/nan"king"/; Chin. /nahn"king"/, n. Older Spelling.Nanjing.
* * *▪ ChinaIntroductionWade-Giles Nan-ching , Pinyin Nanjingcity, capital of Kiangsu sheng (province) in east-central China. It is a port on the Yangtze River and a major industrial and communications centre. Rich in history, it served seven times as the capital of regional empires, twice as the seat of revolutionary governments, once (during World War II) as the site of a puppet regime, and twice as the capital of a united China (the second time from 1928 to 1937). The name Nanking (“Southern Capital”) was introduced in 1421 during the Ming dynasty. Pop. (2003 est.) city, 2,966,000; (2005 est.) urban agglom., 3,621,000.Physical and human geographyThe landscapeThe city siteNanking is situated on the southeastern bank of the Yangtze, some 160 miles (260 kilometres) from Shanghai (215 miles by water, 193 miles by rail). The city proper comprises the area encircled by a gigantic wall constructed during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) and adjacent suburbs. The city wall—of which about two-thirds is still standing—is 21 miles long, has an average height of 40 feet (12 metres), and contains 13 gates. The municipality (shih) of Nanking includes territory extending to the border of Anhwei Province on the north, west, and south and to the borders of Yang-chou and Cheng-chiang municipalities on the east. Included in the municipality, which has an area of about 2,516 square miles (6,516 square kilometres), are counties on either side of the Yangtze and both urban and rural districts.The four seasons are clearly distinguishable. The hot summer months are from July to September, while winter lasts from December until March. Spring and autumn are both mild and pleasant. January and July mean temperatures are about 37° F (3° C) and 82° F (28° C), respectively. The average annual rainfall is 39 inches (990 millimetres), the bulk of it falling between June and August.The city layoutThe city of Nanking, encircled by hills and rivers, resembles a gourd, with its tip pointing northwest, toward suburban Hsia-kuan, on the south bank of the Yangtze. Hsia-kuan and P'u-k'ou, which is opposite it on the north bank, house the harbour facilities of the huge Nanking River Port. On the west and south Nanking is bordered by the Ch'in-huai Ho (Ch'in-huai River), which runs along the outside of the city wall and is a tributary of the Yangtze. On the east are the foothills of the Tzu-chin Shan (Purple-Gold Mountains), and at the city's southern tip is the Chin-liang Shan (“Quite-Cool Mountain”). Outside of the city wall to the northeast is the extensive Hsüan-wu Hu (“Mystic Martial Lake”), containing five islets linked by embankments, and on the other side of the Ch'in-huai Ho to the southwest is Mo-ch'ou Hu (“Lake of No Sorrow”); both lake areas are city parks. The skyline suggests spaciousness and grandeur. Blue-glazed tiles adorning the old city gates, parklike scenery along the boulevards, lotus blossoms and tea pavilions on the lakes, and temples half hidden in the green hills are all characteristic sights in Nanking.The city comprises four districts. The north district, from I-chiang Men (a city gate) to the Ku Lou (Drum Tower; built in 1382), traversed by Chung-shan Avenue as its axis, contains such landmarks as Pei-chi Ko (“North Pole Pavilion”) and Chi-ming Ssu (“Cockcrow Temple”), as well as government offices, Nanking University (founded in 1902), and modern residential quarters. The central district, surrounding Hsin Chieh-k'ou (“New Crossroads”), is the business centre of the city, and to the south is situated the populous old city—traditionally famous for entertainment. The east district, a centre of culture, contains the ruins of the former Ming palace as well as the Nanking Museum, with its exhibits on Chinese history, and scientific institutions.Forming an integral part of the life of the city are its immediate outskirts. To the south is the Yü-hua T'ai (“Terrace of the Rain of Flowers”), noted for its five-colour pebbles and a Communist martyrs' memorial. In the eastern outskirts, on the magnificent forested Tzu-chin Shan range, are the Ming emperor Hung-wu's mausoleum, its approach noted for pairs of large stone animals; the blue-tile-roofed mausoleum of Sun Yat-sen; the Ling-ko Ssu (“Temple of the Valley of Spirits”) and the nearby 200-foot-high pagoda; and the Tzu-chin Shan Astronomical Observatory. Other scenic spots include Yen-tzu Chi (“Swallow's Bluff”) in the north and Ch'i-hsia Shan (“Abode of Clouds Mountain”) farther to the northeast. Two industrial districts extend northeastward and southwestward from the city.The peopleDespite much industrial growth, the city of Nanking retains a traditional feature—the existence of a substantial rural population within the boundaries of the municipality. The people speak Mandarin with a marked local accent. The city has small communities of Christians, Buddhists, and Muslims.The economyMuch of the land in the municipality's rural districts is under cultivation; the major agricultural