Northern Territory

Northern Territory
a territory in N Australia. 123,324; 523,620 sq. mi. (1,356,175 sq. km). Cap.: Darwin.

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Territory (pop., 2001 prelim.: 200,019), northern Australia.

It covers an area of 520,900 sq mi (1,349,130 sq km). Its capital is Darwin; the only other sizable town is Alice Springs. Most of the people are of European descent; about one-fifth are Australian Aboriginals. It consists mainly of tableland, with the Simpson Desert in the southeast and the Arnhem Land plateau in the north. It was inhabited by Aboriginals for thousands of years; they held Ayers Rock as central to their culture. The coast was explored by the Dutch in the 17th century and surveyed in the early 19th century by Matthew Flinders. First included as part of New South Wales, it was annexed to South Australia in 1863. It reverted to being under direct control of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1911. The northern parts were bombed by the Japanese in World War II and occupied by Allied troops. It was granted self-government within the Commonwealth in 1978. It remains sparsely inhabited; its economy rests on cattle farming, mining, government services, and a growing tourism industry.

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Northern Territory, flag of the  self-governing territory of Australia, occupying the central section of the northern part of the continent.

 The Northern Territory is bounded by the Timor (Timor Sea) and Arafura (Arafura Sea) seas to the north and by Western Australia to the west, Queensland and the Gulf of Carpentaria (Carpentaria, Gulf of) to the east, and South Australia to the south. It is approximately 1,000 miles (1,600 km) from north to south and 600 miles (970 km) from east to west and occupies more than one-sixth of the Australian landmass. It is largely tropical in the north and semiarid in the far south.

      Constitutionally, the territory was inferior in status to the states until 1978, and it had limited legislative powers until self-government was granted in that year. Its development since 1911, when it was transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia from South Australia, has been a major item of expenditure in terms of works, services, and inducements to producers to accept the risks of an uncertain physical and economic environment. The nature of the climate, the poor soils, distance from assured markets, and problems of recruiting labour have been considerable handicaps. Nevertheless, increased mining activity in the early 21st century has significantly strengthened the economy. Moreover, since the end of the 20th century the population of the Northern Territory has become one of the fastest-growing in the country; most residents are concentrated in and around the capital city, Darwin. Area 520,902 square miles (1,349,129 square km). Pop. (2006) 192,898.


  The coastline is flat with low headlands and is mostly fringed with mangrove swamps. There are many offshore islands, of which Melville and Bathurst (Bathurst Island) islands and Groote Eylandt (“Big Island”) are the largest. Inland from the coastal belt and the Arnhem Land plateau there is a gradual rise southward to the town of Tennant Creek on the vast plateau (1,000–2,000 feet [300–600 metres]) of ancient Precambrian rock that extends south and west into the neighbouring states. Farther south, Alice Springs is situated on an alluvial plain in the MacDonnell Ranges, where Mount Zeil reaches 4,957 feet (1,511 metres) above sea level, the highest point in the territory. There are remarkable tors (tor) (prominent rocky hills) 200 miles (320 km) southwest of Alice Springs, including Mount Olga (1,500 feet [460 metres]), which is the peak of Kata Tjuta (the Olgas), a group of some 30 monoliths and domes, and Ayers Rock (Uluru), a red, ovoid monolith rising about 1,100 feet (335 metres) above the surrounding desert plain. In the territory's southeastern corner is the largely uninhabited Simpson Desert, which extends into the neighbouring states of Queensland and South Australia. To the north of the desert and also stretching into Queensland lies the Barkly Tableland, a grassy upland with an average elevation of 1,000 feet (300 metres).

Drainage and soils
      A number of rivers, of which the Finke (Finke River) and the Todd (Todd River) are the largest, flow from the south-central ranges after rainstorms. Areas north of the Precambrian plateau are drained by some substantial rivers: the Victoria (Victoria River), 350 miles (565 km) long, and the Daly (Daly River), 225 miles (360 km) long, flow to the Timor Sea; the Katherine flows southwest from Arnhem Land to join the Daly; the Adelaide (Adelaide River), Mary, and South and East Alligator (Alligator Rivers) rivers enter Van Diemen Gulf; and the Roper (Roper River) and the McArthur (McArthur River) flow east and northeast into the Gulf of Carpentaria.

 More than one dozen soil types are found in the Northern Territory. Deep, earthy soils are especially common in the northern segment of the territory (a region known as the “Top End”), but they are also found in the Sturt Plateau south of the town of Katherine, in the central region near Tennant Creek, and in southern parts of the territory (i.e., central Australia—called the “Centre,” vis-à-vis the Top End). Iron-rich basaltic soils are found in the Victoria River basin, as are small tracts of soils with high concentrations of calcium carbonate. Cracking clays are prevalent in the alluvial plains of the Victoria, the coastal floodplains of the northern region, and the Barkly Tableland. The well-developed soils of the semiarid Katherine, Douglas, and Daly river regions are farmable and are considered to hold great potential for agricultural development. Highly saline soils and sands are found along the coastline. The Arnhem Land plateau and most of the southern part of the territory are too dry to cultivate, with shallow, gravelly, infertile soils. The Simpson Desert is remarkable for its dunes and ridges of red sand. Erosion is a major land-management issue in most areas of the Northern Territory.

