- New Orleans
—New Orleanian /awr lee"nee euhn, -leen"yeuhn/./awr"lee euhnz, awr leenz", awr"leuhnz/a seaport in SE Louisiana, on the Mississippi: British defeated (1815) by Americans under Andrew Jackson. 557,482.
* * *City (pop., 2000: 484,674), southeastern Louisiana, U.S. Situated between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, it is the state's largest city and a major deepwater port.Founded in 1718 by French colonist Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, it was ceded to Spain in 1763. In 1803 it was ceded back to France and sold to the U.S. by Napoleon. Incorporated in 1805, it was the state capital from 1812 to 1849. During the American Civil War the city was captured and occupied by Union forces (1862). A notable tourist centre, its attractions include Mardi Gras and the French Quarter, a popular tourist area noted for its nightclubs and Creole architecture. It is also a medical, industrial, and educational centre.
* * *Introductioncity, southeastern Louisiana, U.S. (United States) Unquestionably one of the most distinctive cities of the New World, New Orleans was established at great cost in an environment of conflict. Its strategic position, commanding the mouth of the great Mississippi-Missouri river system, which drains the rich interior of North America, made it a pawn in the struggles of Europeans for the control of North America. As a result, the peoples of New Orleans evolved a unique culture and society, while at the same time blending many heritages. Its citizens of African descent provided a special contribution in making New Orleans the birthplace of jazz.New Orleans is a city of paradox and contrast: while it shares the urban problems afflicting other U.S. cities, it has nevertheless preserved an exuberant and uninhibited spirit, perhaps best exemplified by its Carnival season, which culminates in the famous annual Mardi Gras, when more than a million people throng the streets. The city also has a solid economic base: it is the largest city in Louisiana, one of the country's most important ports, a major tourist resort, and a medical, industrial, and educational centre. It was devastated by Hurricane Katrina (Katrina, Hurricane) in August 2005, when the levees protecting the city were breached and nearly all of the city was flooded. The storm and its aftermath killed hundreds, caused massive property damage, and forced a full-scale evacuation of the city. Area city, 199 square miles (516 square km); metropolitan area, 1,907 square miles (4,939 square km). Pop. (1990) city, 496,938; New Orleans MSA, 1,285,270; (2000) city, 484,674; New Orleans–Metairie–Kenner MSA, 1,316,510.LandscapeCity layoutThe city of New Orleans and Orleans parish (county) are coextensive, occupying a point at the head of the Mississippi River delta at the Gulf of Mexico (Mexico, Gulf of). The boundaries are formed by the Mississippi River and Jefferson parish to the west and Lake Pontchartrain (Pontchartrain, Lake) to the north. Lake Pontchartrain is connected by The Rigolets channel to Lake Borgne on the east (and thence to the gulf), and the southern boundary of New Orleans is made up of St. Bernard parish and, again, the Mississippi River. The city is divided by the Mississippi, with the principal settlement on the east bank. The west bank, known as Algiers, has grown rapidly. It is connected to eastern New Orleans by the Greater New Orleans Bridge (also known as the Crescent City Connection). The bridge, completed in 1958, proved to be a bottleneck to the city's traffic; a second, adjacent bridge designed to reduce congestion was completed in 1988.The early city was located on the east bank along a sharp bend in the Mississippi, from which the nickname “Crescent City” is derived. The modern metropolis has spread far beyond this original location. Because its saucer-shaped terrain lies as low as 5 to 10 feet (1.5 to 3 metres) below sea level and has an average rainfall of 57 inches (1,448 mm), a levee, or embankment, system and proper drainage have always been of prime importance. There had long been concern that a powerful storm could inundate the low-lying city; such an event occurred in 2005, when Hurricane Katrina produced a storm surge that overwhelmed the levees protecting New Orleans, and about four-fifths of the city was flooded. Less than a month later, a second hurricane passing to the west caused some levees to fail again, flooding a few areas of the city once more.ClimateNew Orleans has a moderate climate; the average daily temperature from October through March is 60 °F (16 °C), and from April through September the daily average is 77 °F (25 °C). Freezing weather is rare, and the temperature rises above 95 °F (35 °C) only about six days per year.PeopleThe population of New Orleans has been declining. Whites account for less than one-third of the total, whereas in 1960 they made up almost two-thirds. In contrast to the population decline in Orleans parish, the adjacent parishes of St. Bernard, Plaquemines, Jefferson, St. Charles, St. John the Baptist, and St. Tammany—which, together with Orleans, compose