products are rice, wheat, peanuts (groundnuts), and fruits and vegetables. In and around the many lakes and ponds pai-ho (lily bulbs), water chestnuts, lotus roots, and other aquatic plants are grown. Both freshwater fishery and pig farming are important. Along the canals and creeks, farmers raise large flocks of ducks; the Nanking duck, preserved in salt and pressed, is one of China's food delicacies.Before 1949, Nanking was noted chiefly for its traditional handicraft products, such as satins, velvets, and brocades. The city's major industrial expansion has taken place since then, and Nanking has become an important industrial centre. Hundreds of factories have been built to produce iron and steel, machine tools, motor vehicles, bicycles, clocks and watches, optical instruments, and building materials. Textiles, food processing, and other light industries are also important. In the suburban districts coal, iron ore, limestone, dolomite, lead, and zinc are mined. Petrochemical and electronic plants, however, mark the city's greatest progress in industrial development.Nanking's major avenue of commerce is the Yangtze River, which connects the city with the Yangtze Delta and with central China. Nanking is connected by rail to Shanghai and to major Chinese cities to the north. Another railroad leading south extends to T'ung-ling in Anhwei Province; a loop line through the eastern suburbs links it with the Shanghai–Nanking line. In 1968 the rail ferry between P'u-k'ou and Hsia-kuan was replaced by the Yangtze bridge, more than 20,000 feet in length, with a double-track railroad on its lower deck and a four-lane highway on the upper deck.Bicycles and buses are the principal means of transport within the city. Major highways fan out from Nanking to Shanghai and other cities in Kiangsu, Chekiang, and Anhwei provinces. Nanking airport, located in a southern suburb, has regular flights to other major cities in China.Administration and social conditionsNanking's municipal government is part of the hierarchical structure of the Chinese government—and the parallel structure of the Chinese Communist Party—that extends from the national organization, through the provincial apparatus, to the municipal and, ultimately, neighbourhood levels. The principal responsibilities of the Nanking Municipal People's Congress, the major decision-making body, include issuing administrative orders, collecting taxes, determining the budget, and implementing economic plans. A standing committee selected from its members recommends policy decisions and oversees the operation of municipal government. Executive authority rests with the Nanking People's Government, the officers of which are elected by the congress; it consists of a mayor, vice mayors, and numerous bureaus in charge of public security, the judicial system, and other civil, economic, social, and cultural affairs.Administratively, the city is divided into districts (ch'ü). Below the district, police substations supervise the population, while street mayoralties handle civil affairs in their areas. Neighbourhood associations help mediate disputes, carry out literacy campaigns, and promote sanitation, welfare, and family planning.Nanking made great progress in public health and medicine during the Nationalist period. Health conditions have continued to improve under the Communist government, which has placed great emphasis on public health education. There are many general and specialized hospitals in Nanking, and clinics and health stations are maintained by neighbourhood associations, factories, and schools. Nanking is also a noted centre for training doctors in traditional Chinese medicine.Nanking inherited from Nationalist days an excellent school system that in 1949 included 300 primary and middle schools and some of the best universities and colleges in China. Since the 1950s there has been a considerable increase in the number of primary, middle, and technical secondary schools.In addition, much attention has been given to adult education, and many spare-time schools, university extensions, and other institutions that provide training in technical fields have been established. Nanking University and Nanking Institute of Technology are among the leading institutions of higher education in the country, and colleges of hydraulic engineering, aeronautical engineering, and meteorology are also of national significance.Cultural lifeNanking's long history as a cultural centre is reflected in its many surviving monuments and buildings of historical significance. The Nanking Museum, Museum of the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace (Taiping Museum), and the Kiangsu Provincial Museum are all housed in buildings constructed in traditional Chinese style. Among the city's numerous research agencies and scientific societies is the Kiangsu Academy of Science, a branch of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.Some of the leading artists of China have worked in the Kiangsu College of Traditional Painting. Troupes of Peking opera and various