/nawr"feuhk/; for 2, 3 also /nawr"fawk/, n.
1. a county in E England. 659,300; 2068 sq. mi. (5355 sq. km).
2. a seaport in SE Virginia: naval base. 266,979.
3. a city in NE Nebraska. 19,449.

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Administrative and historic county (pop., 2001: 796,733), eastern England.

Bounded by Suffolk (south), Cambridgeshire and Lincolnshire (west), and the North Sea (north and east), it is low-lying and has reed swamps, including the famous Broads that resulted from medieval peat cutting and a subsequent change in sea level. Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic artifacts have been found, including impressive Stone Age flint mines in Breckland. In the Middle Ages the region's prosperity depended mainly on wool. Among the county's most important cities is Norwich. The economy is now largely agricultural.
City (pop., 2000: 234,403), southeastern Virginia, U.S. A port of entry on the Elizabeth River, it is located just south of Hampton Roads.

Founded in 1682, it was incorporated as a borough in 1736. It was destroyed by fires in 1776 and 1799. Yellow fever killed 10% of the population in 1855. During the American Civil War the city was occupied by Union troops. Prosperity resumed after 1870 when railroads linked the port to other trade centres. With Newport News and Portsmouth it makes up the Port of Hampton Roads. Shipping, shipbuilding, and light industry are the major economic activities. Norfolk is the headquarters of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet and NATO's Supreme Allied Command, Atlantic.
(as used in expressions)
Norfolk Thomas Howard 2nd duke of
Norfolk Thomas Howard 3rd duke of
Norfolk Thomas Howard 4th duke of

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      city, Madison county, northeastern Nebraska, U.S., on the North Fork Elkhorn River, about 110 miles (175 km) northwest of Omaha. Settled in 1866 by German farmers from Ixonia and Watertown, Wis., its name, originally proposed as North Fork, was abbreviated to Norfork and then changed by the post office to Norfolk. The Native Americans living in the area (Ponca and Omaha) traded with the settlers. Norfolk served as a supply point during the Black Hills gold rush of the 1870s. The economy depends primarily on agriculture (corn [maize], soybeans, and livestock), manufacturing (medical equipment, electronics, steel products, and rubber products), and food distribution. It is a regional transportation and commercial centre. Nebraska Christian College was founded there in 1945 and Northeast Community College in 1973. Willow Creek State Recreation Area is nearby. Inc. village, 1881; city, 1886. Pop. (2000) 23,516; (2005 est.) 23,946.

      independent city and port, southeastern Virginia, U.S. It lies on the Elizabeth River in the Tidewater region, at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. Norfolk is part of an urban complex that includes the cities of Portsmouth (west), Chesapeake (south), Virginia Beach (east), and, northward across the harbour of Hampton Roads (Hampton), Newport News and Hampton.

      Laid out as a town in 1682 following an act of the Virginia General Assembly (1680) that each county should establish a trade centre, it was named for Norfolk county, England. The land was bought from Nicholas Wise, a carpenter, for 10,000 pounds (4,500 kg) of tobacco. For many years Norfolk was a trade outlet for eastern North Carolina (tar, lumber, hides, and tobacco). Later, shipbuilding and ship repairing became important. A lucrative trade developed with Britain and the West Indies, and, in recognition of its commercial importance, Norfolk was presented a silver mace by Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie in 1753.

      During the American Revolution the royal governor, John Murray, 4th earl of Dunmore (Dunmore, John Murray, 4th Earl of, Viscount Of Fincastle, Lord Murray Of Blair, Moulin, And Tillemot), made it his headquarters (December 1775), declared martial law, and defeated the Virginia militiamen at nearby Kempsville. Later in the month Colonel William Woodford and his Virginia riflemen routed the British at Great Bridge and occupied Norfolk, which on January 1, 1776, was bombarded by Dunmore's fleet anchored in the Elizabeth River. The Virginians later burned what was left of the town except for St. Paul's Church (1738; which still has a cannonball in its south wall) to prevent its use by the British. Norfolk's recovery was hampered by the stifling of the West Indies trade by Britain, restriction on shipping and privateering by the European powers during the Napoleonic Wars, a disastrous fire in 1799, and intercity rivalry. During the War of 1812 (1812, War of) it was twice saved from the British—when a local militia beat off a land attack on Portsmouth and when General Robert B. Taylor's defense of Craney Island prevented an amphibious invasion by barge.

      With subsequent canal and railroad construction, prosperity returned until a yellow-fever epidemic struck in 1855 and killed 10 percent of the population. During the American Civil War Norfolk fell (May 1862) to Union forces under General John E. Wool and was occupied for the rest of the war. Its prosperity resumed after 1880 with the converging of railways on the port and was stimulated during World Wars I and II with the installation of a huge naval and naval-air complex. Norfolk, with Portsmouth, is now headquarters of the Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Command (CINCUSACOM) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SANCLANT). The complex is the largest harbour and naval base in the world.

