/mont'seuh rat"/; for 2 also Sp. /mawn'serdd rddaht"/, n.
1. an island in the Leeward Islands, in the SE West Indies: a British crown colony. 12,162; 391/2 sq. mi. (102 sq. km). Cap.: Plymouth.
2. a mountain in NE Spain, NW of Barcelona: the site of Montserrat Monastery. 4058 ft. (1237 m).

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Introduction Montserrat -
Background: Much of this island has been devastated and two-thirds of the population has fled abroad due to the eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano that began on 18 July 1995. Geography Montserrat
Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, southeast of Puerto Rico
Geographic coordinates: 16 45 N, 62 12 W
Map references: Central America and the Caribbean
Area: total: 102 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 102 sq km
Area - comparative: about 0.6 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 40 km
Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 3 NM
Climate: tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: volcanic islands, mostly mountainous, with small coastal lowland
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Chances Peak (in the Soufriere Hills volcanic complex) 914 m
Natural resources: NEGL
Land use: arable land: 20% permanent crops: 0% other: 80% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: severe hurricanes (June to November); volcanic eruptions (Soufriere Hills volcano has erupted continuously since 1996) Environment - current issues: land erosion occurs on slopes that have been cleared for cultivation
Geography - note: the island is entirely volcanic in origin and contains seven active volcanoes People Montserrat -
Population: 8,437 note: an estimated 8,000 refugees left the island following the resumption of volcanic activity in July 1995; some have returned (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 23.6% (male 1,001; female 986) 15-64 years: 65% (male 2,624; female 2,864) 65 years and over: 11.4% (male 508; female 454) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: 8.43% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 17.54 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate: 7.47 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate: 74.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.12 male(s)/ female total population: 0.96 male(s)/ female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 7.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.2 years female: 80.4 years (2002 est.) male: 76.1 years
Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA% HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Montserratian(s) adjective: Montserratian
Ethnic groups: black, white
Religions: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Seventh-Day Adventist, other Christian denominations
Languages: English
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school total population: 97% male: 97% female: 97% (1970 est.) Government Montserrat -
Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Montserrat
Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK
Government type: NA
Capital: Plymouth (abandoned in 1997 due to volcanic activity; interim government buildings have been built at Brades Estate, in the Carr's Bay/ Little Bay vicinity at the northwest end of Montserrat) Administrative divisions: 3 parishes; Saint Anthony, Saint Georges, Saint Peter
Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday: Birthday of Queen ELIZABETH II, second Saturday in June (1926)
Constitution: present constitution came into force 19 December 1989
Legal system: English common law and statutory law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Anthony LONGRIGG (since NA May 2001) elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually becomes chief minister head of government: Chief Minister John OSBORNE (since 5 April 2001) cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, the chief minister, three other ministers, the attorney general, and the finance secretary
Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (11 seats, 9 popularly elected; members serve five-year terms) note: expanded in 2001 from 7 to 9 elected members with attorney general and financial secretary sitting as ex-officio members elections: last held NA April 2001 (next to be held by November 2006) note: in 2001, the Elections Commission instituted a single constituency/voter-at-large system whereby all eligible voters cast ballots for all nine seats of the Legislative Council election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NPLM 7, NPP 2
Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia, one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High Court) Political parties and leaders: National Progressive Party or NPP [Reuben T. MEADE]; New People's Liberation Movement or NPLM [John A. OSBORNE] Political pressure groups and NA
leaders: International organization Caricom, CDB, ECLAC (associate),
participation: ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, WCL Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK) Diplomatic representation from the none (overseas territory of the UK)
Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Montserratian coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms features a woman standing beside a yellow harp with her arm around a black cross Economy Montserrat
Economy - overview: Severe volcanic activity, which began in July 1995, has put a damper on this small, open economy. A catastrophic eruption in June 1997 closed the airports and seaports, causing further economic and social dislocation. Two-thirds of the 12,000 inhabitants fled the island. Some began to return in 1998, but lack of housing limited the number. The agriculture sector continued to be affected by the lack of suitable land for farming and the destruction of crops. Prospects for the economy depend largely on developments in relation to the volcano and on public sector construction activity. The UK has launched a three-year $122.8 million aid program to help reconstruct the economy. Half of the island is expected to remain uninhabitable for another decade.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $31 million (1999 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -1.5% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,400 (1999 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5.4% industry: 13.6% services: 81% (1996 est.) Population below poverty line: NA% Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
percentage share: highest 10%: NA% Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1998)
Labor force: 4,521 (1992); note - lowered by flight of people from volcanic activity Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Unemployment rate: 6% (1998 est.)
Budget: revenues: $31.4 million expenditures: $31.6 million, including capital expenditures of $8.4 million (1997 est.)
Industries: tourism, rum, textiles, electronic appliances Industrial production growth rate: NA% Electricity - production: 5 million kWh (2000) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 4.65 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products: cabbages, carrots, cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, peppers; livestock products
Exports: $1.5 million (1998)
Exports - commodities: electronic components, plastic bags, apparel, hot peppers, live plants, cattle
Exports - partners: US, Antigua and Barbuda (1993)
Imports: $26 million (1998)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, foodstuffs, manufactured goods, fuels, lubricants, and related materials
Imports - partners: US, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Japan, Canada (1993)
Debt - external: $8.9 million (1997) Economic aid - recipient: Country Policy Plan (2001) is a three-year program for spending $122.8 million in British budgetary assistance
Currency: East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Currency code: XCD
Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March Communications Montserrat - Telephones - main lines in use: 4,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 70 (1994)
Telephone system: general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: NA
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 7,000 (1997) Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)
Televisions: 3,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .ms Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 17 (2000)
Internet users: NA Transportation Montserrat -
Highways: total: 269 km paved: 203 km unpaved: 66 km (1995)
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Plymouth (abandoned), Little Bay (anchorages and ferry landing), Carr's Bay
Merchant marine: none (2002 est.)
Airports: none; the only airport was destroyed by volcanic activity; a helicopter service to Antigua is used (2001) Military Montserrat -
Military branches: no regular indigenous military forces; Police Force
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK Transnational Issues Montserrat - Disputes - international: none
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe

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Island (pop., 2001 est.: 3,600) and British crown colony, West Indies.

Situated in the eastern Caribbean Sea, it occupies an area of 40 sq mi (102 sq km); it is 11 mi (18 km) long and 7 mi (11 km) wide. It was visited and named by Christopher Columbus in 1493 and was colonized by the British and Irish in 1632. France later held it briefly, but from 1783 it remained British. Its colonial economy was based on cotton and sugar plantations that used African slave labour. It was part of the colony of Leeward Islands from 1871 to 1956 and then of the Federation of the West Indies from 1958 to 1962. It was rebuilt after a devastating hurricane in 1989. A major eruption of the Soufrière Hills volcano in 1996 led to the evacuation of the southern half of the island and the abandonment of its capital, Plymouth. By 1998 more than two-thirds of its mid-1990s population had left the island.

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      island and overseas territory of the United Kingdom. Located in the Lesser Antilles chain, this pear-shaped island is known as the “Emerald Isle of the Caribbean.” The de facto capital is St. John's, in the northern part of the island. Plymouth, on the southwestern coast, was the capital and only port of entry until 1997, when volcanic eruptions destroyed much of the town and the island's most spectacular vegetation. Sighted and named by Christopher Columbus in 1493, Montserrat is a rich admixture of African, North American, and European influences. Its physical and human landscapes have been battered but not obliterated by the series of natural disasters that beset the island. Area 40 square miles (103 square km). Pop. (2001 est.) 3,600.

