mutualist, n.mutualistic, adj.
/myooh"chooh euh liz'euhm/, n.
1. a relationship between two species of organisms in which both benefit from the association.
2. the doctrine that the interdependence of social elements is the primary determinant of individual and social relations, esp. the theory that common ownership of property, or collective effort and control governed by sentiments of brotherhood and mutual aid, will be beneficial to both the individual and society.
3. Sociol. the force or principle of mutual aid.
[1860-65; MUTUAL + -ISM]

* * *

      association between organisms of two different species in which each is benefited. Mutualistic arrangements are most likely to develop between organisms with widely differing living requirements. The partnership between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and leguminous plants is an example, as is the association between cows and rumen bacteria (the bacteria live in the digestive tract and help digest the plants eaten by the cow). The associations between tree roots and certain fungi are often mutualistic (see mycorrhiza.)

      Intestinal flagellated (flagellate) protozoans and termites (termite) exhibit obligative mutualism, a strict interdependency, in which the protozoans digest the wood ingested by the termites; neither partner can survive under natural conditions without the other.

      Acacia ants (Pseudomyrmex ferruginea) inhabit the bull-horn acacia (Acacia cornigera), upon which they obtain food and shelter; the acacia depends on the ants for protection from browsing animals, which the ants drive away. Neither member can survive successfully without the other, also exemplifying obligative mutualism.

      The yucca moth is dependent on the yucca plant and vice versa: the moth acts as pollinator at the same time that she lays her eggs in the seed pods of the yucca; the larvae hatch and feed on some but not all the seeds. Both organisms benefit: the plant is pollinated, and the moth has a source of food for its larvae.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mutualism — may refer to: Mutualism (biology) Mutualism (economic theory), largely associated with Pierre Joseph Proudhon, based on a labor theory of value Mutualism (movement), a politically neutral movement that aims at creating and promoting mutual… …   Wikipedia

  • mutualism — MUTUALÍSM s.n. (Rar) 1. Sistem de solidaritate şi de ajutor reciproc. 2. (biol.) Vieţuire laolaltă a mai multor organisme diferite ca specie. [pr.: tu a ] – Din fr. mutualité. Trimis de ana zecheru, 17.05.2004. Sursa: DEX 98  mutualísm s. n.… …   Dicționar Român

  • Mutualism — Mu tu*al*ism, n. (Ethics) The doctrine of mutual dependence as the condition of individual and social welfare. F. Harrison. H. Spencer. Mallock. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • mutualism — (n.) 1849, in reference to the doctrine of French anarchist/socialist Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809 1865), from Fr. mutuellisme. In biology, from 1876, from MUTUAL (Cf. mutual) + ISM (Cf. ism) …   Etymology dictionary

  • mutualism — [myo͞o′cho͞o əliz΄əm] n. Biol. symbiosis with mutual advantage to both or all organisms involved …   English World dictionary

  • mutualism — mutualizmas statusas T sritis ekologija ir aplinkotyra apibrėžtis Tarprūšiniai santykiai, kai skirtingų rūšių individai gyvena kartu, teikdami vieni kitiems naudos. Gali pasireikšti skirtingu sambūvio lygiu: nuo nebūtino iki būtino, kai viena… …   Ekologijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • Mutualism (economic theory) — This article is about the economic theory. For the biological term and other uses, see Mutualism (disambiguation). Part of the Politics series on Anarchism …   Wikipedia

  • Mutualism (biology) — Hummingbird Hawkmoth drinking from Dianthus. Pollination is a classic example of mutualism. Mutualism is the way two organisms of different species biologically interact in a relationship in which each individual derives a fitness benefit (i.e.,… …   Wikipedia

  • Mutualism (movement) — This article is about the social funds and insurance movement. For the biological term and other uses, see Mutualism (disambiguation). Mutualism, mutualist movement or movement of mutuals is a social movement that aims at creating and promoting… …   Wikipedia

  • mutualism — noun Date: 1849 1. the doctrine or practice of mutual dependence as the condition of individual and social welfare 2. mutually beneficial association between different kinds of organisms • mutualist noun • mutualistic adjective …   New Collegiate Dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”