the New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)—have shown steady increases. Since the African American population in most of the adjacent parishes is quite small, these figures indicate the general trend of white movement to the suburbs typical of most major U.S. cities since 1950.The shift in population to the suburbs has been motivated less by racial tension (although this may play a part) than by desires for better and more modern living facilities. The fact that a large segment of the black population resides in declining neighbourhoods (some segregated, some integrated) has spurred both black and interracial political, social, and religious organizations to work either independently or with city and federal agencies on projects to improve the quality of life for low-income citizens. The additional fact that New Orleans has upper-class and middle-class black populations has been a significant factor in such projects.EconomyThe portNew Orleans has always been primarily a commercial centre, with manufacturing playing a secondary role in its economic life. The busy harbour, besides adding to the city's cosmopolitan atmosphere, is the foundation of the metropolitan economy, influencing many aspects of urban life.The era of the modern Port of New Orleans began in 1879 with the construction of jetties in South Pass, one of three passes that flow from the river into the gulf. Sandbars had formed at intervals in these passes and had hindered ships entering the river since the city's founding. The jetties narrowed South Pass, forcing the river to cut a deeper channel to a depth of 30 feet (9 metres). Later, a second channel, Southwest Pass, was deepened to 40 feet (12 metres) by installing jetties; it is now the main pass used by seagoing vessels entering and leaving the river. The distance from New Orleans to the gulf is about 110 miles (180 km).Another major step forward for the port was taken in 1896, when the state legislature removed wharf facilities from the control of private contractors and created the Board of Commissioners of the Port of New Orleans (the Dock Board), a body charged with administering the public wharves. In 1908 the Dock Board was authorized to issue negotiable bonds for the improvement of port facilities. The projects subsequently accomplished included the rebuilding and expansion of public wharves and the construction (in partnership with the Board of Levee Commissioners of the Orleans Levee District) of the 5.5-mile (9-km) Industrial Canal, which links the river to Lake Pontchartrain, the Intracoastal Waterway, and the Mississippi River–Gulf Outlet. In 1963 the Mississippi River–Gulf Outlet, a ship channel shortening the passage to the gulf by 40 miles (64 km), was opened to maritime traffic.The Dock Board formulated a plan, called Centroport U.S.A., by which much of the port's activities would be switched from the Mississippi River to wharves and industrial complexes along the Gulf Outlet and the river frontage thus retired from maritime use would be diverted to such projects as high-rise apartments and public recreation areas. The Julia, Erato, and upper Poydras wharves were developed as the site of the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition. Permanent structures enhancing this area are the New Orleans Convention and Exhibition Center and the International Pavilion.New Orleans is a major grain port both in the United States and worldwide; other exports include raw and processed agricultural products, fabricated metals, chemicals, textiles, oils, petroleum and petroleum products, tobacco, and paperboard. There has been substantial growth in bulk exports since the early 1980s, which has made New Orleans the lighter aboard ship (LASH) cargo and Seabee barge capital of the world. Grain, coal, and animal feed make up a major portion of LASH and Seabee trade. In international commerce about 5,000 oceangoing vessels dock at New Orleans annually, and more than 40 nations have consular offices in the city.IndustryGreater New Orleans is a major industrial area. A concentration of petrochemical plants has sprung up along the Mississippi River above New Orleans. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans in 1961 to produce the giant Saturn rocket boosters used in flights to the Moon. The principal goods manufactured in the Greater New Orleans area are food products, clothing and related items, stone, clay and glass articles, primary metal and fabricated metal items, and transportation equipment. Tourism is an important industry.Petrochemical industries along the Mississippi above New Orleans and offshore oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico have become serious polluters, however, through oil-rig fires, oil slicks, and discharges of mercury, arsenic, and lead, which have threatened the city's drinking water, ruined the taste of river fish, and endangered the ecology of the gulf. Despite federal actions against the offending industries, much remains to be done.TransportationThe transportation facilities of New Orleans include three airports: New Orleans