/neuh vad"euh, -vah"deuh/, n.a state in the W United States. 799,184; 110,540 sq. mi. (286,300 sq. km). Cap.: Carson City. Abbr.: NV (for use with zip code), Nev.
* * *State (pop., 2000: 1,998,257), western U.S. Bordered by Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, and California, it covers 110,567 sq mi (286,368 sq km); its capital is Carson City.The Black Rock Desert is in the northwest; the Colorado River forms its extreme southeastern boundary. Human settlement in the area has spanned more than 20,000 years, and evidence of prehistoric inhabitants include dwelling remains and rock art. Early inhabitants included the Shoshone and Paiute Indians. Spanish missionaries in the 18th century and fur traders in the 1820s arrived before major exploration and mapping were done by John C. Frémont and Kit Carson (1843–45). Nevada was part of the land ceded to the U.S. by Mexico in 1848 and was included in the Utah Territory (1850–61). Settlements increased after the discovery of the Comstock Lode, a rich silver deposit, at Virginia City in 1859. It became the Territory of Nevada in 1861 and the 36th U.S. state in 1864. It began its transition to a modern economy during the Great Depression when gambling was legalized. Construction of the Hoover Dam aided the economy of southern Nevada. In the 1950s the state became the main testing site for atomic-energy experiments. The traditional bases of its economy, mining and agriculture, are overshadowed by government activity and tourism, the latter centred on Las Vegas, Reno, and Lake Tahoe.
* * *IntroductionNevada, flag of constituent state of the United States of America (United States). It borders Oregon and Idaho to the north, Utah to the east, Arizona to the southeast, and California to the west. It is the seventh largest of the 50 states. It also, however, is one of the most sparsely settled. Carson City, in the western part of the state, is the capital. Nevada became the 36th state of the union on Oct. 31, 1864.Nevada is located in a mountainous region that includes vast semiarid grasslands and sandy alkali deserts. It is the most arid state of the country. The state takes its name from the Spanish nevada (“snow-clad”), a reference to the high mountain scenery of the Sierra Nevada on the western border with California.Nevada, which in the early 21st century was one of the fastest-growing states in the country, appears far removed from the days when Virginia City was a fabled frontier town, thriving on the rich silver mines of the Comstock Lode. However, many frontier qualities persist, though subtly transformed by a sophisticated urban environment. The prospectors digging against odds to find a bonanza have been replaced by the fortune seekers in the gambling casinos of Las Vegas and Reno, and the erstwhile “saloon diversions” have evolved into lavish nightclub entertainments.The majority of Nevadans live in urban areas, with about half of the population residing in the Las Vegas metropolitan area alone. The vast undeveloped lands of the state provide a largely unexplored resource, and its combination of burgeoning cities and desert reaches make Nevada a unique phenomenon among U.S. states. Area 110,561 square miles (286,352 square km). Pop. (2000) 1,998,257; (2007 est.) 2,565,382.Land (Nevada)ReliefMost of Nevada lies within the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range Province, where the topography is characterized by rugged mountains, flat valleys with occasional buttes and mesas, and sandy desert regions. Crossing the state are more than 30 north-south mountain ranges, the majority of which reach more than 10,000 feet (3,000 metres) in elevation; the highest points are Boundary Peak, at 13,143 feet (4,009 metres), and Wheeler Peak, at 13,065 feet (3,982 metres). The southern area of the state is within the Mojave Desert; the lowest elevation, 470 feet (143 metres), is in that region, on the Colorado River just below Black Canyon.DrainageThe state's rivers depend on the melting of winter snows and on spring precipitation. Almost all of the rivers drain into lakes that have no outlets or into shallow sinks that in summer evaporate into alkaline mud flats. The Humboldt (Humboldt River), the largest of Nevada's rivers, provides the state's only major east-west drainage system. The Truckee, Carson (Carson River), and Walker rivers, which rise in the Sierra Nevada, serve extensive irrigation and reclamation projects in their areas. The Muddy and Virgin rivers, in southern Nevada, are related to the Colorado River system, which drains into the Gulf of California (California, Gulf of).Several lakes provide scenic and recreational attractions. Lake Tahoe (Tahoe, Lake), on the California-Nevada border, is particularly notable for its clarity, depth, and scenic beauty. Pyramid (Pyramid Lake), Walker, and Winnemucca lakes are remnants of an ancient sea. In relation to its area, however, Nevada has little surface water. The increasing demands of urbanization, industry, and agriculture are exhausting both groundwater and surface resources, and scarcity of water is an increasing concern. The impounded waters