New Mexico

New Mexico
a state in the SW United States. 1,299,968; 121,666 sq. mi. (315,115 sq. km). Cap.: Santa Fe. Abbr.: NM (for use with zip code), N. Mex., N.M.

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State (pop., 2000: 1,819,046), southwestern U.S. Bordered by Mexico and the U.S. states of Colorado, Oklahoma, Texas, and Arizona, it covers 121,598 sq mi (314,939 sq km); its capital is Santa Fe.

In the west, it is crossed north-south by the Continental Divide. The Rio Grande bisects the state and for a short distance forms the boundary with Texas. Human settlement in the area has probably spanned 10,000 years. Before the Navajo and Apache arrived in the 15th century, an agricultural Indian civilization had developed irrigation systems, pueblos, and cliff dwellings, whose ruins still dot the state. Spaniards from Mexico claimed the area for Spain in the 16th century, and in 1540 Francisco Vázquez de Coronado explored it. The first settlement was at Santa Fe in 1610. Missionaries were active in the 1600s. It became part of Mexico in 1821 and was ceded to the U.S. in 1848 at the end of the Mexican War. The Territory of New Mexico was established by Congress in 1850. It became the 47th U.S. state in 1912 and retained its frontier image. World War II spurred economic and social change, bringing research facilities, including that at Los Alamos. The economy today is largely dependent on the export of raw materials and on federal government expenditures; oil and natural gas are also important. The University of New Mexico and a fine arts community are in Albuquerque.

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New Mexico, flag of    constituent state of the United States of America. It became the 47th state of the union in 1912. New Mexico is the fifth largest U.S. state and is bounded by Colorado to the north, Oklahoma and Texas to the east, Texas and the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora to the south, and Arizona (which was part of the Territory of New Mexico from 1850 to 1863) to the west. At its northwestern corner New Mexico joins Arizona, Utah, and Colorado in the only four-way meeting of states in the United States. The capital of New Mexico is Santa Fe.

      The area that is New Mexico was claimed by Spain in the 16th century, became part of Mexico in 1821, and was ceded to the United States in 1848 (through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of)). Tensions between New Mexico's Spanish American (Hispano), Native American, and Anglo populations are a continuing reminder of the bitter antagonisms that characterized the state's long history; these tensions drive such novels as N. Scott Momaday (Momaday, N. Scott)'s House Made of Dawn (1968), Rudolfo Anaya (Anaya, Rudolfo A.)'s Bless Me, Ultima (1972), Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony (1974), and John Nichols's The Milagro Beanfield War (1974), all of which are part of the modern New Mexican literary canon. As part of the American Southwest, New Mexico shares the “Old West” legacy of cattle drives, cowboys, and clashes between pioneers and Native Americans. Indeed, from the vastness of its slice of the Great Plains to the rough, weather-scored peaks of its mountain ranges, New Mexico retains much of its frontier flavour.

      Despite the traditionally agrarian nature of the state, New Mexico has become increasingly urbanized. About two-fifths of its residents live in Albuquerque (founded 1706) and the surrounding Bernalillo county. Santa Fe, a much smaller city, was founded in 1610 and is the oldest continuously used seat of government in North America. It was also the terminus of the Santa Fe Trail, a wagon trail that was a major commercial and migration route from Missouri to the Southwest from 1821 to 1880, when the railroad was completed. Area 121,590 square miles (314,917 square km). Pop. (2000) 1,819,046; (2007 est.) 1,969,915.

Land (New Mexico)

 New Mexico has some of the flattest land as well as some of the most rugged mountains in the country. Some portions of the state are rich in pine forests, meadows, and fish-laden mountain streams, while other areas are devoid of any water bodies, and even cacti struggle to survive. The eastern third of the state is an extension of the Great Plains that includes the Llano Estacado (“Staked Plain”), so named because of its abundance of spiky agaves (century plants). The Rocky Mountains extend into the north-central part of the state. Southwest of the Rockies is part of the Basin and Range Province, consisting of mountain ranges running in a north-south direction interspersed with valleys that are indispensable to agriculture and grazing. Northwestern New Mexico, part of the Colorado Plateau, is characterized by unique volcanic formations that are a result of past lava flows. This region also contains many plains and short mountain ranges.

