- Nicholas III
(Giovanni Gaetani Orsini) died 1280, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1277-80.
* * *▪ patriarch of Constantinopleflourished 11th centuryEastern Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople (1084–1111), theologian and liturgical scholar noted for combatting doctrinal heresy and composing sacramental prayer texts for the Byzantine liturgy. Among Nicholas' liturgical compositions are prayers and responses in the service rituals for baptism, marriage, confession, fasting, and communion.As emperor Alexis I Comnenus was negotiating with Pope Urban II the possibility of Western help against the Turks, Nicholas was consulted about the state of ecclesiastical relations between Rome and Constantinople. He expressed himself in favour of Church union, provided that the Pope send him an Orthodox confession of faith. He rejected any departure from Greek Orthodox doctrine and practice, including universal papal authority, the Latin concept of the Holy Spirit (Filioque question), and the use of unleavened bread in the Communion service. Frequently intervening in monastic affairs, Nicholas strengthened discipline in the community of Mt. Athos (Greece) and probably wrote a monastic Rule (Typikon) adapted from the original text of the early Palestinian monastic founder St. Sabas.In a final theological judgment, Nicholas condemned as heretical the Bogomil leader Basil the Physician and his adherents, an exclusive sect originating in Bulgaria and teaching a form of religious dualism that held that the devil created the material world. In 1118 the emperor Alexius had Basil burned at the stake, the only example of this in Byzantine history.▪ popeoriginal name Giovanni Gaetano Orsiniborn c. 1225, Romedied Aug. 22, 1280, Soriano nel Cimino, near Viterbo, Papal Statespope from 1277 to 1280.Of noble birth, he was made cardinal in 1244 by Pope Innocent IV and protector of the Franciscans (Franciscan) in 1261 by Pope Urban IV. After a colourful and celebrated service in the Curia, he was elected pope on Nov. 25, 1277, and initiated an administrative reform of the Papal States. He was the first pope to make the Vatican his residence.In matters of the church, Nicholas issued the important bull of 1279, temporarily settling the Franciscan struggle over the interpretation of perfect poverty that had split the order into two factions, the Conventuals and the Spirituals. His bull revoked the concessions concerning the use of money made by Pope Innocent IV and clarified Innocent's ruling that all possessions of the order, except those reserved by the donors, belonged to the papacy.Nicholas successfully continued Pope Gregory X's policy of restraining the ambitious Sicilian king Charles I of Anjou and did not renew Charles's positions as imperial vicar of Tuscany and senator of Rome, an office Nicholas prevented from ever again being filled by a foreign ruler. He induced the German king Rudolf I to acknowledge that the Italian province of the Romagna (though it was not incorporated until much later) belonged to the church. Anxious to maintain a balance of power between Rudolf and Charles, who had invaded Italy and who was supported by the ruling Florentine party, Nicholas sent his nephew Cardinal Malebranca to Florence in 1279 on a mission that resulted in a reorganization of that government.In May 1280 he arranged a treaty to terminate the claims of the sovereign dynasties—the Habsburgs and the Angevins—for the possession of Sicily. His early death ruined his plans to reorganize the Holy Roman Empire and led to a renewal of Angevin-French influence on the papacy under his successor, Pope Martin IV. Nicholas was a political realist; he accepted the idea that every cardinal was the agent of a political interest, and he exalted his own family, the Orsini, who acquired increasing influence in church policy and administration. For his nepotism, Nicholas appears in hell in Dante's Divine Comedy.
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