/mish"i geuhn/, n.1. a state in the N central United States. 9,258,344; 58,216 sq. mi. (150,780 sq. km). Cap.: Lansing. Abbr.: MI (for use with zip code), Mich.2. Lake, a lake in the N central U.S., between Wisconsin and Michigan: one of the five Great Lakes. 22,400 sq. mi. (58,015 sq. km).3. a card game of the stops family, for three to eight players.
* * *State (pop., 2000: 9,938,444), midwestern U.S. Surrounded almost entirely by the Great Lakes, it is divided into two large land segments: the Upper and Lower peninsulas.The Lower Peninsula is bordered to the south by Indiana and Ohio; the Upper Peninsula is bounded by Wisconsin to the west. Michigan, including the Great Lakes, covers 96,705 sq mi (250,466 sq km); its capital is Lansing. The western region of the Upper Peninsula is a rugged upland rich in minerals, and the remainder of the state consists of lowlands and rolling hills. The area was originally inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Indians. The French arrived in the 17th century, founding Sault Ste. Marie in 1668 and Detroit in 1701; fur trading was their primary activity. The English gained control of Michigan in 1763 following the French and Indian War, and it passed to the U.S. in 1783. It was included in the Northwest Territories in 1787 and in Indiana Territory in 1800. Michigan Territory was organized on the Lower Peninsula in 1805. Though surrendered to the British in the War of 1812, U.S. rule was restored in 1813 by the victory of Oliver Hazard Perry at the Battle of Lake Erie. A boundary dispute with Ohio, known as the Toledo War, was settled by Congress, with Michigan receiving the Upper Peninsula and statehood as compensation. In 1837 it became the 26th U.S. state. Throughout the American Civil War, it made major contributions to the Union cause. In the 20th century its economy was dominated by the automotive industry.
* * *IntroductionRandall J. SchaetzlMichigan, flag of constituent state of the United States of America. Although by the size of its land Michigan ranks only 23rd of the 50 states, the inclusion of the Great Lakes waters over which it has jurisdiction increases its area considerably, placing it 10th. The capital is Lansing, in south-central Michigan. The state's name is derived from michi-gama, an Ojibwa (Chippewa) word meaning “large lake.”Michigan is the only one of the states to be split into two large land segments: the sparsely populated but mineral-rich Upper Peninsula (commonly called “the U.P.”) slices eastward from northern Wisconsin between Lakes Superior (Superior, Lake) and Michigan (Michigan, Lake), and the mitten-shaped Lower Peninsula reaches northward from Indiana and Ohio. Indeed, for most Michigan residents, an upturned right hand serves as a ready-made map for roughly locating towns, routes, regions, parks, or any other feature of the Lower Peninsula. The two landmasses have been connected since 1957 by “Big Mac,” the 5-mile (8-km) Mackinac Bridge across the Straits of Mackinac (Mackinac, Straits of), which separate Lake Michigan on the west from Lake Huron (Huron, Lake) on the east. Between Lake Huron and Lake Erie (Erie, Lake), in the southeast, the Lower Peninsula is separated from the Canadian province of Ontario by Lake St. Clair (Saint Clair, Lake) and the St. Clair (Saint Clair River) and Detroit (Detroit River) rivers. The St. Marys River (Saint Marys River), which flows from Lake Superior to Lake Huron, forms the international boundary between the Upper Peninsula and Ontario.Since its admission on Jan. 26, 1837, as the 26th state of the Union and the fourth to be carved from the Northwest Territory, Michigan has become a mainspring in the economic life of the United States; the name of its largest city, Detroit, has become a byword throughout the world for the American automotive industry. The state also has retained its prominence in agriculture and, to a lesser extent, forestry. In addition, because of its many inland lakes, its borders on four of the five Great Lakes, and its many wilderness tracts, Michigan has evolved into one of the country's leading tourist destinations.Michigan's population is primarily urban, concentrated in the industrialized centres of the southern Lower Peninsula. Many have been attracted by the union-dominated labour pool, and the state's urban populations reflect a broad spectrum of ethnic, economic, educational, and professional