  Montserrat lies 27 miles (43 km) southwest of Antigua (Antigua and Barbuda) and about 30 miles (50 km) northwest of Guadeloupe. It is 11 miles (18 km) long and 7 miles (11 km) wide. The island's rugged, volcanic landscape is molded by three mountainous areas—the Silver Hills, Centre Hills, and Soufrière Hills—which are in turn cut by narrow valleys and gorges known locally as ghauts. The Silver Hills, in the north, and the Centre Hills are forested at higher elevations but have secondary scrub on their gentler lower contours. Chances Peak, at 3,000 feet (915 metres) in the Soufrière Hills, was the highest point on the island until the mid-1990s, when the first volcanic eruptions in Montserratian history dramatically changed the landscape. Beginning in July 1995, volcanic domes in the Soufrière Hills alternately grew and collapsed in a series of eruptions that killed 19 people in June 1997 and flattened nearly 2.7 square miles (7 square km) of forests, agricultural land, and villages in December of that year. Many of the domes rose higher than 3,300 feet (1,000 metres) before partly collapsing.

      Montserrat has a narrow coastal plain. Its few beaches have mainly gray or brown sand because of their volcanic origins; the single white-sand beach is at Rendezvous Bay in the north. Coral reefs line parts of the northern shore. Though Montserrat's most lush vegetation, in the southern highlands, was destroyed in the eruptions, the Centre Hills remain largely unaffected by the eruptions. Among the island's rare and endangered animals are Montserrat orioles, galliwasps (lizards), and “mountain chickens,” which are edible frogs found in the highlands.

      The climate is tropical and mild, and there is little seasonal variation in temperature or rainfall. Average temperatures range from lows of 70–76 °F (21–24 °C) to highs of 80–86 °F (27–30 °C). The warmest period is from June to November. Annual precipitation averages about 57 inches (1,448 mm). The island is often in the path of hurricanes; Hurricane Hugo in 1989 was particularly devastating.

      The population (Montserrat) is largely of black African ancestry, with a small number of white North American and European expatriates, mainly retirees with homes on the island. The official language is English, but most Montserratians also speak a Creole similar to that spoken in Jamaica. The main religious denominations are Anglican, Methodist, and Roman Catholic; Seventh-day Adventists and Pentecostalists are increasing in numbers. Some older Montserratians follow obeah, a traditional belief system based on superstitions.

      Until the volcanic activity began, Montserrat's population remained relatively stable because of emigration and a low birth rate. Plymouth and its environs were the main centres of settlement. The island's population exceeded 10,000 in the early 1990s, but during the volcano crisis more than two-thirds of Montserratians departed for Britain, neighbouring Antigua, and other parts of the Caribbean region. Some had returned by the late 1990s; however, renewed eruptions have discouraged resettlement, and access to the southern two-thirds of the island has been restricted. Temporary or semipermanent housing has been built in the northern part of the island for many of the residents who lost homes in the south.

      Volcanic activity caused the virtual collapse of the economy when Plymouth, the main commercial centre, was abandoned. Montserrat has since relied heavily on British aid to build a new transportation infrastructure and provide services. The largest sources of employment are now public services and construction. Montserrat's currency, the East Caribbean dollar, is issued by the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank (headquartered in Saint Kitts and Nevis), which also regulates rates of credit and foreign exchange.

      The eruptions damaged or made inaccessible most of the island's agricultural land, but some potatoes, onions, and other vegetables are still produced for the domestic market. In the early 20th century Sea Island cotton was Montserrat's major export; however, production subsequently declined, and from the 1970s the government's attempts to revive the industry largely failed. Until the 1990s most workers in the Plymouth area were employed in services (notably tourism) and trade, light manufacturing (food processing, plastic bags, textiles, automotive and electronic components), and construction (mainly building tourist facilities and retirement housing). Tourism was the most important sector of the economy. Most of the island's tourists were long-term visitors such as North American retirees intent on escaping cold winters.

      Montserrat's W.H. Bramble Airport, which was opened in 1956 on the central eastern coast, was closed because of volcanic activity in 1997. Since then the island has been linked with Antigua via helicopter service and a ferry terminal at Little Bay, in the northwestern part of the island. The network of open roads has been restricted to the northern third of the island. Montserrat is a member of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States and the Caribbean Community (Caricom).

