuter Paul Julius Baron von Reuter
Revere Paul
Reynaud Paul
Richter Curt Paul
Riopelle Jean Paul
Robeson Paul Bustill
Roussel Albert Charles Paul Marie
Rubens Peter Paul
Saint Paul's Cathedral
Samuelson Paul Anthony
Sartre Jean Paul
Scarron Paul
Scofield David Paul
Scott Paul Mark
Signac Paul
Simon Paul Frederic
Spaak Paul Henri
Stevens John Paul
Strand Paul
Taylor Paul Belville
Tillich Paul Johannes
Valéry Ambroise Paul Toussaint Jules
Verlaine Paul Marie
Vincent de Paul Saint
Volcker Paul Adolph
Warfield Paul
Weingartner Paul Felix lord von Münzberg
Whiteman Paul
Wigner Eugene Paul
Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk
Hindenburg Paul von
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg
Lafayette Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier marquis de

* * *

▪ emperor of Russia
Russian  in full Pavel Petrovich  
born Oct. 1 [Sept. 20, Old Style], 1754, St. Petersburg, Russia
died March 23 [March 11], 1801, St. Petersburg

      emperor of Russia from 1796 to 1801.

      Son of Peter III (reigned 1762) and Catherine II the Great (reigned 1762–96), Paul was reared by his father's aunt, the empress Elizabeth (reigned 1741–61). After 1760 he was tutored by Catherine's close adviser, the learned diplomat Nikita Ivanovich Panin, but the boy never developed good relations with his mother, who wrested the imperial crown from her mentally feeble husband in 1762 and, afterward, consistently refused to allow Paul to participate actively in government affairs.

      Having married Sophia Dorothea of Württemberg (Russian name Maria Fyodorovna) in 1776 shortly after his first wife, Wilhelmina of Darmstadt (Russian name Nataliya Alekseyevna), died, Paul and his wife were settled by Catherine on an estate at Gatchina (1783), where Paul, removed from the centre of government at St. Petersburg, held his own small court and engaged himself in managing his estate, drilling his private army corps, and contemplating government reforms.

      Despite Catherine's apparent intention to name Paul's son Alexander her heir, Paul succeeded her when she died (Nov. 17 [Nov. 6], 1796) and immediately repealed the decree issued by Peter I the Great in 1722 that had given each monarch the right to choose his successor; in its place Paul established in 1797 a definite order of succession within the male line of the Romanov family. Paul also, in an effort to strengthen the autocracy, reversed many of Catherine's policies; he reestablished centralized administrative agencies she had abolished in 1775, increased bureaucratic control in local government, and sought to impose limits on the authority of the nobles. In the process he provoked the hostility of the nobles, and, when he introduced harsh disciplinary measures in the army and displayed a marked preference for his Gatchina troops, the military, particularly the prestigious guards units, also turned against him.

      Confidence in his ability dropped even among his trusted supporters because of a number of actions. He demonstrated an inconsistent policy toward the peasantry and rapidly shifted from a peaceful foreign policy (1796) to involvement in the second coalition against Napoleon (1798) to an anti-British policy (1800). By the end of 1800, he had maneuvered Russia into the disadvantageous position of being officially at war with France, unofficially at war with Great Britain, without diplomatic relations with Austria, and on the verge of sending an army through the unmapped khanates in Central Asia to invade British-controlled India.

      As a result of his inconsistent policies, as well as his tyrannical and capricious manner of implementing them, a group of highly placed civil and military officials, led by Count Peter von Pahlen, governor-general of St. Petersburg, and General Leonty Leontyevich, Count von Bennigsen, gained the approval of Alexander, the heir to the throne, to depose his father. On March 23 (March 11), 1801, they penetrated the Mikhaylovsky Palace and assassinated Paul in his bedchamber.

▪ king of Greece
born Dec. 14, 1901, Athens
died March 6, 1964, Athens
 king of Greece (1947–64) who helped his country overcome Communist guerrilla forces after World War II.

      The third son of King Constantine I of Greece, Paul left Greece with his father following Constantine's deposition in 1917. He refused the crown after the death of his brother, King Alexander (October 1920), but returned home in December 1920 upon Constantine's restoration to the throne. With the rise of republican feeling, however, he again left Greece (December 1923) and remained in exile until 1935, when his brother George was recalled as king. In 1938 Paul married his young cousin, the princess Frederika of Brunswick. He held officer's rank in the Greek Navy, Army, and Air Force and was a member of the army general staff at the outbreak of war with Italy (1940). In 1941 he escaped from occupied Greece and lived in Cairo and South Africa.

      After the war Paul again returned home and ascended the throne upon the death of George (April 1, 1947). At that time Greece received U.S. economic assistance and help in putting down the Communist insurrection. Though professing aloofness from politics, he occasionally intervened in domestic issues.

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Universalium. 2010.

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