Kiangsu operas give performances of both traditional theatrical pieces and modern plays in the city. Sports grounds are found in all parts of Nanking and its suburbs. The well-equipped Wu-t'ai Shan Stadium, in the centre of the city, is used for major sports events. The public at large, however, finds its recreation in the many beautiful parks and resorts.HistoryThe early empiresNanking's recorded history dates to the Spring and Autumn (770–476 BC) and the Warring States (475–221 BC) periods, when a castle near Yü-hua T'ai was constructed by the Yüeh state in 472 BC. After the Yüeh territory was taken over by the Ch'u state, another castle under the name of Chin-ling was built on Chin-liang Shan to control the traffic between the Yangtze and the Ch'in-huai. Under the Ch'in (221–206 BC) and Han (206 BC–AD 220) dynasties, Nanking was successively under the jurisdiction of Mo-ling County (hsien) and Tan-yan County.Nanking—under the name of Chien-yeh—emerged as the political and cultural centre of Southeast China during the period of the Three Kingdoms, when Sun Ch'üan made it the capital of the kingdom of Wu from 229 to 280. In 317 the Eastern Chin dynasty (317–420), fleeing foreign invaders in North China, again chose the city as a capital. Renamed Chien-k'ang, Nanking became a haven for northern families in exile. After the fall of the Eastern Chin, Nanking, under four successive dynasties—Liu-Sung (420–479); Southern Ch'i (479–502); Southern Liang (502–557); and Southern Ch'en (557–589)—was the seat of government of the regional empires south of the Yangtze.These regimes were dominated by military men whose rivalries weakened the government. But in Nanking progress was made in areas other than politics, and its population grew to 1,000,000 during the Southern Liang. Bountiful harvests, coupled with tea, silk, papermaking, and pottery industries, supported a booming economy. Culturally, the Six Dynasties—as the dynasties that ruled from 220 to 589 are called—produced a galaxy of scholars, poets, artists, and philosophers. The works of Wang Hsi-chih (Wang Xizhi) and Ku K'ai-chih (Gu Kaizhi) set the canons of calligraphy and painting, respectively. The publication of Wen hsüan (“Literary Selections”) and of Wen-hsin tiao-lung (a classic in literary criticism), the evolution of what has come to be known as the Six Dynasties essay style (a blending of poetry and prose), and the invention by Shen-yüeh (a 6th-century courtier) of the system of determining the four tones of the Chinese language were achievements of this period. In philosophy, the so-called ch'ing-t'an (“pure discourse”) movement, spiritually akin to a form of Taoism, found many adherents who held themselves aloof from politics. Hundreds of Buddhist temples were built. Voluminous Buddhist scriptures were edited and transcribed, and thousands, including the emperor Wu Ti, founder of the Southern Liang dynasty, took monastic vows.From 581 to 1368, under the successive unified empires of the Sui, T'ang, Sung, and Yüan dynasties, Nanking reverted to the status of a prefectural city. Various names were given the city: Chiang-chou and Tan-yang under the Sui; Chiang-chou, Chin-ling, and Pai-hsia in early T'ang; Sheng-chou in late T'ang; and Chin-ling again under the Five Dynasties in the 10th century; Chien-k'ang under the Sung; and Chi-ch'ing under the Yüan. When the Southern T'ang briefly maintained a regional regime in the city from 937 to 975, Nanking enjoyed much intellectual creativity (the ruler Hou-chu himself being a poet of consummate skill) and was the scene of new construction, notably, the octagonal stone pagoda of the Ch'i-hsia Temple and the crosstown channel of the Ch'in-huai Ho. Another period of prominence occurred during the Southern Sung dynasty (1127–1279), when Yüeh Fei used the city as his base for resistance against the Juchen in North China.In 1368 the emperor Hung-wu (Hongwu), founder of the Ming dynasty, made Nanking the capital of a united China. Naming the city Ying-t'ien-fu (“Responding to Heaven”), he built a grand Imperial palace and the city wall. In addition, earth ramparts were prepared to form the basis for a larger outer wall. In 1421, however, Hung-wu's son, the Yung-lo emperor, moved the capital to Peking. The city became a subsidiary capital and was renamed Nanking.The growth of trade and industry, however, brought new wealth to Nanking, especially to Hsia-kuan. Weaving, pottery, printing, and brocade making were the leading industries. Oceangoing vessels used by Cheng Ho in his famous 15th-century expeditions to the South Seas were built in the shipyards to the northwest of the city. An Imperial college—the Kuo-tzu chien—attracted students from all over the empire, as well as from Japan, Korea, Okinawa, and Thailand. The scholars of this college helped compile the Yung-lo ta-tien (Yongle dadian) (“The Great Canon of the Yung-lo Era”); its printing plant issued fine editions of many classics, as well as such works as Pen-ts'ao kang-mu (“Great Pharmacopoeia”) by Li Shih-chen and Yüan-shih (“History of the