      The average elevation ranges from 5,000 to 8,000 feet (1,500 to 2,500 metres) above sea level in the northwest to less than 4,000 feet (1,250 metres) in the southeast. More than four-fifths of the state is higher than 4,000 feet above sea level. The highest mountain peaks, Wheeler Peak (13,161 feet [4,011 metres]) and Truchas Peak (13,103 feet [3,994 metres]), are in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in the north-central part of the state. The lowest elevation, 2,842 feet (866 metres), lies along Red Bluff Lake in the southeastern corner of the state.

  Two of New Mexico's most unique physical features are the caverns near Carlsbad, which are among the most spectacular natural rock formations in the world, and the extensive gypsum sand dunes at White Sands National Monument in south-central New Mexico, which were created by wind and water erosion.

      Five major river systems—the Rio Grande, the Pecos (Pecos River), the Canadian (Canadian River), the San Juan (San Juan River), and the Gila (Gila River)—drain the state. The Rio Grande, which has played an influential role in New Mexico's history, virtually bisects the state from north to south. Agriculture in its floodplain has been significant since prehistoric times; European settlers initially lived exclusively in its valleys and those of its tributaries, areas where perennial supplies of water were nearby and relatively safe from attack. The Pecos, east of the Rio Grande and approximately parallel to it, was also a popular route for explorers. The Canadian River, rising in the Sangre de Cristo range and flowing east across the arid plains, was a useful avenue for explorers despite its deep canyons. The San Juan and Gila rivers lie west of the Continental Divide, in the northwest and southwest, respectively. All but the Gila, which is not dammed in New Mexico, provide water for irrigation, recreation, and flood control. Few other natural water bodies are found in the state, aside from artificial lakes and reservoirs, the largest of which, Elephant Butte Reservoir, was created by the damming of the Rio Grande.

      New Mexico's pleasant climate has long been one of its greatest attractions, especially for those seeking a comfortable retirement or relief from respiratory and other ailments. Although New Mexico's average annual temperature is in the mid-50s F (about 12 °C), extremes can range from near 120 °F (about 48 °C) to the −50s F (about −46 °C). Variations are caused more by elevation than latitude, with temperatures falling by about 5 °F (3 °C) with every 1,000-foot (300-metre) increase in elevation. Nighttime temperatures tend to fall sharply. The average annual rainfall is about 13 inches (330 mm), though precipitation tends to increase with elevation. About 40 inches (1,000 mm) of rain fall in the higher mountains, whereas lower areas may get no more than 8 to 10 inches (200 to 250 mm). Generally, precipitation is greatest in the eastern third of the state and least in the western third.

Plant and animal life
      New Mexico has six vegetation zones, which are determined mainly by elevation. The Lower Sonoran Zone, in the southern sections of the Rio Grande and Pecos valleys and in the state's southwestern corner, usually occurs at elevations below 4,500 feet (1,400 metres). It includes nearly 20,000 square miles (52,000 square km) of New Mexico's best grazing area and irrigated farmland. The Upper Sonoran Zone, comprising about three-fourths of the state and including most of the plains, foothills, and valleys above 4,500 feet, is a region of prairie grasses, low piñon pines, and juniper shrubs. At higher elevations, better stands are a result of more abundant rainfall. The Transition Zone, covering some 19,000 square miles (49,000 square km), is identified chiefly by the ponderosa pine. The Canadian Zone, covering 4,000 square miles (10,000 square km) at elevations of 8,500 to 9,500 feet (2,600 to 2,900 metres), contains blue spruce and Douglas fir. The Hudsonian and Arctic-Alpine zones, above 9,500 feet, are too small in area and too sparsely covered to be of great importance.

      Elevation also is a primary factor in the distribution of the state's diverse wildlife. Mule deer, brown bears, bighorn sheep, minks, muskrats, foxes, mountain lions, and bobcats live in the mountain and forest areas above 7,000 feet (2,100 metres), while at lower elevations antelopes, coyotes, and jackrabbits are found. Barbary sheep from North Africa have been introduced into several mountain areas. Many species of trout are common in the mountain streams, and warm-water fish abound in lower streams. Approximately 300 species of birds can be found year-round, including various game birds; dozens more migratory species of birds cross the state via the Rio Grande. Rattlesnakes and black widow spiders are common. Despite the establishment of federal and state parks, forests, and refuges, many of New Mexico's animal species are endangered; among them are the long-nosed bat, the least tern, and the Mexican gray wolf, the last of which was reintroduced in 1999.

