/mon'teuhn yahrd", -yahr"/, n., pl. Montagnards, (esp. collectively) Montagnard.
(sometimes l.c.) a member of a dark-skinned people of mixed ethnic origins inhabiting the highland areas of Vietnam.
[1835-45; < F: lit., mountaineer. See MOUNTAIN, -ARD]

* * *

Radical deputy in the National Convention during the French Revolution.

The Montagnards were so called because they sat on the higher benches (the "Mountain") above the uncommitted deputies of the "Plain." The Montagnards emerged in 1792 as opponents of the moderate Girondins and later associated with the radical Jacobin Club in the Committee of Public Safety. After the Thermidorian Reaction, many Montagnards were executed or purged from the convention, and they became a minority called the crête ("crest").

* * *

▪ French history
French“Mountain Man”

      any of the radical Jacobin (Jacobin Club) deputies in the National Convention during the French Revolution. Noted for their democratic outlook, the Montagnards controlled the government during the climax of the Revolution in 1793–94. They were so called because as deputies they sat on the higher benches of the assembly. Collectively they were also called Le Montagne (“The Mountain”).

      The Montagnards emerged as the opponents of the more moderate Girondins in the National Convention in the fall of 1792. Composed of deputies elected from Paris and other cities, the Montagnards depended on the support of the petty bourgeoisie and the sansculottes (extreme radical revolutionaries, initially from the poorer classes of Paris) and were closely associated with the Jacobin Club of Paris. After the overthrow of the Girondins by the popular insurrections of May 31 to June 2, 1793, the Montagnards dominated the Convention, and they composed the majority of the Committee of Public Safety, which in effect ruled France in 1793–94. With the Thermidorian reaction of 1794–95, many of the Montagnards were either executed or purged from the Convention, where they were reduced to a minority group called the crête (the “crest”) and ceased to be influential.

      (French: “Highlander,” or “Mountain Man”), any member of the hill-dwelling peoples of the Indochinese Peninsula. In Vietnam the Montagnards include speakers of Mon-Khmer languages such as the Bahnar, Mnong, and Sedang and speakers of Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) languages such as the Jarai, Roglai, and Rade (Rhade). They mostly grow rice, using shifting cultivation. Montagnard houses are usually raised above the ground on piling. Religious beliefs involve many spirits associated with nature or ancestors, and they maintain shamans and sorcerers to intercede with them. Among the Jarai, Mnong, Roglai, and Rade, descent is traced through the mother. The typical household is a longhouse inhabited by the women of a maternal line with their husbands and children.

      The Montagnards long have sought to preserve their cultural identities. During the Vietnam War they sided with the South Vietnamese and Americans against the North. They have fought for autonomy within Vietnam since the country was reunited in 1975.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно сделать НИР?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • montagnard — montagnard, arde [ mɔ̃taɲar, ard ] adj. et n. • 1510; de montagne 1 ♦ Qui habite les montagnes, vit dans les montagnes. Peuples montagnards. Relatif à la montagne. Vie montagnarde. N. Habitant des montagnes. 2 ♦ N. m. (1792) Hist. Conventionnel… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • montagnard — montagnard, arde (mon ta gnar, gnar d ) adj. 1°   Qui habite les montagnes. Les populations montagnardes. 2°   Se dit de tout ce qui a rapport aux habitants des montagnes. Moeurs montagnardes. Costume, chant montagnard. •   Les chrétiens qui s… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • Montagnard — (of the mountain or mountain dweller) may refer to: Montagnard (French Revolution) Montagnard (Vietnam) Montagnard (Cambodia) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title. If an …   Wikipedia

  • montagnard — montagnárd adj. m., s. m. (sil. gnard) [gn pron. fr. ni], pl. montagnárzi; f. sg. montagnárdă, pl. montagnárde Trimis de siveco, 18.01.2005. Sursa: Dicţionar ortografic …   Dicționar Român

  • montagnard — (n.) mountaineer, highlander, 1842, from Fr. montagnard, from montagne (12c., see MOUNTAIN (Cf. mountain)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • montagnard — Montagnard, [montagn]arde. adj. Qui habite les montagnes. On s en sert plus ordinairement au subst. Les montagnards. c est un montagnard …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Montagnard — puede referirse a: La palabra francesa para montañés El miembro del grupo político denominado Montaña (Revolución francesa) Montañeses (pueblo), en Vietnam Esta página de desambiguación cataloga artículos relacionados con el mismo título. Si… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Montagnard — [män΄tən yärd′, mōntən yärd′] n. [Fr, lit., mountaineer < montagne,MOUNTAIN + ard, ARD] a member of a people living in the hills of central and S Vietnam …   English World dictionary

  • montagnard — I. |yär(d) noun (plural montagnard “ ; or montagnards “, r(d)z) Usage: usually capitalized Etymology: French, literally …   Useful english dictionary

  • Montagnard — /mɒntənˈjad/ (say montuhn yahd) noun 1. the hill people inhabiting the mountainous border area between Vietnam, Laos and north eastern Cambodia. 2. (plural Montagnards or Montagnard) a member of this people. 3. a Native American people living in… …  

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”