Yüan Dynasty”) by Sung Lien.In the Ch'ing (Manchu) dynasty (1644–1911/12), Nanking, renamed Chiang-ning, became the government seat of the viceroy of Kiang-nan (who governed the provinces of Kiangsu, Kiangsi, and Anhwei). In 1842 the treaty ending the Opium War was signed there. A decade later, in 1853, the city was taken by the Taiping revolutionary (Taiping Rebellion) forces under the leadership of Hung Hsiu-ch'üan (Hong Xiuquan). As the capital of T'ai-p'ing T'ien-kuo (Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace), Nanking became a commune practicing universal brotherhood, equality of the sexes, and communal ownership of property. Numerous palaces for Hung and his lieutenants were built. When the Taipings were overthrown in 1864, there was widespread destruction of public buildings, of temples, and of the city wall by Ch'ing troops, and the city was left nearly prostrate.The modern cityRecovery took decades. Although it was sanctioned by the treaties of Tientsin concluded with France in 1858, foreign trade did not begin until 1899. By that time, modern industry and communication had reached the city. In 1908 the Shanghai–Nanking railroad was opened, followed four years later by a railroad from the port city of Tientsin in Hopeh Province to P'u-k'ou. Such economic growth, however, was overshadowed by the revolution of 1911. After the uprising had begun upstream at Wu-ch'ang in Hupeh Province, the revolutionary leaders proclaimed Nanking the seat of the provisional government of the Republic of China, and the democratic constitution of 1912 was adopted there before the first president, Yüan Shih-k'ai, moved the capital to Peking.Under the infant Republic of China, Nanking was governed by warlords for more than a decade. Sun Yat-sen, leader of the Kuomintang ( Nationalist Party), embittered by politicians' intrigues centred in Peking, vowed to make Nanking the Nationalist capital. Accordingly, when his follower Chiang Kai-shek achieved unified control of the country in 1928, the Nationalist government made Nanking once more the capital of a united China. Progress was made in developing communications, industries, and natural resources. Physically, too, the city acquired a new look; modern boulevards and government buildings were constructed; new railroad stations and airfields were built; and the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum was erected.Such achievements were, however, cut short by the war (Sino-Japanese War) against Japan. Nanking fell in 1937. In the sack of the city that followed, between 40,000 and 300,000 civilians were slaughtered. The city was then ruled by puppet governments until Japan's defeat in 1945. From 1946 to 1949 Nanking resumed its status as the capital of Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist government, but Chinese Communist forces took the city in 1949. When the People's Republic of China was proclaimed on Oct. 1, 1949, Nanking was once again abandoned in favour of Peking as the national capital. In 1952 it was made the provincial capital of Kiangsu. Nanking was transformed into a modern industrialized city. Despite the hardships suffered during the Great Leap Forward (1958–60) and the Cultural Revolution (1966–76)—especially during the latter, when many cultural and historical relics were damaged—the city has generally prospered during the Communist period and has remained a major tourist destination.Additional ReadingComprehensive general references are Fredric Kaplan, Julian Sobin, and Arne De Keijzer, The China Guidebook, 6th ed. (1985); and Nagel Publishers, China, English version by Anne L. Destenay, 4th ed. (1982). More detailed information is contained in China Travel and Tourism Press, Nanjing (1983); Caroline Courtauld, Nanjing, Suzhou and Wuxi (1981); and Fifteen Cities in China, published by China Reconstructs Magazine. For geography, see George Babcock Cressey, China's Geographic Foundations: A Survey of the Land and Its People (1934); and for an economic geography, see T.R. Tregear, China, A Geographical Survey (1980). Frederica M. Bunge and Rinn-Sup Shinn (eds.), China, a Country Study, 3rd ed. (1981), discusses several aspects of Nanking's industry, trade, and transportation. Chi Tsui, A Short History of Chinese Civilization (1942, reissued 1945); and Immanual C.Y. Hsü, The Rise of Modern China, 3rd ed. (1983), contain general references to Nanking's history. For accounts of specific epochs, see Augustus F. Lindley, Ti-ping Tien-kwoh: The History of the Ti-ping Revolution, 2 vol. (1866, reprinted in 1 vol., 1970); Yu-Wen Jen (Yu-Wen Chien), The Taiping Revolutionary Movement (1973); Paul M.A. Linebarger, The China of Chiang K'ai-shek (1941, reprinted 1973); and Harold J. Timperley (ed.), The Japanese Terror in China (1938, reprinted 1969; U.K. title, What War Means: The Japanese Terror in China). Language, culture, and food in Nanking are discussed in Leo J. Moser, The Chinese Mosaic: The Peoples and Provinces of China (1985).Ping-chia Kuo Zeng Zungu
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