People (New Mexico)

Population composition
      More than four-fifths of the people of New Mexico are of European descent, Hispanic origin, or a mix thereof. The original Spanish settlers intermarried with the Native Americans, and their descendants are designated as Spanish Americans (Hispanos), while those who have arrived more recently from Mexico and elsewhere in Latin America and their descendants are generally referred to as Mexicanos, Latinos, or, less formally, Chicanos. Spanish Americans made up the majority of the population until the 1940s, and people of Hispanic heritage (both Hispanos and Latinos) still account for more than two-fifths of the population. After World War II, New Mexico witnessed an influx of English-speaking “whites” (locally referred to simply as Anglos, even when their European heritage was other than British), while at the same time, there was a widespread desertion of small agricultural villages by their Spanish-speaking residents, who moved to urban centres in the state or to California. In the process, many such villages became ghost towns.

  Native Americans (Southwest Indian) constitute about one-tenth of the state's population. The large Navajo reservation in northwestern New Mexico extends into Arizona, and the city of Gallup, near the Arizona state line, is known as an Indian centre. There are also reservations for the Ute and for the Jicarilla (Jicarilla Apache) and Mescalero Apache people; Pueblo Indians live on some 2,000,000 acres (800,000 hectares) of scattered land grants. These Native Americans preserve many of their ancient ways, tending flocks of sheep and producing handicraft items. But dissatisfaction with their low income, inadequate housing, poor health standards, and lack of educational opportunity has led to a growing militancy and an increasing exodus from their reservations or pueblos to urban centres.

Settlement patterns
 The first Spanish settlers were awarded land grants by Spain and Mexico, and they resided in the central valley of the Rio Grande and its tributaries. Other early immigrants to the area also settled along streams because of the scarcity of water elsewhere. In a typical community, adobe houses opened onto a plaza from which four streets ran outward, and the entire enclave was enclosed by a wall for defense. Nearby were small agricultural plots and orchards that were owned by individuals and watered by acequias, or irrigation canals. Just beyond was the ejido—land for communal grazing, recreation, or firewood. Despite fear of attacks by Native Americans, ranches often were established away from settlements. By the end of the Mexican-American War in 1848, New Mexico was a self-sufficient agrarian community, with most people residing in small villages.

      After the American Civil War (1861–65), vast cattle ranches, their size limited only by the availability of water, appeared in the eastern third of the state (often referred to as the East Side). The arrival of the railroads in 1879 brought several waves of Anglo farmers, but frequent droughts ruined many who tried to till the soil as they had in their more humid homelands. Dry farming—tilling that uses drought-resistant crops or otherwise conserves soil moisture—saved many who remained.

      Most of New Mexico's Spanish-speaking inhabitants are still concentrated in the north-central and south-central portions of the state. The eastern portion is an extension of the high plains, settled predominantly by white Protestants from Texas and Oklahoma. The southwestern corner of the state, settled by Anglo miners after the coming of the railroads, also has little in common with the central area. The northwest corner, much of which lies within the Navajo reservations, received Mormon settlers from Colorado, but the greatest population growth of this area resulted from oil, natural gas, and uranium discoveries after World War II.

      New Mexico, traditionally rural, has joined the national trend toward urbanization. About two-thirds of the population lived in urban areas at the beginning of the 21st century. Urbanization has involved a number of factors in addition to the movement of Hispanos away from their rural homes, including the growth of the light industry and service sectors of the economy, the consolidation of farms, and the increasing inclination of many farmers to abandon their isolation for the larger towns and commute to their fields and flocks.

      New Mexico is a comparatively poor state, ranking among the lowest in the country in per capita income. About one-half of its economy is based on the service sector, while much of the remainder is centred on extractive industries (mining and oil production). Relying heavily on the export of raw materials and on federal expenditures for programs of no certain permanence, New Mexico is subject to shifting demands from outside the state. Government spending accounts for nearly one-fourth of the state's economy.