International Airport, to the west of the city; New Orleans Airport, on Lake Pontchartrain, devoted to private and corporate use; and the U.S. Naval Air Station, serving air reserve units of the various armed services. Several railroads operate out of New Orleans, and passenger bus, truck, and barge lines transport people and cargo to and from the city. Regular express sailings by steamship lines also offer passenger- and cargo-carrying service. The major access bridges serving the Greater New Orleans area, in addition to the Greater New Orleans Bridge, are the Huey P. Long Bridge, which crosses the river above the city, and the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, a twin-span structure that is among the world's longest bridges, stretching nearly 24 miles (39 km).Administration and societyGovernmentBoth the political life and the municipal government of New Orleans have been dominated by factions of the Democratic Party. The question of state interference in city affairs versus home rule was long a major issue. In 1954 New Orleans finally received a strong home rule charter, which substituted a mayor-council form of government for the mayor-commission form that had existed since 1912.In addition to the mayor and seven council members—five elected from districts and two at large—who serve four-year terms, the position of chief administrative officer to the mayor was created. The mayor is the top administrator over the 14 municipal departments and oversees the affairs of various commissions and boards. The chief administrative officer, appointed by the mayor, is charged with supervision of city departments, the preparation of the annual budgets, and the coordination of city relations with state and federal agencies. The council is strictly a legislative body.Political issues have changed. Gone is the antagonism between city and state governments that spanned the era from governors Huey Long (Long, Huey) in the 1920s through Earl Long in the 1940s. Political corruption is no longer an issue in city politics, and blacks have become more politically articulate since they emerged as the majority of the city's population. There has been an increase in voter registration among African Americans, and black political groups now play an effective role in municipal politics. The city's first African American mayor, Ernest N. Morial, was elected in 1978 and reelected in 1982. His son, Marc H. Morial, was elected mayor in 1994 and reelected in 1998.Although most city and parish government has been consolidated in New Orleans, Orleans parish officials continue to play an important role. These officials include the district attorney, the board of assessors, and the Orleans Parish School Board, which supervises public education under the state department of education.Municipal servicesExpansion of new residential areas in New Orleans, combined with the spiraling cost of services, has caused the operating budget for municipal services to rise dramatically. The municipal government has been hampered by a lack of funds necessary to carry out its work effectively and to provide an appropriate income for the employees of its various departments. One of the major problems is the low assessment of taxes on both residential and industrial property and the loss of taxpayers to the suburban parishes.Drainage has always been the main problem among municipal services. The city is virtually surrounded by levees—25 feet (8 metres) high on the Mississippi River and nearly 20 feet (6 metres) high on Lake Pontchartrain (Pontchartrain, Lake)—and has some two dozen major drainage pumping stations. The drainage machinery used at these stations is among the largest found in the world. Following the disaster of 1965, when Hurricane Betsy flooded the city's lower Ninth Ward, the Sewerage and Water Board operating the pumping stations drafted a plan to improve these facilities against future major hurricanes. Further improvements in drainage canals and pumping equipment in the older sections of the city were also made. These operated well until they were overwhelmed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005.Flood control along the river, Lake Pontchartrain, and secondary waterways in the city is under the direction of the Board of Commissioners of the Orleans Levee District. In addition to its primary job of flood control, the board has, since the 1920s, reclaimed hundreds of acres of Lake Pontchartrain bottomland and developed it into one of the most scenic lakefront areas in the United States. A majority of the land is dedicated to public facilities, which include sandy beaches, a marina, a cement seawall from which fishing can be enjoyed, picnic grounds, parkways with flower beds, fountains, and shelter houses. The remainder of this reclaimed land has been turned into residential subdivisions, which are among the finest in the city.The city's police department has taken a number of measures in its fight against a steadily rising crime rate. These include introducing a guard-dog corps, reorganizing its patrol system to increase its effectiveness, creating