      The territory has a monsoonal climate regime with two seasons: a wet summer (November to April) and a dry winter (May to October). Precipitation is extremely variable and falls largely in summer. The change from the north, where the annual rainfall is 60 inches (1,525 mm), to the southeast, where it is only 5 inches (130 mm), reflects the diminishing influence of the northwestern monsoon and an increasing dependence on tropical thunderstorms. Only about one-third of the territory has an annual rainfall of between 15 and 40 inches (380 and 1,015 mm)—the effective limits of agricultural development. The climate is hot and, in the north, uncomfortably humid for eight months of the year. Mean temperatures at Darwin are 84 °F (29 °C) in January and 77 °F (25 °C) in July, and at Alice Springs 83 °F (28 °C) in January and 53 °F (12 °C) in July. The north is free from frosts, and tropical cyclones (tropical cyclone) (hurricanes) may occur during the wet season.

Plant and animal life
 Some forests with vegetation common to the Southeast Asian peninsula and archipelago exist in Arnhem Land, but otherwise the northern vegetation is open woodland with low eucalypts and tall grasses of low nutritive value for livestock. In the main cattle areas of the Victoria River Downs and the Barkly Tableland, an open-tussock grassland on heavy, gray-brown cracking soils is dominated by Mitchell grass (a perennial Astrebla species) with subdominant Flinders grass (species of Iseilema) and herbs. In the valleys an association of mulga (an acacia tree) with short grasses is a valuable fodder resource. Mixed mulga-spinifex scrub occupies the red plains of the desert nearby, and farther to the west is a desert of hummock grassland composed of widely spaced clumps of spinifex and Triodia. A broad-leaved species of mulga, the witchety bush, harbours a grub much sought by Aboriginal peoples as food.

      The Northern Territory is home to roughly 400 species of birds including various parrots, cockatoos, pigeons, and lorikeets in the rugged central and northern regions; pied imperial pigeons in the rainforests; and singing bush larks, button quail, and flock bronzewings (a type of large pigeon) in the Barkly Tableland. Wading shorebirds and geese are plentiful in the northern wetlands. Some birds, especially coastal species and certain pigeons, are migratory, spending only part of the year in the territory. Among the species endemic to the Northern Territory are the white-throated grass-wren (Amytornis woodwardi), the banded fruit dove (Ptilinopus cinctus), and the chestnut-quilled rock pigeon (Petrophassa rufipennis).

      Some 150 species of mammals live in the territory, including several species of rock rats (especially in Arnhem Land), many bats, nearly two dozen marine mammals, and a variety of marsupials. Kangaroos are widely distributed, but some species have restricted habitats: red kangaroos are adapted to the arid regions, rock wallabies and antilopine wallaroos inhabit the rocky ridges of the northwest, and black wallaroos are restricted to the sandstone escarpments of Arnhem Land. The echidna, an unusual egg-laying mammal, also lives in the Northern Territory, as do the dugong and Irrawaddy dolphin, which are marine mammals. Black wallaroos, along with several species of rock rats, mice, and bats, are endemic to the territory. Formerly domestic animals now existing as large wild populations include camels, water buffalo, cattle, pigs, goats, ponies, horses, and donkeys.

 Skinks are the most abundant of the territory's reptiles and are represented by more than 100 species. Saltwater and freshwater crocodiles are also native to the region, as are marine turtles and nearly 100 varieties of snake, more than one-fifth of which are marine species. The most notable frogs include the ubiquitous green tree frog (Litoria caerulea) and the magnificent tree frog (L. splendida). Other frogs, in the southern part of the territory, emerge only after heavy rain. Among the territory's fish, the barramundi is the best known.


Population composition
      Aboriginal (Australian Aborigine) people have lived continuously in the Northern Territory for at least 40,000 years, having migrated from adjacent parts of Southeast Asia. It is estimated (roughly) that between 35,000 and 70,000 of these indigenous people were resident in the territory when the British began to establish military settlements in the early 19th century. Although no accurate counts of the Aboriginal population exist prior to the mid-20th century, the number of indigenous people is believed to have dropped between the arrival of the Europeans and the end of World War II, primarily as a result of disease, despair, and general neglect by the administration. After World War II, however, the indigenous population grew steadily, and by the early 21st century Aborigines constituted more than one-fourth of the territory's total population.

      Formerly resident in foraging areas throughout the territory, most Aboriginal people have been resettled as a consequence of government policies. More than one-fourth live in urban areas, generally in suburban housing but also in Aboriginal living areas or town camps. Many also live in rural towns established by missionaries and government officials as part of the now-defunct policies of protection and assimilation. The remainder of the indigenous population live in small rural outstations located on traditional Aboriginal lands, where access to standard housing and services such as electricity is often limited.

      Roughly half of the Aboriginal people in the Northern Territory speak an Aboriginal language (Australian Aboriginal languages), and dialects are numerous. Aboriginal languages are agglutinative; that is, they combine into single words two or more elements of distinct and separate meaning. The languages spoken in the northern part of the territory, however, are different in structure and vocabulary from those of the Aranda peoples in the south.

      Between 1824 and 1849 the British (British Empire) made several abortive attempts to establish a trading settlement on the coast; attempts were also made by the South Australian administration between 1864 and 1867. The first successful settlement was at Port Darwin in 1869. When gold mining at nearby Pine Creek and associated railway construction created a labour shortage, Chinese workers were brought in from Singapore and Guangzhou (Canton) (Canton). By 1888, when immigration restrictions were imposed, the Chinese population numbered about 7,000.