      In 1540 Francisco Vásquez de Coronado (Coronado, Francisco Vázquez de), the Spanish explorer who founded New Mexico, ably described the greatest concern of the local population as the need for water. The Native Americans and Hispanos were self-sufficient farmers, growing beans, corn (maize), cotton, and squash on the alluvial plain of the Rio Grande. The arid land was best used for pasture, and sheep thrived until well into the 20th century. Americans brought cattle from Texas, and the sale of the cattle and calves accounted for two-thirds of the total income from agriculture. Because water is still scarce, farming techniques have not changed much in present-day New Mexico, and irrigated farming remains the most important form of agriculture. Since the 1990s, milk, sorghum, wheat, hay, chili peppers, and onions have been important agricultural products.

Resources and power
      Spanish exploration and settlement of New Mexico were prompted in part by a quest for precious metals. Even the naming of the land reflected Spanish hopes that it would be as rich in minerals as Mexico. Some mining was carried on under the Spanish and Mexican colonial governments, especially in the southwestern part of the state. After the American Civil War, gold and silver extraction became more important. The mining brought many settlers and attracted capital during the territorial period but never produced the riches expected. Nonetheless, gold and silver are still found in significant quantities but are mainly recovered as by-products of copper smelting. Copper mining also began in the 19th century, and copper continues to be found in many parts of the state, although most of the ore reserves and production are in Grant county, in the southwestern corner. Iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, and molybdenum are also mined. New Mexico produces more than four-fifths of U.S. potash and is the country's leading producer of perlite, a natural glass. The state also traditionally led the country in uranium production, but by the 1990s that had dropped off considerably.

      Oil and natural gas account for about half of the state's income from natural resources. Natural gas is mainly produced in the southeastern corner and in the San Juan basin in the northwest.Boom times in the mines, oil fields, or natural gas fields have often been succeeded by severe economic downturns.

 Production of coal, long an important fuel in New Mexico, soared with the coming of the railroads but declined when train engines shifted from coal to diesel fuel. After almost ceasing completely, coal production has again become important as a fuel for thermoelectric power generation. Solar power has become an important source of energy, particularly in cities, while the number of wind turbines and geothermal plants has been increasing throughout the state.

      Manufacturing in New Mexico was originally limited to the production of consumer goods, but it has increased and diversified since World War II. Food processing, petroleum refining, smelting, and the manufacture of electronic components, communications equipment, furniture, and construction materials are leading industrial activities. They are mostly centred in the Albuquerque area.

      New Mexico is also known as a leader in the high-technology industries. Nuclear weapons and energy research is carried on at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. An offshoot of this is the private manufacturing of such products as ordnance, electronic equipment, and precision instruments.

Services, labour, and taxation
 Tourism is New Mexico's leading industry. Known as “the Land of Enchantment,” the state attracts millions of visitors and part-time residents annually. For many years Texans, fleeing hot, humid summer weather, have been drawn to the crisp, cool mountain resorts of New Mexico. Many people go there in the summer to fish, camp, admire the magnificent scenery, or attend the various festivals and rodeos. The Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta, one of the largest ballooning festivals in the world, takes place in early October. Indian ceremonials and ruins are also major attractions.

 Other tourist sites include a number of national parks and monuments that are of cultural, historical, and scientific interest. Among them are Carlsbad Caverns National Park near the southeastern city of Carlsbad, Capulin Volcano National Monument near the Colorado border, Chaco Culture National Historical Park on the Navajo reservation, El Morro National Monument near the Zuni reservation, and the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument outside Silver City.

      Unions are not widespread and are confined largely to the state's mining, smelting, and petroleum industries. New Mexico has an individual, a business, and a state and local property tax. There are also a gross receipts tax and a tax on gasoline and cigarettes; however, New Mexicans pay some of the lowest per capita tax rates in the United States, largely because the average individual income for the state is lower than the U.S. average, and the rate of unemployment is generally higher. As a result, the New Mexico government receives more federal funding than that of any other state.

