/awr"inj, or"-/, n.
1. a globose, reddish-yellow, bitter or sweet, edible citrus fruit.
2. any white-flowered, evergreen citrus trees of the genus Citrus, bearing this fruit, as C. aurantium (bitter orange, Seville orange, or sour orange) and C. sinensis (sweet orange), cultivated in warm countries.
3. any of several other citrus trees, as the trifoliate orange.
4. any of several trees or fruits resembling an orange.
5. a color between yellow and red in the spectrum, an effect of light with a wavelength between 590 and 610 nm; reddish yellow.
6. Art. a secondary color that has been formed by the mixture of red and yellow pigments.
7. of or pertaining to the orange.
8. made or prepared with oranges or orangelike flavoring: orange sherbet.
9. of the color orange; reddish-yellow.
[1300-50; ME: the fruit or tree < OF orenge, c. Sp naranja < Ar naranj < Pers narang < Skt naranga]

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Any of several species of small trees or shrubs in the genus Citrus of the rue (or citrus) family and their fruits.

Grown in tropical and subtropical regions, the nearly round fruits have leathery, oily rinds and edible, juicy inner flesh rich in vitamin C. Key commercial species include the China (sweet, or common) orange; the mandarin orange (including tangerines); and seedless navel oranges. The tree has broad, glossy, medium-size evergreen leaves, leafstalks with narrow wings, and very fragrant flowers. It bears fruit abundantly for 50–80 years. Oranges do not improve in quality off the tree, so they are picked when fully ripe. A sizeable portion of the U.S. crop is processed for frozen concentrated juice. By-products include essential oils, pectin, candied peel, orange marmalade, and stock feed.
(as used in expressions)
Orange house of

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      city, Orange county, southern California, U.S. Adjacent to Anaheim (west) and Santa Ana (south), it lies along the Santa Ana River. Part of Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, the city was founded as Richland in 1869 by Alfred Chapman and Andrew Glassell, who received the land as payment for legal fees. The town was laid out in 1871 and renamed in 1875 for its orange groves. Both the Southern Pacific and Santa Fe railways arrived in the 1880s, encouraging development of the area. Orange was initially a citrus-packing centre. It subsequently developed with the Los Angeles metropolitan area and acquired some light manufacturing. Orange is the seat of Chapman University (established 1861 in Los Angeles, relocated 1954) and a community college (1985). Inc. city, 1888. Pop. (1990) 110,658; (2000) 128,821.

      town (township), New Haven county, southwestern Connecticut, U.S., west of New Haven on the Housatonic River. Originally a part of Milford colony (on land bought from the Paugusset Indians and settled in 1639), it was known as North Milford. In 1822 the latter joined with part of New Haven to be incorporated as the town of Orange, named for William III, prince of Orange. In 1921 West Haven seceded from Orange to become a separate town. Development has been mainly residential with some diversified manufacturing. Area 17 square miles (45 square km). Pop. (1990) 12,830; (2000) 13,233.

 town, Vaucluse département, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur région, southeastern France. It lies in a fertile plain on the left bank of the Rhône River, north of Avignon.

      Orange derives its name from Arausio, a Gaulish god. Under the Roman emperor Augustus's rule it became prosperous. In the 5th century it was pillaged by the Visigoths. The town became an independent county in the 11th century and later passed to the house of Nassau. The French king Louis XIV captured the town and pulled down its fortifications in 1660. Orange was ceded to France in 1713 by the Treaty of Utrecht.

      The town expanded around the Roman monuments for which it is famous. The semicircular theatre, probably built during the reign of Augustus (27 BC–AD 14), is the best preserved of its kind. The tiered benches (partly rebuilt), which rise on the slopes of a slight hill, originally seated 1,100. The magnificent wall that constitutes the back of the theatre is 334 feet (102 metres) long and 124 feet (38 metres) high. An imposing statue of Augustus, about 12 feet (3.7 metres) high, stands in the wall's central niche. Orange also has a triumphal arch that is one of the largest built by the Romans. It is about 61 feet (19 metres) high and has fine sculptures evoking the victories in the 1st century BC of the Roman general and statesman Julius Caesar. The theatre, its surroundings, and its arch were collectively designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1981.

      Modern-day Orange is an agricultural processing centre. Tourism is important, as is the manufacturing of glass. An air force base lies about 3 miles (5 km) east of the town. Pop. (1999) 27,989; (2005 est.) 29,000.

also called  City of Orange 

      township, Essex county, northeastern New Jersey, U.S. It lies just west of Newark. Named Mountain Plantations when it was settled in 1678, it was later renamed to honour William, prince of Orange, who became William III of Great Britain. Orange was a part of Newark until 1806, when it became a separate community.