      Subsequent immigration was mostly from Europe, but, as restrictions eased in the 1970s, more immigrants started coming from other areas, especially Southeast Asia. Since the late 20th century, the number of Southeast Asian immigrants (largely from the Philippines) has nearly equaled the combined total of newcomers from New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Numerous ethnic associations reflect the dozens of countries that have contributed to the territory's heritage. The majority of the territory's population, however, is Australian-born, having migrated there from other Australian states. Most of the non-Aboriginal people live in one of the few urban centres.

      For much of the period prior to World War II, population growth rates were sluggish. In the second half of the 20th century the population increased rapidly, but the rate of increase was subject to considerable variation because of economic boom and bust and the effects of Cyclone Tracy in 1974, which destroyed most of Darwin. The population remained youthful in the early 21st century, with the highest birth rate in the country and nearly two-fifths of all residents under the age of 25. However, the territory's death rate was also the highest and life expectancy the shortest, owing largely to a mortality rate among Aboriginal peoples that continued to register well above the national average—which, to some extent, was attributable to limited access to quality health care in rural regions.

Settlement patterns
      Despite the large size of the territory, roughly two-thirds of the inhabitants live in and around Darwin and Alice Springs. Away from those centres, settlement is widely dispersed and focused on a handful of mining towns, Aboriginal towns, and rural service centres. Most of the land area is either uninhabited or very thinly populated, reflecting the predominance of pastoral and Aboriginal land use. Remote homesteads on large cattle stations form the base of the rural settlement pattern. Densities in pastoral areas have declined because of the amalgamation of properties and the mechanization of ranching. Since the granting of Aboriginal landrights in the 1970s, there has been an increasing dispersion of the population, as Aboriginal people have settled in small clan-based communities of fewer than 100 people, known as outstations.

      The main urban centre, Darwin, is located on the northwestern monsoonal coast overlooking the Beagle Gulf. It serves as a focus for the Top End region. As the legislative capital and home to more than half the population, Darwin also performs many territorywide functions. Darwin had early pretensions as a port and trading settlement, but it has developed primarily as an administrative centre, with jobs in public administration and defense, utilities, and education, health, and community services accounting for nearly one-third of the city's employment. The second largest town is Alice Springs, located in the arid MacDonnell Ranges in the southern part of the territory, close to the Tropic of Capricorn (Cancer and Capricorn, Tropics of). It is the main service provider for the Centre region and is also a base for tourists visiting central Australia.

      The economy of the Northern Territory has long been anchored in government administration, defense, and other public services. More recently it has been buttressed by production from onshore and offshore petroleum and natural gas reserves; Darwin began to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) in 2006. The territory's unique natural environment and Aboriginal heritage have been the foci of an expanding tourism sector. In the early 21st century the Northern Territory was the fastest growing of all Australian states and territories, although it remained the smallest contributor to the country's gross domestic product.

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
      Agriculture, forestry, and fishing constitute only a small proportion of the territory's overall economy. Nearly half of the territory's area is used as grazing land for livestock, predominantly beef cattle. Most of the remaining land is classified for traditional indigenous use. Forest resources are generally protected for their biological and cultural value.

      Cattle are raised largely in open-range conditions on extensive cattle stations with low carrying capacity. In addition to meat, the cattle industry exports live cattle, mostly to customers in Asia. Buffalo and buffalo meat are also exported, albeit in limited quantities since the 1970s as the industry has continued to recover from large-scale herd reduction implemented as part of a national bovine tuberculosis eradication program.

      Aridity is a major constraint on arable farming, and irrigated production is localized and of small scale. Land used specifically for agriculture and horticulture accounts for less than 1 percent of the territory's area, and horticultural activities are generally limited to places near the urban centres. Mangoes are the leading product, followed by melons, bananas, grapes, and vegetables (primarily cucumbers, bitter melon, and okra).

      Fisheries have remained an important component of the broader agricultural sector. Shrimp trawling is practiced in the Timor and Arafura seas, while inland and coastal aquaculture—especially of barramundi, prawns, and pearl oysters—is expanding in the Top End region. Crocodile farming, introduced in Darwin in the 1970s for meat and hides, has continued to grow.

Resources and power
 Although the production of minerals (including petroleum and natural gas) accounts for nearly one-fifth of the territory's economic value, mining is mostly capital-intensive and employs relatively few people. The territory has low-cost uranium reserves, with the Ranger mine in the Alligator Rivers region remaining the country's primary producer; there are other high-grade deposits that have yet to be exploited. Bauxite is mined at Gove, and a manganese mine on Groote Eylandt is one of the world's largest producers. Large deposits of lead, silver, and zinc are worked in the McArthur River region, which is also a source of diamonds. Scattered gold deposits are mined, with the focus of activity in the Tanami Desert.

 With large hydrocarbon reserves in the Timor Sea and the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf west of Darwin and in the Amadeus Basin in central Australia, the territory's production of oil, natural gas, and, more recently, LNG has been increasing. Natural gas from the Amadeus Basin is used to generate most of the power for the territory's main urban centres. The Channel Island thermal power station near Darwin has been supplied with natural gas by pipeline from fields west of Alice Springs since the mid-1980s; in the early 21st century, agreements were signed to bring more natural gas from fields in the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf into the existing pipeline. The territory also has been investing in alternative resources including methane gas and solar and wind power.