      Geographic isolation was a basic cause of New Mexico's slow economic development. In the Spanish and Mexican periods, it took about six months to travel the distance between Mexico City and Santa Fe. The Santa Fe Trail route was much shorter and faster, and the regular arrival of American consumer goods overland helped prepare the way for conquest. This isolation ended when the railroads reached Albuquerque and Santa Fe in 1880. Today an extensive rail network crosses the state. Highways, some of which are part of the federal interstate system, link New Mexico's major population centres. Mountainous terrain makes road construction expensive, but secondary roads are adequate. Air transportation provides a vital link with other parts of the country, though the only major airport is in Albuquerque.

Government and society

Constitutional framework
  New Mexico's constitution was adopted in 1911. In most instances it can be amended by a majority vote of the legislature and by a majority vote of the electorate. The state legislature is composed of the 42 members of the Senate, elected to four-year terms, and the 70 members of the House of Representatives, elected to two-year terms. Public referendums may be held on major issues.

      The governor heads the executive branch of government and generally has more authority than his or her counterpart in most states. Aside from having the powers of pardon, reprieve, and veto, the governor appoints most of the state boards, departments, agencies, and commissions. Like the lieutenant governor and other executive officials, the governor is elected for one four-year term. Officials are ineligible for state elective positions for four years thereafter, with the exception of the lieutenant governor, who may run for governor.

      The judicial branch of New Mexico's government consists of the Supreme Court, the highest court in the state, and a Court of Appeals. There are five Supreme Court justices, who are elected for eight years, with overlapping terms. Judges of the state's judicial districts are elected for six years and serve ex officio in juvenile courts.

      Most of New Mexico's 33 counties are administered by an elected board of commissioners. Other county elective officers include assessor, clerk, sheriff, surveyor, treasurer, and probate judge. In the territorial era, citizens usually favoured the Republican Party, but the Democratic Party has tended to dominate New Mexico's politics since statehood. At the national level, the state voted for Republican presidential candidates in each election from 1968 to 1988, but it has since been considered a “swing” state; its congressional delegation is divided between the two parties. Bill Richardson (Richardson, Bill), who was elected New Mexico's governor in 2002 and again in 2006, has been prominent in national politics and is one of several Hispanic governors who have served the state. Each of New Mexico's sovereign Native American groups elects a tribal council, which administers tribal affairs and represents the tribe in negotiations with the federal and state governments.

Health and welfare
      The state's department of health, created in 1919, administers an extensive social service program, often in collaboration with federal agencies. Most of New Mexico's hospitals are in urban areas; medical services in rural areas, especially on Native American reservations, are generally inadequate. The Emergency Health Communication network links emergency vehicles, including helicopters, with medical facilities throughout the state. Other state institutions include a penitentiary and several satellite prison camps, an industrial school for boys, a girls' welfare home, schools for blind and deaf people, a development centre for intellectually disabled children, and several special state-supported schools.

      A public school system was established in 1891, and today the educational standards in the urban centres are comparable to or superior to those in other Western states. Many rural and small-town schools remain substandard, however, and are hampered by inadequate financial support. Legalized segregation for Hispanic students and other ethnic minorities ended in the 1950s, but de facto segregation often remains, primarily in elementary schools.

 The state's largest institution of higher education is the University of New Mexico (New Mexico, University of) in Albuquerque, established in 1889. Other state-supported institutions include New Mexico State University (1888) in Las Cruces, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (1889) in Socorro, Eastern New Mexico University (1934; formerly Portales University) in Portales, and Western New Mexico University (1893) in Silver City. Northern New Mexico Community College at El Rito, originally established in 1909 to train Spanish speakers to become teachers, has branches at Española and Santa Fe. The state universities have established branch campuses, while some cities have organized junior colleges. There are also several private colleges. A facility of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is about 50 miles (80 km) west of Socorro. (Socorro) There, large radio telescopes are used to study astronomical objects.

Cultural life
      The historical atmosphere of New Mexico is represented by its unique fusion of three cultures—Spanish American, Native American, and Anglo-American. A number of Old West archetypes, including the cowboy, the rancher, and the miner, have also played a role in the state's cultural life.