of Lake Mead (Mead, Lake), extending for some 115 miles (185 km) behind Hoover Dam, provide reserves for the southeastern area. The state relies heavily on allocations of water from the Colorado River, a reliance that has yielded a continuing legacy of litigation and conflict with neighbouring states over water rights.ClimateThe mountains of the Sierra Nevada along the state's western boundary often cause clouds of Pacific origin to drop their moisture before reaching Nevada, thus producing a semiarid climate. The driest regions are in the southeast and near Carson Sink (a now-dry basin that was the centre of a lake system during the last major ice age, some 11,500 years ago), where annual precipitation seldom exceeds 4 inches (100 mm). The northeast has as little as 8 inches (200 mm) of precipitation annually, whereas annual precipitation in the northwestern mountains often reaches 24 inches (600 mm). Temperatures vary as widely. July temperatures average about 70 °F (21° C) in the north and in the mid-80s F (about 30 °C) in the south. In January the averages range from the low 20s F (about −4 °C) in the north to about 40 °F (4 °C) in the south. The northern and eastern areas have long, cold winters and short, relatively hot summers, whereas in southern Nevada the summers are long and hot and the winters brief and mild. Regional differences are pointed up by variations in the growing season: Las Vegas has about 240 days in its growing season, Reno about 155, and Elko only about 100.Plant and animal lifeDespite aridity and rugged terrain, Nevada shows considerable variety in vegetation. In the lower desert areas mesquite, creosote, greasewood, yucca, and more than 30 varieties of cacti abound, while sagebrush and Joshua trees flourish at the higher elevations. Throughout the state, particularly during the period after the spring rains, more than 2,000 varieties of wildflowers can be seen. Mountain forests contain pine, fir, and spruce, as well as juniper and mountain mahogany. The piñon pine is characteristic in the high mountain regions, and the rare bristlecone pine—one of the longest-lived species of trees, with individual trees that are at least 4,000 years old—is native to the Toiyabe Range.The animal population of Nevada includes those species that are best adapted to temperature extremes and to lack of moisture. Among the larger animals are bighorn sheep, several varieties of deer, and pronghorns. Rabbits and other rodents are found in abundance. The desert harbours such reptiles as geckos, horned toads, tortoises, and sidewinder rattlesnakes. Predators such as coyotes and bobcats are common. The permanent bird population of the state is somewhat limited, but there are seasonal visitations by a great variety of migratory birds. Birds native to the state include sage grouse, grebes, trumpeter swans, and quail. Nevada's rivers and lakes contain large quantities of bass, trout, crappie, and catfish.People (Nevada)The majority of Nevadans are of European ancestry, more than four-fifths of whom were born in the United States. A small portion of Nevadans trace their ancestry to Basques (Basque) recruited as sheepherders from their Pyrenean (Pyrenees) homeland. Hispanics, mainly of Mexican and Cuban origin, comprise about one-fourth of the state's residents and are concentrated in the southeast. African Americans, who reside mostly in the Las Vegas and Reno areas, constitute less than one-tenth of the population. Native Americans of the Paiute, Shoshone, and Washoe tribes live on several reservations and make up a small fraction of the state's population.The predominant religious groups are Mormons and Roman Catholics. There are a variety of Protestant denominations and a small Jewish population.From the 1950s through the 1970s Nevada's population grew by more than two-thirds, and for most of the period from the mid-1980s through the early 21st century it grew faster than that of any other state, often at more than three times the national growth rate. This growth was largely the result of migration from other states; the birth rate was slightly above, and the death rate slightly below, the national average. The impact of this migration has been felt most strongly in Las Vegas and surrounding Clark county and in Reno and surrounding Washoe county. Most Nevadans are engaged in the booming economies of those two metropolitan areas.EconomyAlthough the traditional bases of Nevada's economic life, mining and agriculture, remain important, they are far overshadowed by manufacturing, government, and tourist-related services. About one-fourth of the state's workforce is employed in the service sector.More than four-fifths of Nevada's land is owned by the federal government. Following establishment of the Nevada Test Site by the federal government in the 1950s, a complex of research and development enterprises, mainly in the aerospace, civil defense research, biological and environmental research, and electronics fields, developed in the Las Vegas area. These industries have come to rival similar industries in California and in the Boston and Washington, D.C., areas. The Nevada