      In the early 1800s the discovery of mineral springs in what is now West Orange brought about an influx of hotels and tourism. East Orange and West Orange separated from Orange in 1863, and South Orange was created in 1869; these municipalities, along with Maplewood, now constitute a suburban community called “The Oranges.” They are mainly residential suburbs of New York City and Newark, the first commuters having arrived with the completion of a railroad in 1838. With the Industrial Revolution, Orange became a manufacturing centre for shoes and hats, since replaced by petroleum products, tools, electrical equipment, business machines, and printing products. Inc. town, 1860; city, 1872. Pop. (1990) 29,925; (2000) 32,868.

      city, east-central New South Wales, Australia. It is located near the slopes of Mount Canobolas, an extinct volcano. In 1828 the area was named by Sir Thomas Mitchell in memory of the Prince of Orange, his commander during the Peninsular War, and the village of Orange was proclaimed in 1846. It grew after the announcement in 1851 of payable gold deposits at nearby Ophir. Farming replaced mining, and Orange is now the centre of a fruit-growing (mainly apples), mixed-farming, and grazing area. It has stockyards and abattoirs, and light-industrial development includes the manufacture of electrical appliances. It was proclaimed a town in 1885 and a city in 1946. In 1972 it was proclaimed part of the Bathurst-Orange Growth Area, designed to promote decentralization. Orange is noted for its parks and its October cherry blossom festival. Pop. (2006) local government area, 35,339.

      city, seat (1852) of Orange county, southeastern Texas, U.S. It lies at the Louisiana state line. Orange is a deepwater port on the Sabine River, which has been canalized to connect with the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. It is linked to Beaumont and Port Arthur by the tall Rainbow Bridge (1938), built to allow passage of the tallest ship of its time; with Beaumont and Port Arthur, Orange forms the “Golden Triangle” industrial complex.

      Settled in 1836 as Green's Bluff, it was known as Madison in 1852 but was renamed (1856) for an extensive orange grove along the river. An early rice, lumber, and shipbuilding centre, it boomed during World War I when shipyard construction became a major industry. After World War II the U.S. Navy maintained a naval station and “mothball fleet” there. Orange is located in a major natural-gas and oil-field area. Its key industries include steel fabrication, shipbuilding, and the manufacture of petrochemicals, synthetic rubber, paper products, and cement. A branch (1969) of Lamar University is in the city. The Stark Museum of Art houses a significant collection of western Americana, including works by Frederic Remington (Remington, Frederic), Albert Bierstadt (Bierstadt, Albert), and Charles Russell. Inc. 1881. Pop. (1990) 19,381; (2000) 18,643.

      county, southeastern New York state, U.S., located mostly in the Hudson River valley. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the northwest (the Delaware River constituting the boundary), New Jersey to the southwest, and the Hudson River to the east. Among the other waterways are the Wallkill and Neversink rivers and Shawangunk Kill. Storm King Mountain is a massive granite formation in the Palisades, a stretch of sandstone bluffs along the Hudson. Harriman State Park, in the southeastern corner of the county, is the second largest state park in New York. Other parklands include Highland Lakes, Goosepond Mountain, and Storm King state parks; the Appalachian National Scenic Trail crosses the southeastern corner of the county. The major forest types are oak and hickory.

      Algonquian-speaking Indians lived in the area in the 17th century. One of the original New York counties, Orange was created in 1683 and named for William of Orange (later William III of England). Many notable military commanders were trained at the United States Military Academy at West Point (founded 1802), one of the oldest service academies in the world. The county seat is Goshen, which is the home of the Trotting Horse Museum and the Historic Track, the nation's oldest track for trotting horse competition (began 1838). Other communities include Newburgh, Middletown, Warwick, New Windsor, and Port Jervis.

      The main economic activities are services, retail trade, and agriculture (especially vegetables). Area 816 square miles (2,114 square km). Pop. (2000) 341,367; (2007 est.) 377,169.

      county, eastern Vermont, U.S., bounded to the east by New Hampshire; the Connecticut River constitutes the border. It consists of a piedmont region that includes Butterfield, Knox, and Braintree mountains. The county is drained by the Ompompanoosuc, White, Waits, and Wells rivers; Lakes Morey and Fairlee are among the larger lakes. Recreational areas include Allis and Thetford Hill state parks. The main species of timber are white pine, hard maple, and hemlock.

      Jacob Bayley, a Revolutionary War general, helped settle the region, notably by founding Newbury in 1763 and by building the Bayley-Hazen Military Road in 1776–79. The county was formed in 1781 and named for William of Orange ( William III of England). Randolph developed with the coming of the railroad in 1848. Tunbridge is the site of the century-old annual Tunbridge World's Fair.

      The county seat is Chelsea. Notable buildings include Maple Grove (built 1804) in Randolph Center, the Newton House (built 1835) in Brookfield, and the Justin S. Morrill Homestead (built 1848–51) in Strafford. The county contains about a dozen covered bridges as well as a floating bridge in Brookfield. The principal industries are tourism, manufacturing (textiles and lumber), and agriculture. Area 689 square miles (1,784 square km). Pop. (2000) 28,226; (2007 est.) 29,002.

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Universalium. 2010.

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