The arts
      Many writers and artists have been influenced by New Mexico's history and culture. Among those who have drawn on the state's rich cultural heritage in their work are natives Rudolfo A. Anaya (Anaya, Rudolfo A.), Simon Ortiz, and Leslie Marmon Silko (Silko, Leslie Marmon). Other writers who have focused on New Mexico include Paul Horgan (Horgan, Paul), Jimmy Santiago Baca, Erna Fergusson, Ross Calvin, Mary Austin (Austin, Mary), Edward Abbey (Abbey, Edward), and N. Scott Momaday (Momaday, N. Scott). English novelist D.H. Lawrence (Lawrence, D.H.) lived in Taos in the early 1920s, and his ashes are buried there.

      Painters have been especially intrigued with the unique landscape of New Mexico, which offers a variety of scenery found in few other areas of the United States. New Mexico's cities have attracted artists from many parts of the country and the world. Taos was the first to have an important art community, which included painter Georgia O'Keeffe (O'Keeffe, Georgia) and her photographer husband, Alfred Stieglitz (Stieglitz, Alfred), but it is now rivaled by Santa Fe and Albuquerque. Spanish folk art has been preserved largely by the Penitentes, a religious group within the Roman Catholic Church. In rural areas medieval Spanish music, art, folklore, and social customs also have been preserved.

 Local Indians also produce a great deal of artwork, notably beautiful high-quality pottery. Each village has its own design to identify the work of its people. Navajo blankets are famous throughout the world. Many Indians make buttons, beads, pins, rings, necklaces, earrings, and belts, mainly for sale to the growing number of tourists. The United States Indian Arts and Crafts Board has attempted to preserve the authenticity of Indian jewelry by establishing standards in handworked silver. The Santa Fe Indian Market, held each August, is an important event for producers and collectors of Native American artwork; about 1,200 artists from some 100 tribes attend annually. Individual pueblos preserve traditional dances by performing at numerous fiestas, the most important being the Inter-Tribal Indian Ceremonial, which draws thousands of visitors to Gallup every summer.

 New Mexico is also well known for its historical architecture. Indian pueblo buildings were modified by Spanish settlers when they built Santa Fe, and many of these original structures have been restored. The statehouse, most public buildings, and many private ones have been constructed in the modified Spanish mission style. New structures to be built in the historical districts of Santa Fe and in some other communities are subject to construction requirements and restrictions, and modifications to existing buildings are strictly regulated.

Cultural institutions
 Of international renown is the Santa Fe Opera (1957), which performs in an outdoor theatre in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains near the capital city. In most counties there are museums stressing history, Native American arts, or subjects of local interest. The Palace of the Governors in Santa Fe, part of the Museum of New Mexico, helps preserve archaeological artifacts, mementos, and folk arts. The state archives also contain important relics. Also in Albuquerque is the University of New Mexico's Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, which houses artifacts from all over the world. The Wheelwright Museum of Navajo Art, the Museum of International Folk Art, and the Georgia O'Keeffe Museum are in Santa Fe. The Kit Carson Home and Museum in Taos is a history and art museum featuring Indian and Spanish art and 19th-century Western furniture. The International UFO Museum and Research Center is in Roswell, the supposed site of an extraterrestrial-spacecraft crash in 1947, and its library contains thousands of books on subjects relating to unidentified flying objects.

Sports and recreation
      At the centre of spectator sports in New Mexico is the rivalry between the University of New Mexico (New Mexico, University of) of the Mountain West Conference and New Mexico State (New Mexico State University) of the Western Athletic Conference. Although State traditionally has fared less well in football than New Mexico, both schools have strong men's basketball programs, and New Mexico's University Arena, better known as “the Pit,” has one of the college game's most exciting atmospheres; indeed, in 1999 Sports Illustrated named it one of the top 20 U.S. sport venues of the 20th century. Minor league baseball has a long if intermittent history in Albuquerque, dating from 1915 and most memorably including the Dukes' stint as the top farm club of the Los Angeles Dodgers from 1972 to 2000.

      New Mexico's topography is conducive to many recreational opportunities, of which skiing, snowboarding, biking, hiking, and horseback riding are favourites. White-water rafting is popular on the Rio Grande, and during the winter the state's ski runs attract enthusiasts from far and wide. Hunting is common in the fall, when there is a greater variety of game birds and animals.