      Output from the manufacturing industries in the Northern Territory was, until the late 20th century, only a tiny proportion of the overall economy and consisted primarily of food, beverages, and basic and fabricated metal products. A Trade Development Zone was established in Darwin in 1985 to stimulate investment in manufacturing for export, and by the early 21st century the sector had become a significant component of the territory's economy. Alumina and LNG are the leading products, while alumina, cultured pearls, and, increasingly, LNG are the territory's primary exports. Although manufacturing is a growing area of the economy, the sector continues to account for a small fraction of the territory's employment. Most of the manufacturing jobs are in machinery and equipment production.

      The services sector provides well over half of the territory's economic output and employment. The main activities are public administration and community services. Employment in the defense forces increased significantly at the end of the 20th century when an air base was established at Tindal near Katherine and a cavalry regiment was relocated to Darwin to add to existing army, air force, and naval facilities. Education and health services are also important, providing a considerable proportion of the territory's employment. Real estate and related services, which grew significantly just after the turn of the 21st century, have come to constitute another major component of the territory's economy.

      The tourism sector employs a significant portion of the workforce and generates one of the largest contributions to the territory's economy. Although the territory government financed the construction of international-standard hotels and casinos (later sold to private firms) and the resort town of Yulara in the late 20th century, ecotourism and cultural tourism have come to be the strongest segments of the sector.

      Compared with other Australian states, the Northern Territory has a relatively underdeveloped transportation system, a reflection of its small population base and the vast distances to be traversed. The backbone of the road system is provided by the Stuart Highway, which runs south from Darwin to the South Australian border and connects most of the territory's urban centres. Upgraded by the military during World War II, the highway is entirely paved. Major routes branching off the Stuart Highway include the paved Victoria Highway from Katherine to the Western Australia border, the paved Barkly Highway from Three Ways into Queensland, and the Arnhem Highway, which is paved from Darwin to Jabiru. The majority of rural roads are unpaved and subject to temporary closure after rain.

      Many remote rural settlements are inaccessible by road and rely on air transport. Until the introduction of long-range jet aircraft in the 1960s, Darwin was an important refueling and service centre for international air travel, providing a first and last port of call in Australia. Regular international air connections have since been established to a number of countries, including India, Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Until the early 21st century, the only railway line in the territory ran from Alice Springs to Adelaide. An extension of the rail line northward from Alice Springs to Darwin was completed late in 2003. In 2004 the Ghan passenger train (named for the Afghan cameleers who once transported mail, goods, and passengers throughout central Australia) inaugurated its north-south transcontinental service from Adelaide to Darwin. The Port of Darwin provides container services, a roll-on/roll-off facility, and a fishing harbour mooring basin. At the end of the 20th century, a new bulk handling facility opened at the port's East Arm.

Government and society

Administrative framework
      The Northern Territory (Self-Government) Act of 1978 established the Northern Territory as a self-governing entity. Under this act the Commonwealth of Australia transferred most of its governing powers to the territory. The government of the territory, which is seated in Darwin, is similar to that of the states in fields of transferred authority. There are, however, differences in office titles. For example, there is an administrator instead of a governor and a chief minister in lieu of a premier. Executive power is exercised by the administrator, who is advised by an Executive Council consisting of the ministers of the territory.

      The Legislative Assembly serves as the Northern Territory's parliament; its members are elected for four-year terms. A speaker is elected by the members of the Assembly, as are six ministers to serve on the Executive Council. A number of territorial departments and authorities operate within the realm of transferred powers. The only territory-related administrative responsibilities still retained by the federal government deal with uranium and other prescribed-substance mining and Aboriginal landrights.

      The authority to establish a local government was granted to the city of Darwin in 1957 and subsequently was extended to Katherine, Alice Springs, Tennant Creek, Litchfield, and Palmerston, as well as to other towns across the territory. Provision was made for a limited form of local government in small communities by the Local Government Act of 1985; by the beginning of the 21st century, the territory had more than 60 officially recognized “local governing bodies,” including municipal and community councils, incorporated associations, and one special-purpose town. Some of the programs and facilities administered by local governments include various health and public services, housing, stores, and community recreation centres.

      The Northern Territory is represented in the federal government in Parliament. The electorate includes the Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Cocos Islands) and Christmas Island. The territory elects two members to the House of Representatives and two members to the Senate.

      The legal system of the Northern Territory and the jurisdiction of its courts are similar to those of the states. The highest court is the Supreme Court, which hears appeals from lower courts as well as original cases involving serious crimes. Magistrate courts—based in Darwin, Alice Springs, and Katherine—hear civil and criminal cases of somewhat less magnitude; they also have jurisdiction over the local courts and over various specialized courts dealing with juveniles, family issues, work health, unusual death, and other matters. The local courts, the lowest in the judicial system, hear civil cases involving debt and damages amounting to less than $100,000 (Australian).

Health and welfare
      The pattern of health and morbidity is influenced by the youthful age structure of the population, the territory's tropical frontier lifestyle, and the large proportion of Aboriginal people. Hospitalization and infant mortality rates among Aborigines are much higher than those for the rest of the population. Major Aboriginal health problems include diabetes, alcohol- and diet-related diseases, and tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. A number of special programs are dedicated to improving Aboriginal health.