Test Site was a major centre for underground nuclear detonation and nuclear rocket development. Nuclear testing is no longer conducted, and the grounds are now used for other purposes, including conventional weapons testing and emergency response training. Thousands of military personnel are stationed at Nellis Air Force Base and Fallon Naval Air Station.AgricultureNevada's agriculture depends on irrigation. Even in the river valleys, farmers and ranchers pump groundwater for their crops and livestock. A far greater proportion of agricultural land is classified as pasture and rangeland than as cropland. Throughout the late 20th century, farms and ranches increased in acreage while declining in number.Croplands are devoted mainly to forage and feed crops, alfalfa (lucerne) and hay being the major commercial crops; barley and wheat are also important. Livestock ranching is the primary source of agricultural income. The large cattle and sheep ranches are chiefly in Elko, Humboldt, and Lander counties. Most of the cattle are shipped to California or the Midwest for fattening and marketing. Dairy and poultry farms have become important in western and southeastern Nevada, where horse ranches also have been developed.About one-tenth of Nevada's land is devoted to forests and woodlands. Some 10,000 square miles (26,000 square km) have been designated as the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, a small part of which crosses the border into California. Private holdings support only a small-scale lumber industry. Aside from lumber production, the forests are of importance for the conservation of water and wildlife and in providing recreational opportunities.Resources and powerOne of the richest mineral regions of the country extends eastward from California across Nevada and into Arizona. Copper, which in Nevada is largely a by-product of gold mining, was once the largest component of the state's mineral production; it dropped dramatically in the 1970s and '80s, when demand for the metal fell worldwide, but the industry experienced a resurgence in the late 1990s and continued to grow in the following years. Gold, which in the early 21st century was centred in the Elko region, has replaced copper as the most commercially valuable of the state's minerals, and the annual output is the highest in the country. Silver is another of the state's leading minerals, chiefly produced as a by-product of gold mining. Nevada is also a major producer of barite, tungsten, and mercury. Other important minerals include gypsum, sand and gravel, crushed stone, and magnesium. Petroleum was discovered in Nye county in 1954; commercial production began in the 1970s and has since expanded to Eureka and Elko counties.Most of the electricity is generated by coal and natural gas, but a small amount is produced by hydroelectric and solar plants, and wind turbines began operating in the early 21st century. Coal and natural gas are used in power plants in southern Nevada. Hoover and Davis dams are major power sources, supplemented by imports of hydroelectric power from California and Oregon.ManufacturingManufacturing is diverse, and most of the larger enterprises are located in Clark or Washoe counties. The leading product groups are industrial machinery; stone, clay, and glass products; printing and publishing; food and food by-products; and chemicals. The largest industrial complex is located in Henderson, where factories process titanium ore and produce industrial chemicals.Services and taxationTourism and its related activities contribute more income than mining, agriculture, and manufacturing combined and employ more than two-fifths of the workforce. Although millions of people visit Lake Mead and other recreational and scenic areas, tourism centres on several attractions that largely are unique to Nevada.The 24-hour-a-day gaming casinos bordering The Strip and Fremont Street in Las Vegas are the most publicized aspect of the legal gambling industry. Important adjuncts to the casinos are the luxury hotels, gourmet restaurants, golf courses, and nightclubs that have made Las Vegas—and, to a lesser extent, Reno (“Biggest Little City in the World”) and Lake Tahoe—one of the country's major centres of live entertainment. Small towns also emphasize the hospitality industry and tourism. Unique to the rural counties of central Nevada is legal prostitution, although efforts to outlaw it in those areas have been rising in recent years.Nevada's fiscal policies have been markedly conservative. The constitution rigidly limits both taxation and indebtedness. The bonding capacity cannot exceed 2 percent of the total assessed valuation of real property in the state, and there is a maximum tax rate on real estate. Even more unusual is the absence of state taxation upon inheritances and all types of income. A gaming tax and the sales tax are the principal sources of state income. State taxation provides about two-thirds of general revenue, with most of the balance coming from federal grants and subventions.TransportationNevada's vast size makes it heavily dependent upon air transportation. There are