additional police districts, building new stations in older districts, more than doubling its automotive equipment, establishing a community relations division, and putting into operation a communication van that acts as a field command post in times of emergency. Police programs designed to mobilize citizen groups were greatly increased to include the Neighborhood Watch Program and the New Orleans Neighborhood Police Anti-Crime Council. A police psychologist was added to the force, and the narcotics squad was increased.HealthNew Orleans has become a medical and educational centre. The Medical Center of Louisiana at New Orleans is the teaching hospital for two adjacent institutions, the Tulane and the Louisiana State University medical schools; the nearby veterans hospital is also affiliated. In addition to serving local residents, specialists frequently treat patients from Latin America.EducationAmong New Orleans's institutions of higher learning are Tulane University, Loyola University New Orleans, the University of New Orleans, Delgado Community College, Our Lady of Holy Cross College, Dillard University, Xavier University of Louisiana, and Southern University at New Orleans. The city has many private, parochial, and business schools. The public school system began in 1841 with 83 pupils and four teachers and now has some 1,000 times as many students and teachers. In 1960 a public school crisis, attracting international attention, developed when an attempt was made at the token integration of two white schools. Within 20 years the school system became overwhelmingly black, both students and teachers.Cultural lifeThe cultural life of New Orleans is a synthesis of contributions by both whites and blacks. The white American heritage—with its roots in French-speaking Cajun society—is reflected in the business and commercial life of the city, while the immigrant heritage—Irish societies, German Oktoberfests, Italian St. Joseph's Day altars—adds ethnic colour to urban conformity. The African American heritage is particularly rich. In antebellum days, free persons of colour were musicians, poets, journalists, business entrepreneurs, and landlords. Both black freemen and slaves were renowned for their craftsmanship in such trades as bricklaying, iron grillwork, and carpentry. The contribution of African American musicians to the birth of jazz out of black blues and “field hollers” and white dance tunes and hymns is well known.Facilities for recreation and relaxation in New Orleans are justly famous. New Orleans is often referred to as “the city that care forgot,” and it has always been a town for those seeking a good time. Its residents love music, dancing, and a “Continental Sunday” spent in amusements. The three factors that have contributed to its popularity with tourists are the Old World charm of the Spanish-French architecture in its Vieux Carré (French: “Old Square”), the reckless abandon of its Carnival and Mardi Gras, and its reputation as the birthplace, between the 1880s and World War I, of jazz.The Vieux Carré, or French Quarter, is a sightseer's delight. Its Creole architecture, creating the atmosphere of a foreign city, combines native architectural ingenuity with adaptations of French colonial traditions of eastern Canada and West Indian Spanish colonial styles. Typical are one-story cottages opening directly on the sidewalks, with high-pitched roofs and windows reaching to the ground. Another style is the L-shaped two-story dwelling with a side entrance to an inner patio. Also built to the sidewalk, it has a roof that extends out over balconies on both the street and patio sides. Iron grillwork, designs for which were created locally and executed to a high perfection by slave craftsmen, decorates these balconies and also supports the roof. Such houses are built side by side with no openings between them, but the patios offer space for trees, flowers, and fountains and ensure privacy for the occupants.Central to the Vieux Carré is Jackson Square, facing the Cabildo and the Presbytère (former governmental centres but now part of the Louisiana State Museum) and St. Louis Cathedral. All date from colonial times, but considerable stylistic changes have been made on these buildings since they were erected.On either side of this square are the Pontalba Buildings, built in 1849–50, while nearby is the historic French Market. Curio and antique collectors throng the many shops on Royal Street. Side streets are lined with art galleries, perfume shops, sidewalk cafés, and tearooms. Bourbon Street is famous for its nightclubs, where music (notably jazz) and risqué floor shows are a specialty. Devotees of jazz may also visit Preservation Hall, where revivals of traditional styles may be heard. The New Orleans Jazz Club established a Jazz Museum and later donated the collection to the Louisiana State Museum system. The jazz collection is displayed in the Old U.S. Mint. Each spring the city puts on the New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival.Every year during Spring Fiesta there are tours of private homes and