modeling

modeling
/mod"l ing/, n.
1. the act, art, or profession of a person who models.
2. the process of producing sculptured form with some plastic material, as clay.
3. the technique of rendering the illusion of volume on a two-dimensional surface by shading.
4. the treatment of volume, as the turning of a form, in sculpture.
5. the representation, often mathematical, of a process, concept, or operation of a system, often implemented by a computer program.
6. Also called imitation. Psychol. therapy in which a particular behavior is elicited by the observation of similar behavior in others.
Also, esp. Brit., modelling.
[1575-85; MODEL + -ING1]

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also spelled  modelling,  

      in sculpture, working of plastic materials by hand to build up form. Clay and wax are the most common modeling materials, and the artist's hands are the main tools, though metal and wood implements are often employed in shaping. Modeling is an ancient technique, as indicated by prehistoric clay figurines from Egypt and the Middle East.

      Modeling is an additive process, as opposed to carving, the other main sculptural technique, in which portions of a hard substance are cut away to reveal form. Unlike carving, corrections are possible during modeling, and the result—fired clay or preserved wax—is not as permanent as a stone or wood carving. Modeled work, however, may be reproduced in stone by pointing (transferring the proportions of the model to the block of stone by mechanical means) or, in metal, by casting. Finished works modeled in clay or wax should not be confused with bozzetti, small wax or clay models serving as preliminary sketches for large carvings, or maquettes, small, relatively finished models used to present proposals for monumental projects.

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Universalium. 2010.

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