      Government hospitals are located in each of the territory's urban centres; the first private hospital was established in Darwin in 1988. The Department of Health and Community Services also operates a network of community health centres and dental clinics. Mobile vehicular and aerial units service remote communities. The Aerial Medical Service covers communities in the Top End, while the Royal Flying Doctor Service takes care of those in the southern half of the territory and operates out of Alice Springs.

      Social conditions reflect life on the frontier, with a high proportion of young itinerant people and high population turnover. Home ownership is the lowest in Australia. Substandard and overcrowded housing is characteristic of many Aboriginal rural communities and town camps and is a source of social tension. The territory's persistent social problems are reflected in the high rates of crime and imprisonment, especially within the Aboriginal community. Overall, because of the youthful age structure of the population, there is a greater emphasis on welfare provision for children and youth than there is on services for senior citizens.

      Unemployment among indigenous people is substantially higher than it is for the rest of the territory's population. As a consequence, Aboriginal average personal income figures are substantially lower. Government labour market programs have sought to encourage Aboriginal labour force participation. The Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP) scheme of the late 20th century was an important initiative to provide unemployment benefits for indigenous people in exchange for work—largely unskilled labour in community service and public administration. In the early 21st century, however, the government recognized that these programs, while beneficial in many respects, also had a tendency to entrench workers in a welfare system. Funding under the CDEP program was subsequently suspended in favour of establishing more training opportunities and employment programs that would lead to stable employment.

      The territory is well served by government preschools and primary schools. However, most secondary schools (called high schools) are located in urban centres, although schools in many Aboriginal communities offer some postprimary courses. Educational services are also available through correspondence and private institutions, and many children attend high schools in other states.

      School attendance and retention rates at all levels are significantly lower among Aboriginal people than among the rest of the population, with considerable variation between urban and rural areas. Many outstation schools have been established in response to the increasing dispersion of the Aboriginal population, and special programs seek to make Aboriginal education more culturally sensitive.

      The Northern Territory University was established in Darwin in 1989 as a multipurpose institution offering both higher education and technical and further (adult) education courses. In 2003 it merged with several vocational institutions, including Katherine Rural College and Centralian College of Alice Springs, to form Charles Darwin University; there are branch campuses in the territory's larger cities. The multicampus Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education, also the product of amalgamation of several earlier institutions and programs, was launched in 1999 to provide higher education and additional training opportunities for indigenous peoples. The government-funded Adult Migrant English Programme, operated through Charles Darwin University, provides language instruction for immigrants who are not native English speakers.

Cultural life
 Aboriginal, European, Asian, and other communities in the Northern Territory provide a distinct and varied cultural life. For the most part, Aboriginal people have retained their traditional clan structure, language, customs, and religious rituals, particularly in rural areas. In Darwin the Chinese and Greek communities are prominent in commercial and political life. The presence of a sizable Timorese population, largely the result of political unrest surrounding the independence of East Timor (Timor Leste) in 2002, reflects Darwin's long-standing role as a haven for refugees from Asia. Darwin's Mindil Beach food and craft market is a showcase of the city's international heritage, while the Parap market encourages local artists. Although most residents have a suburban lifestyle similar to the rest of Australia, the frontier image of the territory prevails, reinforced by the predominance of pastoral activities and Aboriginal settlement over much of the area.

The arts
  Throughout the territory there are historic and contemporary examples of Aboriginal sculpture, bark and rock paintings, basketry, and beadwork. Arnhem Land is noted for its carvings and paintings, and there are accessible rock-art sites at Ubirr and Nourlangie. Aboriginal art, an important rural industry, has received wide international recognition. The Aboriginal artist Albert Namatjira (Namatjira, Albert) is famous for his watercolours of central Australian landscapes.

      In terms of literature and music, early life in the territory is depicted in the work of the writers Jeannie Gunn, Xavier Herbert (Herbert, Xavier), Douglas Lockwood, William Edward Harney, and Frank Flynn, while Ted Egan is a prominent folk musician and songwriter who depicts life in the Outback. Yothu Yindi, an Aboriginal band from the territory's northeastern coast, is recognized as a pioneer of Australian-based world music that mixes indigenous music and international popular styles to raise awareness of traditions and issues affecting indigenous peoples.

Cultural institutions
      The Darwin Entertainment Centre and Carlton (formerly Beaufort) Hotel complex opened in 1986 and remains the territory's premier convention and performance venue. With multiple theatres, exhibition halls, and conference facilities, the complex hosts an array of large- and small-scale events, including performances by the Darwin Symphony Orchestra. In Alice Springs the Araluen Arts Centre has served as a multifunctional venue for theatrical performances and the visual arts since 1983.

      The Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory, located in Darwin, contains the territory's main art gallery, with important collections of Aboriginal and Southeast Asian art and material culture, as well as maritime archaeology. The city's first museum, the East Point Military Museum, commemorates the territory's role in World War II. The Aviation Museum of Central Australia in Alice Springs traces the territory's aviation history, and the newer Museum of Central Australia (opened 1999) documents the development of the region from prehistoric to contemporary times.