patios in the Vieux Carré and also of the spacious Garden District uptown, the elite 19th-century neighbourhood. Boats tour the extensive harbour facilities and the magnificent scenery of nearby waterways. The observation point on the 31st floor of the World Trade Center at the foot of Canal Street offers a panoramic view of the river and city. The world-renowned Creole and spicy Cajun cuisine may be sampled in numerous restaurants, ranging from elegant dining rooms with French menus and waiters to small cafés with checkered tablecloths, serving red beans and rice and crawfish, a local specialty.Sports share an honoured position with jazz and Carnival activities in New Orleans. The city is the home of the New Orleans Saints, a member of the National Football League, and the site of the Louisiana Superdome, one of the world's largest sports arenas. In early January the Superdome hosts the Sugar Bowl game, one of the collegiate championship contests in gridiron football; in conjunction with the game are competitions in other sports. Horse racing is held at the local Fair Grounds Race Course, while golfers are attracted every year to the Compaq Classic of New Orleans tournament held at one of the local golf clubs. Boating and fishing are popular pastimes on the city's many waterways. The Southern Yacht Club, on Lake Pontchartrain, is the second oldest in the country. In addition to the lakefront, popular recreation areas include the city's two largest parks, City and Audubon, the latter of which has one of the country's finest zoos. The New Orleans Recreation Department operates more than 100 playgrounds and directs organized recreation activities for thousands of youngsters.Since World War II New Orleans has become an art centre, with many artists and galleries offering original works to collectors. The New Orleans Museum of Art is a public museum with a variety of collections, notably in decorative arts and photography. Live theatre is represented by several community theatre groups. Musical events include operas staged annually by the New Orleans Opera Association, concerts given by the Louisiana Philharmonic Orchestra, performances by the New Orleans Ballet Association, and concerts presented by the New Orleans Jazz Club. Other attractions include the Aquarium of the Americas, one of the top aquariums in the country; the Historic Voodoo Museum; and the Contemporary Arts Center. Tours of the city's unique aboveground cemeteries are also popular.The New Orleans carnival season begins annually on January 6 and culminates in Mardi Gras, the “Fat Tuesday” before Ash Wednesday. The two weeks before Mardi Gras are filled with parades, both day and night, climaxing on Mardi Gras with the Rex parade. The first parading Carnival group (called a “krewe”) was the Mystick Krewe of Comus, which appeared in 1857, though celebrations by masked participants date to the 1820s. The krewe of Rex came into existence in 1872. In 1992 the city council began requiring all krewes to be racially integrated; as a result, several krewes stopped parading and held only private balls. The Presbytère has an exhibit devoted to Mardi Gras.In the latter half of the 19th century there were about a half-dozen leading newspapers, including one in French. Through a process of gradual consolidation, New Orleans now has only one major daily, the Times-Picayune. The city also has weekly newspapers, trade publications, college journals, and regional magazines of considerable circulation. Competitive journalism is kept alive among the city's television and radio stations.HistoryFoundation and early settlementThe decision to found New Orleans, or Nouvelle-Orléans, was made in Paris in 1717 by John Law's Company of the West, which had taken control of Louisiana that year. The colony's new proprietors envisioned New Orleans (named for the French regent, Philippe II, duc d'Orléans (Orléans, Philippe II, duc d')) as a “port of deposit,” or transshipment centre, for future trade from upriver in the Mississippi River valley. Jean-Baptiste le Moyne de Bienville (Bienville, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de), the man who suggested the site, was entrusted with the actual foundation of the city. Clearing of underbrush for the new city probably began in March 1718. The engineers charged with this task met with problems arising from uncooperative convict labour, a shortage of supplies, two severe hurricanes (in 1721 and 1722), and the unpleasant physical conditions of mosquito-infested swamps as they set up the first crude dwellings covered with bark and reeds. An engineer, Adrien de Pauger, drafted the first plan for the town, encompassing what is now the Vieux Carré and consisting of 66 squares forming a parallelogram.The first residents were a colourful mixture of Canadian backwoodsmen, company craftsmen and troops, convicts, slaves, prostitutes, and indigents. In a census taken in November 1721, New Orleans had a population of 470 people: 277 whites and 172 black and 21 Indian slaves. In 1722 New Orleans was designated the capital of Louisiana, and in 1731 the city