numerous airports and airfields, and both Las Vegas (McCarran International Airport) and Reno (Reno-Tahoe International Airport) have been designated as international ports of entry.Two major freight railroads cross the state. Amtrak passenger rail service connects Nevada with neighbouring states. Public roads include primary and secondary highways as well as municipal and rural roads. Two of the federal highways are part of the interstate system.The three major transportation and trade centres of the state are Reno, the principal distributive centre for northwestern Nevada and northeastern California; Elko and Ely, in northeastern Nevada; and Las Vegas, the commercial centre for southern Nevada and nearby areas of Utah and Arizona. Warehousing and trucking industries flourish because of Nevada's strategic geographic location and the “free port” tax exemption for goods continuing in transit. In the Reno and Las Vegas areas, foreign trade zones—free-trade zones that include the airports and allow a variety of goods to be imported duty-free or with reduced excise taxes—have increased the region's attractiveness to international business interests.Government and societyConstitutional frameworkNevada is governed under its original constitution, adopted in 1864 but since amended in many respects. The chief officials, including the governor, lieutenant governor, attorney general, secretary of state, controller, and treasurer, are elected to four-year terms. In addition to the usual departments and agencies supervising areas of public concern, the state Equal Rights Commission oversees areas of discrimination of various kinds, while the Gaming Control Board regulates the operations of the gambling industry.Nevada's bicameral legislature comprises the Senate, whose 21 members are elected to four-year terms, and the Assembly, whose 42 members are elected to two-year terms. The legislature convenes in February of odd-numbered years.The highest judicial body is the Supreme Court, composed of seven justices who sit in three-judge panels or as the full court, depending on the significance of the case being heard. Supreme Court justices are elected to six-year terms. There are also district courts, subdivided into departments on a population basis; justice courts; and municipal courts. The jurisdiction of justice courts is limited to felonies, gross misdemeanors, and certain other cases; that of the municipal courts is limited to misdemeanors and traffic cases. All judicial offices are subject to nonpartisan elections.Nevada is divided into 16 counties and one independent city, Carson City, whose status is similar to that of a county; in 1969 it was consolidated with Ormsby county, of which the city was formerly the seat. The counties remain the primary units of local administration. Each county has a public administrator, board of commissioners, district attorney, sheriff, and other officials. Cities and towns are incorporated under charters granted by the legislature, most of them with a mayor-council form of government.Traditionally the Democratic Party dominated politics in Nevada, but in the 1980s the Republicans (Republican Party) were ascendant, largely as a result of changes in the state's voter profile brought about by the influx of newcomers. Since then the state has swung between the parties in both local and national elections, though it trended toward the Democratic side in the early 21st century, probably because of an influx of young voters, well-educated voters, and Hispanic voters; Barack Obama (Obama, Barack), the Democratic Party presidential candidate in 2008, carried the state with 55 percent of the vote. It has been said that Nevadans are more issue- than party-oriented; indeed, since 1976, ballots in Nevada have allowed voters to choose “none of the above.”EducationThe public school system is controlled by an elected Board of Education, which delegates administrative responsibilities to an appointed superintendent of public instruction. Local school districts, coextensive with the counties, receive supplementary funding from the state. School attendance is compulsory for those between the ages of 7 and 18.The University of Nevada (Nevada, University of) originally was established at Elko in 1874 as a land-grant college; 11 years later it was moved to Reno. In 1951 an extension branch was established in Las Vegas, which since has become the autonomous University of Nevada, Las Vegas. There are two-year colleges in Elko, Carson City, Reno, Douglas, Fallon, and North Las Vegas. The University of Southern Nevada (established in 2000), in Henderson, provides graduate and undergraduate education in pharmacy, business administration, and nursing. Great Basin College (1967) grants two- and four-year degrees; it has its main campus in Elko and provides higher education to rural Nevadans through distance learning, branch campuses, and satellite centres. To supplement campus instruction the Desert Research Institute and the Nevada Agricultural Experiment Stations provide statewide research services.Health and welfareNevada's welfare programs and its custodial institutions