Gregory Lewis McNamee

History (New Mexico)

Early history
      New Mexico's first inhabitants were various groups of Native Americans who farmed and hunted on the land for at least 10,000 years before European explorers appeared. The more peaceful agriculturists included the Pueblo Indians, whose ruins remain throughout the state. They had well-developed irrigation systems by the time the more aggressive and nomadic Navajo and Apache arrived from the north, probably in the 15th century.

Spanish and Mexican rule
      Reports of the fabled Seven Golden Cities of Cíbola (Cíbola, Seven Cities of) brought the first European explorers into New Mexico in 1540, led by the Spanish adventurer Francisco Vásquez de Coronado (Coronado, Francisco Vázquez de). The journey proved fruitless, however, and they soon returned to New Spain (New Spain, Viceroyalty of) (Mexico). After several decades of desultory exploration by soldiers and friars, Juan de Oñate (Oñate, Juan de) of New Spain was given contracts for colonization in 1595 and made the first permanent settlements a few years later. Santa Fe was established as the permanent capital in 1610.

 For the next century missionary work predominated, but attempts to eradicate Indian religion and culture brought about the Pueblo Rebellion of 1680, which pushed Europeans out of the area for 12 years. By 1700, however, the Spanish had reasserted themselves, and for the next century there was considerable settlement. Albuquerque, founded in 1706, became the focal point in the south, and Santa Fe was the centre of the north.

      Subsistence agriculture in the valley of the Rio Grande and its tributaries was supplemented by the raising of sheep and horses. Trade with the Comanche to the east brought consumer goods (probably from French traders) in exchange for wool, furs, and horses. The Spanish population increased rapidly, possibly to 25,000 by 1800, making New Mexico several times more populous than the colonies of Texas and California. Although there was substantial trade with Chihuahua, Mex., Spanish authorities in the capital of Mexico City, some 900 miles (1,450 km) away, usually neglected this important frontier province simply because of its remoteness. As a result, New Mexico, along with neighbouring colonial areas of what is now Arizona, remained underdeveloped. French traders arriving from New Orleans made inroads into the economy of Santa Fe, posing a threat to Spanish dominance of the region, but an even greater danger to Spanish New Mexico came from attacks by the Apache and Comanche groups. The roughly 100 soldiers garrisoned at Santa Fe were powerless to halt the tribal forays at the beginning of the 19th century, and raids on European and mestizo settlements were common until well into the period of U.S. occupation (1846).

 In 1806–07 U.S. Army Lieut. Zebulon Montgomery Pike (Pike, Zebulon Montgomery) led a small detachment of troops into New Mexican territory. After his capture and imprisonment for illegal entry into Mexico, Pike wrote a report praising the Mexican southwest that soon attracted American fur trappers and traders into the area. When New Mexico became part of the Republic of Mexico in 1821, it already had begun to trade with the United States over the Santa Fe Trail.

Territory and state
      During the Mexican-American War, which began in 1846, New Mexico was taken by U.S. forces under the command of Gen. Stephen Kearny. All residents were granted amnesty and citizenship in return for an oath of allegiance to the United States. The Territory of New Mexico was established by Congress in 1850. During the American Civil War an invading Confederate force was driven out by the Colorado Volunteers (infantry), though southern New Mexico remained a stronghold for rebel sympathizers during and after the war.

      The Navajo tribes were quelled in 1864 and forcibly resettled on a reservation near Fort Sumner. In 1868 they were given a large reservation in northwestern New Mexico and northeastern Arizona, but the Apache, who were settled on two reservations in 1880, continued their rebellion until 1886. The burgeoning cattle industry was the main development of the late 19th century, and bloody battles often were fought between cattle and sheep ranchers and large and small landowners in a series of range wars. The legendary gunfighter Billy the Kid and his lawman-nemesis Pat Garrett (Garrett, Pat) were party to this struggle in Lincoln county (Lincoln), the epicentre of the local range war in its bloodiest year, 1878. The Apache leaders Geronimo, Cochise, and Victorio, though mainly active in Arizona, also made forays into southwestern New Mexico. The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway (Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company, The), which reached Albuquerque in 1880, brought new immigration, and farming grew rapidly with the development of new irrigation methods and resources.