Sports and recreation
      Major festivals are held in the cooler dry season and include the Darwin Festival, the Darwin Lions Beer Can Regatta, and the Henley-on-Todd Regatta in Alice Springs. The Darwin Fringe Festival is dedicated to the promotion of musicians and artists from the Darwin area. The Barunga Festival outside Katherine and the Garma Festival in northeastern Arnhem Land are important celebrations of Aboriginal culture. Each urban centre has an annual show-day that is locally significant.

      Because of its relatively small population, the Northern Territory has not yet developed a breadth of sports teams or a quantity of individual athletes comparable to those of other Australian states. Nevertheless, the Northern Territory Institute of Sport is dedicated to the training of internationally competitive athletes. The Department of Local Government, Housing, and Sport manages several world-class facilities for football (soccer), basketball, cricket, and other events and cultivates participation in sports largely through its extensive program of scholarships and grants. The main sports venue in the Northern Territory is the Marrara Sports Complex in Darwin, which hosts the biennial Arafura Games, an international competition drawing athletes primarily from the Asia-Pacific region.

 There are dozens of territorial parks and reserves managed by the Northern Territory Conservation Commission. Some national parks, including Uluru–Kata Tjuta (Ayers Rock–Mount Olga), Christmas Island, Pulu Keeling, and Kakadu, are managed by the federal government's Parks Australia North agency in conjunction with the traditional Aboriginal owners. Kakadu National Park is popular with residents of the Top End region, as are Litchfield Park, Berry Springs Reserve, and the Territory Wildlife Park, all of which are near Darwin. In the southern part of the territory is Alice Springs Desert Park. Two national parks have been designated UNESCO World Heritage sites (World Heritage site): Kakadu (1981, with extensions in 1987 and 1992) and Uluru–Kata Tjuta (1987, with an extension in 1994). Four-wheel drive expeditions, camping, and bush walking are popular activities, as is barramundi fishing. Bathing in the sea is restricted between October and May by the presence of box jellyfish; bathing in coastal rivers and lakes is restricted at all times by saltwater crocodiles.

Media and publishing
      Imparja Television, an Aboriginal commercial company, broadcasts from Alice Springs to a largely Aboriginal audience. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation broadcasts TV and radio from Darwin and radio from Katherine and Alice Springs. Several commercial stations offer programming from various urban areas. Digital broadcasts began in the territory in 2002. The Northern Territory Film Office was established in Alice Springs in 2004 to help build the territory's film, television, and digital media industries. Newspapers are published weekly at Alice Springs, Tennant Creek, and Katherine, and the Northern Territory News is published daily in Darwin.

John Taylor Alan W. Powell


Prehistory and European exploration
      The Northern Territory is called a new country, but Australian Aborigines (Australian Aborigine) are thought to have lived there for at least 40,000 years. The settlement pattern of the Aborigines, however, remains a mystery, as does their origin. Estimates of pre-European population on the continent range from 250,000 to 1,000,000, of which perhaps one-sixth lived in the Northern Territory. Despite a multiplicity of tribal and clan structures, the groups shared cultural similarities in their indissoluble links to their lands and the importance of myth and ritual in maintaining those links.

       Arnhem Land legends speak of the “Baijini,” seafaring people who came from the northwest long ago in search of the sea cucumber. These people may have been Chinese sailors, known to have reached nearby Timor early in the 15th century. It is also possible that they were Arab traders, who brought their swift dhows and the religion of Islam to the eastern islands of the Malay Archipelago (present-day Indonesia) later in the same century; they may also have been the Portuguese, who colonized Timor from 1506.

      The first confirmed contact between non-Aborigines and the Northern Territory, however, came with the Dutch, the colonial successors to the Portuguese in the archipelago. In 1605 the Duyfken, commanded by the Dutch explorer Willem Jansz, explored the eastern shore of the Gulf of Carpentaria (Carpentaria, Gulf of). Eighteen years later Willem van Colster in the Arnhem touched briefly at the northwestern tip of the land that today bears the ship's name. Pieter Pieterszoon (1636), Abel Janszoon Tasman (Tasman, Abel Janszoon) (1642 and 1644), and other Dutch voyagers followed. Because the Dutch were traders, the Aborigines, who had no trade goods, held little interest for them.

      Reports of Dutch voyages may have helped to bring to Australia's north coast the Buginese (Bugis) and Makasarese from the island of Celebes (Sulawesi) in the Malay Archipelago. These people, who became known collectively as “Makasans,” came regularly to the Northern Territory coast for sea cucumbers, possibly as early as the 17th or 18th century, although most historical records of them date from the 19th century. The British naval surveyor Matthew Flinders (Flinders, Matthew) met them on the Arnhem Land coast in 1802. Flinders' survey of the western shore of the Gulf of Carpentaria made him the first of a new breed of naval surveyors who worked for the rest of the century to make the oceans safe for British commerce. In 1803 the French navigator Nicholas Baudin in Le Géographe passed fleetingly along the western side of the territory coast, leaving a scattering of French names.

      It was Lieut. Phillip Parker King, however, son of the third governor of New South Wales, who first charted that dangerous coast in a series of great voyages between 1818 and 1822. The last major gaps in the coastal survey of northern Australia were closed between 1837 and 1843 by John Clements Wickham and John Lort Stokes in HMS Beagle, the ship that had earlier carried naturalist Charles Darwin (Darwin, Charles) to South America during the 1830s. On Sept. 9, 1839, Stokes landed on the shores of a vast harbour and named it Port Darwin, for his old shipmate.