are administered by the Department of Health and Human Services. Retirement and welfare allotments are given on the basis of need, and public assistance is available for residents with visual and other disabilities. Support payments are provided for dependent children. The state mental health facilities include both in-patient psychiatric hospitals and community mental health clinics across the state. Penal and rehabilitation institutions include maximum- and medium-security state prisons and correctional centres as well as minimum-security “conservation camps,” at which inmates do primarily conservation work, such as firefighting. Health care, housing, and public safety are responsibilities of local government or private enterprise.Cultural lifeThe artsNevadans traditionally have mingled rural conservatism and the individualism of the Old West. Until the mid-20th century the state's population was small and dispersed, and cultural values were those of an agrarian society. With the establishment of resort industries and increases in population, however, Las Vegas and Reno developed marked metropolitan characteristics. Not only has the economy diversified, but cultural activities have burgeoned. Recognizing this trend, in 1967 the state legislature established the Nevada State Council on the Arts to coordinate and stimulate cultural activities. The University of Nevada Press, with offices in Reno and Las Vegas, sponsors a vigorous program of publishing work of local interest, both new and classic Nevada-based works, such as the writings of Walter van Tilburg Clark (Clark, Walter van Tilburg) (author of The Ox-Bow Incident and other books).Both major cities have well-established programs in the performing arts. The universities sponsor lectures, concerts, and theatrical productions, and the casinos and theatres regularly feature some of the most famous entertainers in show business. Both Reno and Las Vegas support symphony orchestras and have commercial and public art galleries. Traditional Native American arts and crafts have been revived on reservations and in urban colonies.Nevada's frontier heritage is commemorated by annual pageants and festivals. During Helldorado Days, begun in 1905 and held in Las Vegas each May, the townspeople wear Western garb and take part in parades, rodeos, art shows, and sporting events. The National Basque Festival is held in Elko the first weekend of July. The state observes its anniversary, Admission Day, on October 31, highlighted by a parade and costume ball in Carson City. Each summer, tens of thousands of people come together for a week in the Black Rock Desert north of Reno to establish a temporary experimental community and arts festival known as Burning Man; the climax of the event is the burning of the eponymous wooden statue, which is usually upward of 40 feet (12 metres) high.Cultural institutionsThe Nevada State Museum, in Carson City, emphasizes the mining industry and mineral collections. Anthropological artifacts are featured at the Lost City Museum in Overton, at the Las Vegas Natural History Museum, and at the Clark County Heritage Museum in Henderson. The W.M. Keck Museum, located at the Mackay School of Mines on the Reno campus of the state university, is oriented toward metallurgical, mineralogical, and geologic specimens. The Nevada Historical Society, also in Reno, has pioneer mementos, the most complete holding of Nevada newspapers, and a sizable historical reference library. The library of the University of Nevada, Reno, has an expansive collection of books, while the Nevada State Library and Archives in Carson City is notable for its excellent collection of legal works.Sports and recreationIn addition to the high-profile boxing prizefights that are frequently held in Las Vegas, as well as two major golf tournaments, the National Finals Rodeo, and various automobile races (all held in Las Vegas), spectator sports in Nevada centre on the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, of the Mountain West Conference, and the University of Nevada, Reno, of the Western Athletic Conference. In recent years the latter has become a force to be reckoned with in college basketball, while the former has a longer series of basketball success, including four appearances in the Final Four of the National Collegiate Athletic Association championship tournament and one championship (1989–90). Among Nevada natives who became well-known athletes are Cy Young Award-winning pitcher Greg Maddux, tennis star Andre Agassi, and bowler Don Johnson.The state and federal governments maintain parks, forests, historical monuments, and recreational areas. The Valley of Fire State Park, near Overton, is known for its brilliantly red sandstone formations and Native American petroglyphs. Mormon Station State Historic Park, in Genoa, is the site of the first permanent nonnative settlement in Nevada; Death Valley National Park is on the border between Nevada and California. Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area, with unusual high desert terrain and a spectacular multicoloured escarpment, is near Las Vegas, and Cathedral Gorge State Park, near Pioche, displays red and gold rocks that resemble church spires. Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, in east-central Nevada, includes the Jarbidge Wilderness and the Ruby Mountains. Lake Mead National Recreation Area, which contains Hoover Dam, has fishing, boating, and swimming facilities. Great Basin National Park, featuring the Lehman Caves and the Wheeler Peak area, is located near the Nevada-Utah border.Media and publishingNevada's newspaper history includes Mark Twain's work as a journalist for Virginia City's Territorial Enterprise in the 1860s. Today the state's major daily newspapers are the Las Vegas Sun, the Las Vegas Review-Journal, the Reno Gazette-Journal, and the Nevada Appeal (published in Carson City). Reno and Las Vegas have a variety of network television stations.History (Nevada)Archaeological evidence indicates that prehistoric Indian (Native American) settlements existed in Nevada more than 20,000 years ago. Cave dwellers left picture writings on rocks in southern Nevada, and Basketmakers and Pueblo Indians also flourished there. Explorers of the early 1800s found Mojave, Paiute, Shoshone, and Washoe groups at various locations within Nevada.Explorers and settlersMissionaries and fur traders were in the vanguard of the exploration of the Nevada area. The missionary travels of Francisco Garcés from New Mexico to California in 1775–76 were imitated by other Spanish Franciscans (Franciscan). In 1825 Hudson's Bay Company trappers explored the northern and central region, and two years later Jedediah Smith (Smith, Jedediah) led a party of American traders into the Las Vegas Valley and across the Great Basin. By 1830 the Old Spanish Trail was bringing traders to the area from Santa Fe and Los Angeles, and in 1843 and 1845 John C. Frémont (Frémont, John C)'s explorations with Kit Carson (Carson, Kit) publicized the Great Basin and the Sierra Nevada region. During the 1840s pioneers followed the Humboldt Valley– Donner Pass route to the Pacific Coast, and the Gold Rush (California) of 1849 greatly expanded migration through Nevada to California.Nevada, which came within U.S. sovereignty under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of) (1848), was a part of California until it was incorporated into the newly organized Utah Territory in 1850. In 1849 a settlement was made at Mormon Station (later Genoa) in Carson Valley, but the population remained sparse until the discovery of the famous Comstock Lode in 1859. From that time on Nevada ceased to be merely a highway for gold seekers on the way to California. Virginia City became the most famous of all the Western mining camps, and the rapid influx of prospectors and settlers resulted in the organization of Nevada Territory in 1861.The American Civil War (1861–65) gave strategic importance to the new territory. Pres. Abraham Lincoln (Lincoln, Abraham) realized that Nevada's mineral wealth could help the Union; he also needed a Northern-allied state to support proposed antislavery amendments to the Constitution and a strategic buffer zone to check Confederate advances against California from Arizona and New Mexico, whose people were sympathetic to the Southern cause. Although Nevada Territory had only about one-fifth of the population required for statehood, Congress accepted the proposed state constitution and voted for statehood in 1864.Mining and cattle-ranching (ranch) decadesIn its early decades Nevada's economy was dependent on mining and ranching. The rich Comstock mines reached a maximum annual output of $36 million in silver in 1878. During the 1870s, however, the federal government limited the role of silver in the monetary system, causing a decline in silver prices, the closing of many Nevada mines, and the decay of once-thriving communities into ghost towns.As mining declined, cattle ranching became a major industry. Beef prices, however, were unpredictable, high railroad rates were burdensome, and severe winters often killed thousands of cattle. In the late 1880s many cattle ranchers were forced into bankruptcy. With the depression of the mining and ranching industries, the state's population dropped from 62,000 in 1880 to 47,000 in 1890.Prosperity returned to Nevada only after the beginning of the 20th century, when rich silver ores were discovered near Tonopah and major copper deposits around Ely and when a major gold strike occurred at Goldfield. Thousands of miners answered the lure of these bonanzas, and the railroads built extensive branchlines to bring in equipment to the mining areas and haul out the ore. Accessible railroads and low shipping rates also encouraged cattle ranchers to renew large-scale production. Irrigation of fertile river valleys produced sizable hay crops. Thus assured of winter feed, ranchers further expanded their herds in the upland regions. World War I created demand for Nevada's beef and metals, which kept the boom going, but the failing markets of the 1920s brought the return of economic depression.Politically, during its first three decades as a state, Nevada was a Republican (Republican Party) stronghold. Reflecting