Government and society
      Montserrat is an internally self-governing overseas territory within the Commonwealth. The British monarch is the head of state. The constitution promulgated on January 1, 1960, provides for an appointed governor, an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council. The governor appoints as chief minister the leading member of the nine-seat Legislative Council. The governor also heads the Executive Council, which consists of four official members (the chief minister and three other ministers), the attorney general, and the financial secretary. The electoral system was based on constituencies until April 2001, when an at-large system of popular election was adopted for all members of the Legislative Council.

      Primary education is free and compulsory for children aged 5–14. Nearly all Montserratians are literate. Eruptions destroyed the Technical Training College in Plymouth. Primary and secondary schools, a library, a hospital, and a branch of the University of the West Indies have all been relocated to the north.

      Life expectancy is about 74 years for males and 77 for females. The leading causes of death are diabetes, heart diseases, and cancers. Ashfall and other emissions from the Soufrière Hills generally do not reach the northern part of the island.

Cultural life
      Montserratian society is a mixture of African, Irish, and British traditions, although North American culture has become a major influence. Traditional rites, such as the jumbie dance, a manifestation of folk religion, had nearly disappeared by the late 20th century. The dance once took place following Christian rituals (e.g., baptisms or weddings) or in times of crisis. Jumbie music helped produce a trancelike state in the worshipers who sought cures for ills or the lifting of an obeah spell. Traditional instruments included flutes, triangles, and flat, goatskin-covered drums. Folk music has declined partly because of imported musical styles such as calypso, reggae, soca, and pop. Carnival, which was brought to Montserrat in 1962, is held between Boxing Day (December 26) and New Year's (Jump-up) Day (January 1). St. Patrick's Day (March 17) became an official holiday in 1985; locally, it commemorates a slave revolt and Montserratian heroes.

      Prior to the economic upheaval caused by the eruptions, Montserratians enjoyed a relatively high standard of living, including dependable housing, imported consumer goods, and frozen foods; many also took holidays abroad, often to the United States. Older, rural residents still have more traditional lifestyles based on family, land, and church. Extended families and connections with family members overseas remain important for all Montserratians. The island's cuisine is best known for “mountain chicken” frog legs and “goat water,” a thick goat-meat stew.

      An international recording studio was located on the island until it was badly damaged by Hurricane Hugo in 1989. Montserratians watch U.S. and European television programs via satellite. Radio programming is also popular, particularly through ZJB, the government-owned radio station. The weekly Montserrat Reporter is the main newspaper.

      The original Native American inhabitants of Montserrat began to arrive in the Lesser Antilles about 3000 BC. Carib Indians, who arrived later, are said to have named the island Alliouagana (“Land of the Prickly Bush”). However, Montserrat was uninhabited by the time Christopher Columbus (Columbus, Christopher) sighted it in November 1493, during his second voyage to the Americas. Columbus named the island for the abbey of Montserrat in Spain (Montserrat). It was colonized in 1632 by Irish Catholics from nearby Saint Kitts (Saint Christopher), who were sent there by Sir Thomas Warner, the first British (British Empire) governor of Saint Kitts. More Irish immigrants subsequently arrived from Virginia. Plantations were set up to grow tobacco and indigo, followed eventually by cotton and sugar. The early settlers were repeatedly attacked by French forces and Carib Indians. The French took possession of the island in 1664 and again in 1667, but it was restored to England by the Treaty of Breda (Breda, Treaty of). French forces sacked the island in 1712 and captured it for the last time in 1782, but the Treaty of Versailles (1783) again returned it to Britain.

      Slaves (slavery) from Africa were probably first brought to Montserrat in large numbers in the 1660s. Their population grew to some 1,000 in 1678 and 7,000 in 1810, when they greatly outnumbered white settlers. Montserrat's plantation system declined after slavery was abolished in 1834 and the price of sugar fell on world markets. The Montserrat Company, formed in 1857 under the direction of Joseph Sturge (Sturge, Joseph), bought abandoned estates, encouraged the cultivation of limes, and sold plots of land to settlers. Because of those efforts, smallholdings still cover much of the island. A series of devastating earthquakes and hurricanes occurred between 1890 and 1936.