returned to the control of the French crown. More respectable colonists began to arrive, but growth continued to be precarious. The main economic staples grown in the vicinity of New Orleans were tobacco and indigo for export and rice and vegetables for local consumption. Naval stores were also exported. French ships, however, were reluctant to call at New Orleans to pick up such cargo because its value did not match its bulk.In 1762 France, ready to part with its unprofitable port, secretly agreed to cede Louisiana to Spain, and, by the Treaty of Paris (Paris, Treaty of) (1763), Spain received New Orleans and the Louisiana Territory west of the Mississippi. After a brief rebellion—which was sternly suppressed—the inhabitants of New Orleans enjoyed peace and a growing prosperity under Spanish law, while trade arose with the British colonies in spite of Spanish restrictions. At the same time, English-speaking colonists were moving west to settle along the tributaries of the Mississippi. In the decade of the American Revolution, these “Kaintucks,” as they were called, began floating their cargoes downriver to New Orleans; several times Spanish officials suspended the right of deposit of American goods at New Orleans in response to the boisterous conduct of American frontiersmen along the city's upper levee.In 1800 Louisiana was secretly returned to Napoleon's France, and by 1803 the French emperor had negotiated its sale (Louisiana Purchase) to the United States. The ceremonies transferring Louisiana to France and later to the United States took place in New Orleans's Cabildo and main square, the Place d'Armes (now Jackson Square), in the winter of 1803.The growth of the cityThe early 19th centuryNew Orleans's population in 1803 was approximately 8,000, consisting of 4,000 whites and 2,700 enslaved and about 1,300 free persons of colour. Its prosperity was reflected in its 1803 exports, which had a value approaching $2 million and were bound mainly for American ports. In 1805, when it was incorporated as a municipality, New Orleans took on an identity separate from that of Louisiana's territorial government. As the city expanded out of its original limits, one of the first new tracts of land to be added was the Faubourg Sainte Marie, a suburb lying on the uptown side of the Vieux Carré and separated from it by a broad “commons” (now Canal Street, New Orleans's main street). The Faubourg Sainte Marie became the “American section” in the early 19th century and the hub of most business activities. Other faubourgs (outskirts, or suburbs) were laid out above and below the two nuclear settlements and across the river and were finally absorbed into the city by the 1870s.During the War of 1812 (1812, War of), New Orleans was threatened by a British invasion force, which approached the city from the Gulf of Mexico. General Andrew Jackson (Jackson, Andrew), with an army of frontiersmen and local volunteers, won a smashing victory on January 8, 1815, saving the city, though, unknown to him, the war already had been concluded.The next 40 years constituted the golden age of New Orleans as a great cotton port. The first steamboat to reach the city, in 1812, was appropriately called the New Orleans. Mississippi River steamboats increased to 400 by 1840, and local commerce skyrocketed in value, reaching $54 million by 1835. By 1840 the city was rated the fourth port in the world; after the 1840s canals and railroads diverted produce eastward to New York City.German and Irish immigrants arrived in New Orleans in large numbers in the 1840s. By 1850 the city's total population had swelled to 116,375. New Orleans, however, had not learned to cope with the health hazards of its mushrooming growth: drinking water came from the river or cisterns; no sewerage system existed; drainage was deficient; and flooding was common after heavy rains. The results were sporadic outbreaks of cholera and yellow fever, the worst of which was the yellow fever epidemic of 1853, accounting for more than 8,000 deaths.The Civil War (American Civil War) and its aftermathDuring the American Civil War the strategic location of the city was inadequately appreciated by the Confederate military. The Union fleet of Admiral David Farragut (Farragut, David) was able to capture New Orleans in April 1862. The city was placed under the military command of General Benjamin Butler (Butler, Benjamin F), and city officials were removed from office. Although Butler was replaced as commander by Nathaniel Banks (Banks, Nathaniel P.) by the end of 1862, his brief regime became infamous in local history for his roughshod handling of the population.During the period of Reconstruction, 1865–77, racial tensions ran high. “Scalawags (scalawag)” (white Southerners who cooperated with Republican forces) and “carpetbaggers (carpetbagger)” (Northerners accused of exploiting the situation for personal gain) cooperated to gain political control of the city and state, with the support of black voters. By 1872 amnesty had been granted to the ex-Confederates, and the municipal government returned to traditional white