the lax standards in national politics, the state was often manipulated by corrupt politicians. Mine owners and ranchers frequently subsidized government officials, and there were accusations that rich men in the state had bought seats in the U.S. Senate. Monetary issues became of paramount importance in the 1890s, and the Silver Party grew out of the Free Silver Movement, taking members from both the Democratic (Democratic Party) and Republican parties, though mostly the latter. In the 1890s, candidates of the Nevada Silver Party won election to the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives and to the state governorship. By 1902, however, the silver issue had taken a back seat, and thereafter the two major national parties were in control.Creation of a modern economyNevada began its transition to a modern economy during the Great Depression of the 1930s. After the legalization of gambling in 1931 and the reduction to six weeks of the residence requirement for divorce, Nevada became a marriage, divorce, and resort centre.Construction of Hoover Dam (1930–36) on the Colorado River substantially aided the economy of southern Nevada, and its cheap hydroelectric power opened the way for manufacturing. The importation of hydroelectric power from Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River and piped-in natural gas also brought industrial development in the northwestern region.Gambling was legalized statewide in 1931, and by the late 1930s Reno had been established as a tourist centre and casino gambling destination. Organized crime syndicates also were attracted to Nevada by the potential profits from gambling and prostitution, which was regulated to varying degrees but not prohibited from the earliest days of Nevada Territory. (A 1971 law allowed legally regulated brothels in certain counties and prohibited them elsewhere; all other prostitution is illegal in the state.) Members of the syndicates established gambling casinos in Las Vegas in the 1940s, and their enormous success led to an influx of legitimate developers into the city. In the 1950s the establishment of the Nevada Test Site by the federal government expanded employment opportunities and stimulated the development of technical industries within the state. Overshadowing the new industrialization, and fundamentally responsible for the current prosperity, was the diversification and expansion of the tourist trade to include not only the gaming and entertainment facilities of the Reno and Las Vegas areas but also the scenic and recreational opportunities statewide. Laughlin emerged as a tourist centre in the 1980s and Lake Tahoe (Tahoe, Lake) much earlier as a fashionable playground. The principal resort areas—Las Vegas, Reno, Laughlin, and Lake Tahoe—continue to attract tourists from elsewhere in the United States, particularly southern California, and many international visitors. Las Vegas also hosts business and professional conventions.In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, Nevada was consistently among the fastest-growing states in the country and often held the top position in that regard. Rapid growth continued to pose considerable challenges for resource management, social services and health care, and other aspects of Nevada's society and economy. The proposed nuclear-waste repository to be located deep within Yucca Mountain was a source of controversy from the time the site was designated by the federal government in 1987. Opposition to the repository was strong among urban Nevadans because of fears that storage plans and environmental regulations were inadequate to protect against radioactive contamination of the groundwater, and federal approval of the site took some 15 years to accomplish. A majority of residents of the rural towns near Yucca Mountain, however, favoured the development of the repository because of the potential for job creation.Roman J. Zorn Gregory Lewis McNameeAdditional ReadingFederal Writers' Project, Nevada: A Guide to the Silver State (1940, reprinted as The WPA Guide to 1930s Nevada, 1991), provides a thorough but dated overview of the state. DeLorme Mapping Company, Nevada Atlas & Gazetteer, 6th ed. (2008), contains maps of the state's topography. A study of the state's settlement is found in Wilbur S. Shepperson, Restless Strangers: Nevada's Immigrants and Their Interpreters (1970). Nevada Magazine (bimonthly) covers the state's history, recreation, art, and gambling.Russell R. Elliott, History of Nevada, 2nd ed., rev. (1987), is the most detailed and comprehensive reference. Michael W. Bowers, The Sagebrush State: Nevada's History, Government, and Politics, 3rd ed. (2006), is also useful. Hal Rothman, Neon Metropolis: How Las Vegas Started the Twenty-first Century (2003); and Virgil L. Hancock III and Gregory McNamee, American Byzantium (2001), provide overviews of the evolution of Nevada's largest city. David Thomson, In Nevada: The Land, the People, God, and Chance (2000), provides a useful and well-written overview of Nevada history.Roman J. Zorn Gregory Lewis McNamee
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