- new criticism
—new critic, New Critic.(often caps.) an approach to the critical study of literature that concentrates on textual explication and rejects historical and biographical study as irrelevant to an understanding of the total formal organization of a work. Cf. explication de texte.[1940-45]
* * *or formalismPost–World War I school of Anglo-American literary theory that insisted on the intrinsic value of a work of art and focused attention on the individual work alone as an independent unit of meaning.New Critics were opposed to the practice of bringing historical or biographical data to bear on the interpretation of a work. The primary critical technique was analytic (or "close") reading of the text, concentrating on its language, imagery, and emotional or intellectual tensions. Critics associated with the movement include I. A. Richards, William Empson, John Crowe Ransom, and R. P. Blackmur (1904–1965).
* * *▪ Anglo-American literary criticismpost-World War I school of Anglo-American literary critical theory that insisted on the intrinsic value of a work of art and focused attention on the individual work alone as an independent unit of meaning. It was opposed to the critical practice of bringing historical or biographical data to bear on the interpretation of a work.The primary technique employed in the New Critical approach is close, analytic reading of the text, a technique as old as Aristotle's Poetics. The New Critics, however, introduced refinements into the method. Early seminal works in the tradition were those of the English critics I.A. Richards (Richards, I.A.) (The Principles of Literary Criticism, 1924) and William Empson (Empson, Sir William) (Seven Types of Ambiguity, 1930). The movement did not have a name, however, until the appearance of John Crowe Ransom (Ransom, John Crowe)'s The New Criticism (1941), a work that loosely organized the principles of this basically linguistic approach to literature. Some figures associated with New Criticism include Cleanth Brooks (Brooks, Cleanth), R.P. Blackmur, and W.K. Wimsatt, Jr., although their critical pronouncements, along with those of Ransom, Richards, and Empson, are somewhat diverse and do not readily constitute a uniform school of thought. New Criticism was eclipsed as the dominant mode of Anglo-American literary criticism by the 1970s.To the New Critics, poetry was a special kind of discourse, a means of communicating feeling and thought that could not be expressed in any other kind of language. It differed qualitatively from the language of science or philosophy, but it conveyed equally valid meanings. Such critics set out to define and formalize the qualities of poetic thought and language, utilizing the technique of close reading with special emphasis on the connotative and associative values of words and on the multiple functions of figurative language—symbol, metaphor, and image—in the work. Poetic form and content could not be separated, since the experience of reading the particular words of a poem, including its unresolved tensions, is the poem's “meaning.”
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