British (British Empire) settlement
      The British desire to claim all of Australia, combined with a belief that they could harness the trade of the eastern Malay Archipelago just as the Dutch had done in Java, led to the establishment of three military settlements on the territory coast. These were Fort Dundas on Melville Island (1824–29), Fort Wellington at Raffles Bay (1827–29), and Victoria at Port Essington (1838–49). All failed when the trade did not develop and when no challengers appeared to contest the British claim to Australia. However, Victoria's presence did attract the Prussian naturalist Ludwig Leichhardt (Leichhardt, Ludwig), who made an epic overland journey from southeastern Queensland to Port Essington in 1844–45. In 1855–56 Augustus Charles Gregory, described by a contemporary as “a most competent leader…with great firmness of purpose,” led a well-organized expedition from the plains of the Victoria River eastward across the territory to the Queensland coast. In six expeditions between 1858 and 1862, the diminutive Scot John McDouall Stuart thrust northward through the central deserts and reached the coast east of Port Darwin, distinguishing himself as one of the great Australian explorers.

      The journals of Gregory and Stuart held out the promise of good cattle country. South Australia moved to acquire the land, and in 1863 the British government granted it to them. South Australian governments, short-lived and controlled largely by business interests until the 1890s, could find no way to turn a profit in the territory. Their first settlement, set up in 1864 at Escape Cliffs, northeast of Port Darwin, failed two years later through poor site choice and mismanagement. South Australia's surveyor general, George Goyder, successfully established Palmerston, on Port Darwin, in 1869. The Overland Telegraph line, spanning the continent from north to south in the early 1870s, joined Adelaide to the world and ensured the permanence of Palmerston. The town, renamed Darwin in 1911, has been the Northern Territory's capital city ever since. The telegraph-poling parties found traces of gold (gold rush) in the stony hills around Pine Creek, south of Darwin, and in 1872 gold-prospecting parties began to arrive through Port Darwin. Speculation, obstructive mining laws, poor ore bodies, and bad living conditions on the goldfields meant that mild boom was followed by major bust. By 1896 gold production had gone into irreversible decline. Gold brought development, however, in the growth of Darwin and goldfields settlements, in the construction of the Darwin–Pine Creek railway (completed in 1889), and in the influx of Chinese immigrants. In 1888 the number of Chinese peaked at slightly more than 7,000; Europeans at the time numbered 1,009. Thereafter, restrictive immigration policies brought a steady decline, but the enterprising Chinese continued to dominate the goldfields and business in the northern part of the territory. In the south Alice Springs, founded as a telegraph station in 1870, grew into a small settlement. Its growth was stimulated by small gold strikes in the 1880s and, most importantly, by pastoralism.

      Since the late 19th century the vast cattle runs of the north have formed the basis of the territory's image, but sheepherding came first. In 1866 the westward movement of Queensland graziers brought sheep to the northern border area of the territory. Drought and recession forced them out within three years. In 1870 Ralph Millner led an epic drive of 7,000 sheep from South Australia to the Roper River, on the southern border of Arnhem Land. Cattlemen followed, traveling westward from Queensland into the northern section of the territory and northward from South Australia into the arid beauty of the MacDonnell Ranges country of central Australia. Most of the great cattle stations of the Northern Territory were founded between 1880 and 1885, during a prosperous period in Australia. Victoria River Downs, which covered 8,364 square miles (21,663 square km) in 1908, was said to be the world's largest cattle run. Severe economic depression in the 1890s, accompanied by high transport costs, labour shortages, and an Aboriginal population that often showed its resistance to European encroachment on its territories by killing cattle, sent the industry into decline.

      Aboriginal groups, little affected by the early settlements and transient explorers, were devastated by the wholesale confiscation of their lands for stock leases. The pattern of Aboriginal resistance and forceful white reprisal, established earlier in southern Australia, soon spread to the north, reaching a peak in the first decade of the 20th century, when the Eastern and African Cold Storage Supply Company employed gangs of armed men on their Arnhem Land station to shoot down “wild” Aborigines on sight. There were also notable examples of white settlers protecting Aboriginal communities from punitive expeditions, and indigenous peoples gradually became the mainstay of the labour force on pastoral properties. Until the last days of its Northern Territory rule in 1910, however, South Australia passed no protective legislation for its Aboriginal population.

The Northern Territory under Commonwealth administration
      On Jan. 1, 1911, the Northern Territory passed under the control of the new Commonwealth of Australia government. Of some 5,000,000 white Australians on the continent, only 1,729 lived in the territory, along with about 1,300 Chinese and an unknown number of Aborigines. The few economic pursuits—pearling, pastoralism, and mining—were all run-down. Great hopes were held for Commonwealth-led development, but they came to nothing. World War I diverted federal government interest, and conflict between labour unions and the territory administration led to the “Darwin rebellion” and the forced withdrawal of John Anderson Gilruth, the first Commonwealth administrator, from the territory in February 1919. Economically the territory gained little from the 1920s, which were years of relative prosperity elsewhere in Australia. In 1922 the Northern Territory Representation Act provided for a single representative, bereft of voting powers, in the federal parliament. The Great Depression of the 1930s hit the territory severely. In 1933 the federal government, desperate to find some means of developing the area, offered much of it to chartered companies. There were no takers. At that time only the Tennant Creek goldfields, developed from 1932, offered new hope. As the shadow of a second world war loomed, however, Darwin gained from military construction. In 1933 the non-Aboriginal population of the town totaled 1,572; by the end of 1939 it had risen to 3,653.