      Shipping (coal, tobacco, food products, and grain), shipbuilding, and light industry (chemicals, textiles, and agricultural machinery) are the major economic activities. Old Dominion University (1930), Norfolk State University (1935), and Virginia Wesleyan College (1966; partly in Virginia Beach) are located there. A botanical garden, the burial site and memorial for U.S. General Douglas MacArthur (Macarthur, John), and the Cultural and Convention Center are notable landmarks. The annual International Azalea Festival is dedicated to NATO. Inc. borough, 1736; city, 1845. Pop. (1990) city, 261,229; Norfolk–Virginia Beach–Newport News MSA, 1,443,244; (2000) city, 234,403; Norfolk–Virginia Beach–Newport News MSA, 1,569,541.

      administrative and historic county of eastern England, bounded by Suffolk (south), Cambridgeshire and Lincolnshire (west), and the North Sea (north and east). The administrative county comprises seven districts: Breckland, Broadland, North Norfolk, and South Norfolk; the boroughs of Great Yarmouth and King's Lynn and West Norfolk; and the city of Norwich. The historic county is nearly coterminous with the administrative county, but a small area in the borough of Great Yarmouth belongs to the historic county of Suffolk.

      Norfolk is low-lying, and a large part is drained by the Rivers Wensum, Yare, and Bure and their tributaries into the North Sea. The northwest corner of the county is drained by the River Ouse into the Wash, a shallow North Sea inlet. There are chalk outcrops in western Norfolk, and, in the eastern half of the county, chalk is overlain by later deposits. Along the northwest edge of the county, clays and sandstones older than the chalk are exposed. Norfolk is a rich farming county, but regions of natural or seminatural vegetation survive. Around parts of the 90-mile (145-kilometre) coastline there are sand dunes, as at Blakeney Beach on the northern coast. There are also salt marshes, as at Scolthead Island. Along the valleys of the Yare and Bure are a number of shallow expanses of water and reed swamp—the famous Broads (Broads, the) that resulted from medieval peat cutting and a subsequent change in sea level. In the southwest of the county and extending into Suffolk are the sandy heathlands of Breckland, which have been planted with conifers in many places.

      Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic artifacts have been found in the county. The most impressive Stone Age monuments are the flint mines, such as Grime's Graves, in Breckland. Long barrows (mounds) and Bronze Age round barrows are also found. In the 3rd century BCE the early British Iceni people, of whom later the famous Boudicca (Boadicea) was a queen, entered the area from the European continent. During the Roman period there were two towns in Norfolk, Caister St. Edmund and Caister next Yarmouth. After the ensuing Anglo-Saxon invasions, Norfolk became part of the kingdom of East Anglia. Town life in Norwich and Thetford started at this time, the former town having a mint from 920. Subsequently the area was subjected to Danish raids, and it eventually became part of the administrative entity called the Danelaw.

      By the time of Domesday Book (1086), the record of the land survey ordered by William I the Conqueror, Norfolk was one of the most heavily populated and wealthiest regions in England, and it remained so throughout the medieval period. The region's prosperity depended largely on wool. Little Walsingham, in the north of the county, was a famous shrine in the Middle Ages, attracting pilgrims from far and wide. During the English Civil Wars of the mid-17th century, Norfolk saw little action, because the county was strongly behind Cromwell and the Parliamentary cause. There are several surviving castles in the area, as at Norwich, Caister next Yarmouth, and Oxborough; there are also large private mansions, as at Sandringham (the Norfolk home of the royal family).

      Agriculture remains important to Norfolk's economy, with barley, wheat, sugar beets, oats, and vegetables as the major crops. Barley is grown for the distilling industry and for animal feed. Large areas of peas and beans are grown for canning and freezing at such centres as Great Yarmouth. Most types of livestock are raised, but the county is especially noted for its turkeys. Fishing is important at many points around the coast. Norwich has developed an important boot and shoe industry and, together with most other major towns in the county, has attracted some light industry. Catering for tourists is also important, especially at points along the coast (Cromer and Great Yarmouth) and on the Broads. Area 2,074 square miles (5,372 square km). Pop. (2005 est.) 842,200.

      county, eastern Massachusetts, U.S., southwest and south of Boston, bordered by Massachusetts Bay to the northeast and Rhode Island to the southwest. It consists of an upland region, including the Blue Hills, that is drained by the Charles (Charles River) and Neponset rivers. The main parklands are Wrentham State Forest and F. Gilbert Hills, Bristol Blake, and Webb Memorial state parks.

      The Massachusetts Indians inhabited the county before the founding of Weymouth (1622), one of the state's first settlements. Norfolk county was created in 1793 and named for Norfolk, Eng. The county seat is Dedham, the site of one of the nation's oldest extant homes, the Jonathan Fairbanks House (built 1636). National historic sites locate the homes of President John F. Kennedy (Kennedy, John F.) and landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted (Olmsted, Frederick Law), both in Brookline, and the home of Presidents John Adams (Adams, John) and John Quincy Adams (Adams, John Quincy) in Quincy. Wellesley College (1870) and Babson College (1919) are in Wellesley.

      Norfolk county contains many residential suburbs of Boston, including Braintree, Randolph, Norwood, Needham, and Milton. The towns of Brookline and Cohasset are not coterminous with the rest of the county. Principal economic activities are wholesale trade and the manufacture of communications equipment and measuring and controlling devices. Area 400 square miles (1,035 square km). Pop. (2000) 650,308; (2006 est.) 654,753.

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Universalium. 2010.

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