      Following New Mexico's admission as a state on Jan. 6, 1912, its economy was still based on agriculture, and it maintained its frontier image. In some isolated areas, stagecoaches still made connections with trains, and cowboys herded cattle on ranches, some of them vast enterprises. Hispano and Native American communities were little touched by the changes brought by statehood. There were, however, forces at work that were to materially change the state and its people.

      Not the least of these forces was the introduction of the automobile, which soon ended the isolation of even the most remote village or Indian pueblo. Younger people moved to the city, and farm products were more easily marketed by truck. Another force at play was the implementation of the New Deal, the Great Depression-era federal relief program that brought most rural New Mexicans into contact with government for the first time.

      World War II acted as a catalyst to speed the changes already under way. Young Hispanic and “white” men were conscripted into the military, and others found employment at government installations in New Mexico or in the defense plants in other states. A Japanese internment camp was set up outside Sante Fe. Research facilities established at Los Alamos became the centre of the project that created the first atomic bomb in 1945. After World War II, many of the military activities continued in New Mexico, and a large number of military families settled in the state.

      From 1940 to 1960, New Mexico's population nearly doubled. Santa Fe and Taos became havens for health seekers as well as the locations of second homes for the more affluent. The population continued to grow well into the 1990s as many residents of California migrated to the state. Despite the rapid swell in population, New Mexico remains one of the poorest states in the country, even though there has been an increase in the exploitation of oil, natural gas, and other mineral resources as well as an expansion of agriculture through improved irrigation. Despite some resistance from environmental activists, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, the world's first underground storage receptacle for radioactive wastes, opened in southeastern New Mexico in March 1999.

      New Mexico's population continued to grow in the early 21st century, especially in the greater Albuquerque and Santa Fe areas. Albuquerque's growth was especially pronounced in the high plains to the east of Tijeras Canyon; once a formidable obstacle, it has since been traversed by roads and bridges. Santa Fe similarly witnessed rapid growth on the plains south of the city proper.

Warren A. Beck Gregory Lewis McNamee

Additional Reading

General works
The state's geography and people are presented in Writers' Program, New Mexico: A Guide to the Colorful State (1940, reissued as The WPA Guide to 1930s New Mexico, 1989), still useful as a historical source; but for currency it has been replaced by Lance Chilton et al., New Mexico: A New Guide to the Colorful State (1984). Robert Julyan, The Place Names of New Mexico, rev. ed., 2nd ed. (1998); and New Mexico Magazine (monthly), expand on local history and geography. Warren A. Beck and Ynez D. Haase, Historical Atlas of New Mexico (1969, reissued 1989), presents maps and text dealing with all phases of history and geography; and Jerry L. Williams (ed.), New Mexico in Maps, 2nd ed. (1986), explores most phases of the state's history. DeLorme, New Mexico Atlas & Gazetteer, 4th ed. (2003), contains topographic maps. Ira G. Clark, Water in New Mexico (1987), provides a voluminous study of the state's water problem. Arrell Morgan Gibson, The Santa Fe and Taos Colonies: Age of the Muses, 1900–1942 (1983), is the best study on the art colonies; while Marta Weigle and Kyle Fiore, Santa Fe and Taos: The Writer's Era, 1916–1941 (1982), gives an overview of the leading authors of the period.

Historical studies of New Mexico include Warren A. Beck, New Mexico: A History of Four Centuries (1962); Marc Simmons, New Mexico (1977, reprinted 1991), an introductory work; Frances L. Fugate and Roberta B. Fugate, Roadside History of New Mexico (1989); Robert W. Larson, New Mexico's Quest for Statehood, 1846–1912 (1968), and New Mexico Populism (1974), a scholarly look at agrarian protest. Conrad Richter, The Sea of Grass (1936, reissued 1992), provides an evenhanded view of New Mexico's 19th-century range wars. Stanley M. Hordes, To the End of the Earth: A History of the Crypto-Jews of New Mexico (2005), explores the role of converted Jews in the early history of Spanish colonial New Mexico. Martina Will de Chaparro, Death and Dying in New Mexico (2007), examines funerary customs in the colonial era. Gerald D. Nash, The American West Transformed (1985), treats the totality of the effects of World War II on New Mexico. New Mexico Historical Review (quarterly) publishes scholarly studies of the state's past.Gregory Lewis McNamee

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Universalium. 2010.

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