      Rising concern of anthropologists and Aboriginal support groups over the plight of indigenous peoples in the Northern Territory led the Australian government to develop a policy of assimilation, whereby Aborigines were to be absorbed into the general population. Salient components of the assimilation program included the removal of Aboriginal children from their families to institutions under white supervision and the control of Aboriginal reproduction—all in an effort to eventually “breed out” any Aboriginal qualities. The last major massacre of Aborigines occurred in 1928, after Walpiri tribesmen on the isolated Coniston station, northwest of Alice Springs, killed a white man. They paid in blood; a police-led punitive party shot down as many as 70 Aboriginal men and women. The assimilation policy received full official sanction in 1939, but World War II halted its progress.

      War preparations in the north lagged, a combination of the government's parsimony and its concentration on Europe. When Japan entered the war on Dec. 7/8, 1941, Darwin was unprepared. On Feb. 19, 1942, two massive Japanese air raids damaged the town, sank eight ships in the harbour, and killed 243 people. The civilian population was evacuated to the south. Military reinforcements, Australian and American, flowed north, totaling more than 60,000 in late 1942. British and Dutch air force squadrons served with U.S. and Australian air force units in repelling further Japanese raids and attacking the Japanese-held islands to the north. By November 1943 the enemy air raids had ceased, and the war began to recede from the territory. Darwin's population returned in late 1945 and 1946 to a shattered and looted town. Paved highways from Alice Springs to Darwin and connections to Queensland, replacing dirt tracks, were the most lasting legacy of the war, along with an increased government consciousness of the north that was reflected in political and economic developments. In 1947 territorial inhabitants won the right to a partially elected Legislative Assembly, followed in 1974 by a fully elected body and representation in the Australian Senate. Four years later the territory achieved “self-government,” with powers similar to those of Australian states—the notable exception being that control of Aboriginal lands and national parks remained with the federal government.

      Aboriginal policy changed greatly after the war. The assimilation policy, officially endorsed by states and the federal government in 1951, gave way in the 1960s before a rising tide of Aboriginal assertiveness. In January 1971 the federal government acknowledged the rights of Aboriginal people to their own language and culture. Five years later the government passed the Land Rights Act, which was intended to enable the return of up to half the area of the Northern Territory to its original owners. The quest for equal living standards with other territorial residents, however, is far from over.

      The economic expansion since the mid-20th century has been remarkable by territory standards. By the early 21st century the population of Darwin, its satellite town Palmerston, and the immediate hinterland well exceeded 100,000, while Alice Springs, with a population of 950 people in 1939, had become home to nearly 30,000, owing its growth mainly to vast developments in tourism to the desert country of the “Red Centre.” During World War II and for 25 years afterward, the pastoral industry achieved a previously unknown level of prosperity. Diversified from gold to copper, bismuth, and silver, Tennant Creek mines have prospered, and in the 1980s new technology enabled the profitable reopening of old gold areas in the Pine Creek region and the development of large open-cut mines in the Tanami Desert. Bauxite, manganese, and uranium are mined on the borders of Arnhem Land, and exploitation of hydrocarbon reserves in the Timor Sea off the Northern Territory coast is increasing. The economic base is broadening, and, although the territory still contains only 1 percent of the Australian people, its population is growing rapidly.

Alan W. Powell

Additional Reading
P. Loveday and D. Wade-Marshall, Economy and People in the North (1985), is a collection of conference papers on social and economic conditions in the Northern Territory. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Aboriginal People in the Northern Territory (1990), provides comprehensive details of the social, demographic, and economic characteristics of the Aboriginal population. Australian Bureau of Statistics and Australian National University, North Australia Research Unit, A Social Atlas of Darwin (1989), which includes commentaries by John Taylor and Dean Jaensch, provides a thorough description of the Darwin population and includes a useful account of urban planning history. General studies of the territory's history include Ernestine Hill, The Territory (1951, reissued 1995), a populist history, which is heavily anecdotal; and Alan Powell, Far Country: A Short History of the Northern Territory, 4th ed. (2000), a concise history from earliest times to the end of the 20th century. Particular periods and topics are examined in P.F. Donovan, A Land Full of Possibilities: A History of South Australia's Northern Territory (1981), a scholarly study of mainly official policy and actions in the territory from 1863 to 1910, and At the Other End of Australia: The Commonwealth and the Northern Territory, 1911–1978 (1984); Alan Powell, The Shadow's Edge: Australia's Northern War (1988), a history of the territory in World War II; and Barbara James, No Man's Land: Women of the Northern Territory (1989), a history of women in the territory. City studies include Douglas Lockwood, The Front Door: Darwin, 1869–1969 (1969, reissued 1984), a popular history that is anecdotal and entertaining; David Carment, Looking at Darwin's Past: Material Evidence of European Settlement in Tropical Australia (1996), a history of the built-up environment in Darwin; and Peter Donovan, Alice Springs: Its History and the People Who Made It (1988), a comprehensive survey.Alan W. Powell

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Universalium. 2010.

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