      Between 1871 and 1956 Montserrat was part of the (British) Federal Colony of the Leeward Islands, which included the British Virgin Islands, Saint Kitts–Nevis–Anguilla, and Dominica. In 1951 universal suffrage was declared, and the following year Montserratian women voted for the first time. The federation was abolished on July 1, 1956, when Montserrat became a colony in its own right. During 1958–62 Montserrat was part of the short-lived Federation of the West Indies. Montserratians, unlike their counterparts in most other British Caribbean colonies, did not seek associated statehood, which would have been a step toward independence.

      In the general election of November 1978, the People's Liberation Movement (PLM) won all seven seats to the Legislative Council. The party retained its control in 1983, but the opposition gained strength in the 1987 election. The PLM leadership favoured eventual independence after first achieving greater economic self-sufficiency. However, many merchants and other Montserratians opposed independence because they saw greater benefits in maintaining ties with Britain. Indeed, after Hurricane Hugo devastated the island in 1989, the British helped construct a new legislative building, a new wing to the hospital in Plymouth, housing, and roads.

      The newly formed National Progressive Party took over the government in 1991, but in 1996, in the midst of the volcano crisis, it won only one legislative seat. A weak coalition was then formed, headed by an independent member, Bertrand Osborne, as chief minister. Osborne resigned in 1997 amid criticism of his handling of the volcano crisis, and he was replaced by David Brandt. The British government was also widely criticized for its handling of the crisis, although it helped evacuate and relocate the population and repair the transportation infrastructure. After the PLM decisively won the elections of April 2001, John Osborne became chief minister. Volcanic activity continued into the early 21st century.

Polly Pattullo

Additional Reading
The flora of the island is surveyed in David E. Brussell, Potions, Poisons, and Panaceas: An Ethnobotanical Study of Montserrat (1999). Stuart B. Philpott, West Indian Migration: The Montserrat Case (1973), explores the impact of migration on two communities. Small Farming in the Less Developed Countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean (1980), published by the Caribbean Development Bank, provides information on Grenada, Saint Vincent, Saint Lucia, Dominica, Saint Kitts, Nevis, Montserrat, Antigua, and Belize. John Messenger, “Montserrat,” in Dale A. Olsen and Daniel E. Sheehy (eds.), The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, vol. 2 (1998), pp. 922–926, discusses the island's cultural traditions.Historical treatment is provided in Howard A. Fergus, Montserrat: History of a Caribbean Colony (1994), Gallery Montserrat: Some Prominent People in Our History (1996), and Eruption: Montserrat Versus Volcano (1996). The impact of the volcano crisis is further examined in Polly Pattullo, Fire from the Mountain: The Tragedy of Montserrat and the Betrayal of Its People (2000).Polly Pattullo

 mountain, northwestern Barcelona provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Catalonia, Spain, lying just west of the Llobregat River and northwest of Barcelona city. Known to the Romans as Mons Serratus (“Saw-Toothed Mountain”) and to the Catalans as Montsagrat (“Sacred Mountain”), it is famous for its unusual appearance and the Benedictine monastery of Santa María de Montserrat, which houses an ancient wooden statue of the Virgin and Child that was supposedly carved by St. Luke, taken to Spain by St. Peter, and hidden in a cave during the Moorish occupation. The statue was found in 880 and has since been venerated by numerous pilgrims, who attribute many miracles to the intercession of the Virgin Mary.

      Jagged, barren pinnacles of reddish sandstone and conglomerate, formed by erosion, rise from the mountain's huge base, and it is cloven by ravines; the monastery stands on the edge of the widest of these, the Malo valley, at 2,400 feet (730 metres). Remains indicate that the mountain was inhabited in prehistoric times. Christian hermits of Santa María were residing on Montserrat when in 888 the Benedictine monastery of Ripoll was granted jurisdiction over them. From the 11th to the early 15th century, a regular priory flourished there, and it obtained independence as an abbey in 1410, the status of which it has held almost continuously ever since. The present basilica was begun in 1560 and the monastery in 1755, though these were extensively rebuilt after their destruction by French troops during the Peninsular Campaign, in 1812.

Vicente Rodriguez

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Universalium. 2010.

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