control, although the state government and the city police force remained under Radical Republican control until 1877.In the 1880s the debt of $24 million, incurred under carpetbag regimes, increased steadily with each subsequent administration. This municipal debt had to be paid before the city could undertake any new bond issues for sorely needed municipal improvements. In the last 20 years of the 19th century, therefore, New Orleans made limited, though steady, progress. Between 1840 and 1900 it had dropped from 3rd to 12th place in national rank, although its population had increased to 287,104.Yellow fever was sharply curtailed after the Civil War and was finally eradicated by 1906. By the early 20th century the river steamboats, unable to compete with railroads, disappeared; the Port of New Orleans, attracting less railroad freight than Eastern ports, reached a low ebb shortly before World War I. With the development of towboats and barges large enough to hold almost an entire trainload of cargo, however, the port grew to be second in the nation after World War II. Substantial progress, at least in physical improvements, came to the city in the 1950s. During the administration of Mayor DeLesseps S. Morrison, a vast railroad consolidation program was achieved and a new railroad terminal constructed. Streets were widened, railroad ground crossings were spanned with overpasses, and a civic centre, which includes the 11-story City Hall, was built.Also in the 1950s, petrochemical industries began locating in New Orleans, followed in the 1970s by oil refineries. The 1984 Louisiana World Exposition revitalized the warehouse district but was a financial disaster. In the mid-1980s the local oil industry went bust, and the city's fortunes began to decline. Movement of middle-class citizens to the suburbs, which had begun in the '60s, continued in earnest. High rates of crime in general and murder in particular and police corruption characterized the city into the mid-1990s; subsequently, however, the situation improved considerably, buoyed by a strong tourism-based economy.The 2005 hurricanes caused an unprecedented disaster for the city and surrounding communities. Although some wards, notably the Vieux Carré, escaped the most serious damage, large areas were completely destroyed, and a great many buildings left standing after the storm's initial onslaught were rendered unusable by the severity of the subsequent widespread flooding. The extent of the devastation forced the bulk of the population to find temporary housing elsewhere for varying lengths of time, and some chose not to return. As cleanup operations got underway, many questions arose about how New Orleans would be rebuilt.Joy Juanita Jackson Ed.Additional ReadingOld but reliable general histories are Will H. Coleman (compiler), Historical Sketch Book and Guide to New Orleans and Environs (1885, reprinted 1973); Henry Rightor (ed.), Standard History of New Orleans, Louisiana (1900); and Grace E. King, New Orleans: The Place and the People (1895, reprinted 1968). Popular general histories that include photographs are Walter G. Cowan et al., New Orleans: Yesterday and Today (1983); Leonard V. Huber, New Orleans: A Pictorial History (1971, reissued 1981); and Richard Campanella and Marina Campanella, New Orleans Then and Now (1999). Architecture is discussed in Mary L. Christovich et al. (eds. and compilers), New Orleans Architecture, 5 vol. (1971–77), a scholarly study. Detailed period studies are John G. Clark, New Orleans, 1718–1812: An Economic History (1970); Robert C. Reinders, End of an Era: New Orleans, 1850–1860 (1964); Gerald M. Capers, Occupied City: New Orleans Under the Federals, 1862–1865 (1965); and Joy J. Jackson, New Orleans in the Gilded Age: Politics and Urban Progress, 1880–1896 (1969). Port history and activity are discussed in Alexander I. Warrington, Economic Geography of New Orleans and the Middle South (1952); and Louisiana. Board of Commissioners of the Port of New Orleans, Report (annual). Politics and government are discussed in John R. Kemp (ed.), Martin Behrman of New Orleans: Memoirs of a City Boss (1977); Edward F. Haas, DeLesseps S. Morrison and the Image of Reform (1974); and L. Vaughan Howard and Robert S. Friedman, Government in Metropolitan New Orleans (1959). Sources on the history and culture of Mardi Gras include Reid Mitchell, All on a Mardi Gras Day: Episodes in the History of New Orleans Carnival (1995, reissued 1999); and James Gill, Lords of Misrule: Mardi Gras and the Politics of Race in New Orleans (1997). Detailed descriptions of historic places include Al Rose, Storyville, New Orleans: Being an Authentic, Illustrated Account of the Notorious Red-Light District (1974, reissued 1994); and Federal Writers' Project. New Orleans, New Orleans City Guide (1938, reissued 1972). Detailed statistical information on New Orleans is found in the Louisiana Almanac (irregular); Statistical Abstract of Louisiana (triennial); and New Orleans. Police Department, Annual Report.Joy Juanita Jackson Ed.
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