backgrounds. Such socioeconomic diversity has given rise to an environment in which affluence and poverty often exist side by side; nowhere is this better exemplified than in the Detroit metropolitan region. The state government coordinates a vast network of programs that aim to reduce such contrasts. Michigan's system of public higher education has consistently remained among the strongest, most diverse, and most widely respected in the country. Area 96,716 square miles (250,493 square km). Pop. (2000) 10,071,822; (2007 est.) 10,095,643.LandRelief (Michigan)The mildly rolling terrain and generally low elevations that characterize much of Michigan's countryside appealed to the early agricultural settlers. The highest point in the Lower Peninsula, near Cadillac, rises only to about 1,700 feet (520 metres). Flat, nearly featureless plains also occur in many parts of the state; these are vestiges of the floors of large glacial lakes that existed some 10,000 to 14,000 years ago. In the mid-19th century, most of these flatlands were malarial swamps that deterred settlers and were the source of much angst for early farmers. Draining of the swamps, a tiring process, has yielded highly productive farmland since that time. Large sand dunes rim the shores of Lake Michigan. Much of the northern Lower Peninsula and the eastern part of the Upper Peninsula are wooded.The western segment of the Upper Peninsula belongs to the Superior Upland (a region lying to the south of Lake Superior (Superior, Lake) and stretching westward from the Upper Peninsula across northern Wisconsin and Minnesota). There, rock-cored hills, some so large as to be named the Huron and Porcupine mountains, provide more relief; the peaks of the Hurons rise above 1,900 feet (580 metres).DrainageIn addition to being virtually surrounded by water, Michigan has an abundance of inland lakes, swamps, wetlands, and waterways. The state's roughly 11,000 inland lakes, most of which are glacial in origin, range in size from less than an acre to the nearly 20,000 acres (8,100 hectares) of Houghton Lake in the north-central Lower Peninsula. Michigan's rivers, which generally are shallow and narrow, drain the state's high interior. Most of the larger rivers are found in the southern part of the Lower Peninsula, and they flow relatively evenly throughout the year. In the Upper Peninsula, where elevations are higher and snowfall is more plentiful, many rivers have a pronounced peak discharge in spring when the snow melts. Although several of the rivers, especially in the Upper Peninsula, have waterfalls, the navigability of the state's waterways and the ease of portaging encouraged early settlement. Compared with those in nearby states, most of Michigan's rivers are short; distances from the headwaters to the mouths of the major rivers (which usually empty into one of the Great Lakes) are usually less than 150 miles (240 km).About 500 islands dot the lakes and rivers of Michigan; nearly 350 of them are named. Belle Isle, a public recreation centre, and Grosse Ile, largely residential, are well-known features of the Detroit River. Mackinac Island, near the Straits of Mackinac (Mackinac, Straits of), is a resort on which motor vehicles are prohibited. Isle Royale, a virgin wilderness of almost 900 square miles (2,300 square km), is a national park in western Lake Superior (Superior, Lake), near Canada.SoilsMichigan's soils vary regionally, depending on a number of factors, including climate, landform, and vegetation, as well as wetness, which is mainly a function of texture (various combinations of sand, silt, and clay) and depth of the water table. Fertile clays and loams in the southern Lower Peninsula foster extensive agriculture, while less-productive dry sandy soils dominate in the northern Lower Peninsula. The Upper Peninsula has a few fertile areas, but most of the soil is either sandy and similar to that of the northern Lower Peninsula or wet and swampy. The soils of the western Upper Peninsula are acidic and rocky, rendering that region generally unsuitable for cultivation. Peat and muck soils, which formed from inland lakes and flat, wet plains that became filled with organic matter, are found throughout the state, especially in the eastern Upper Peninsula. Where they exist in the Lower Peninsula, these soils are particularly important for vegetable production and, more recently, for growing turfgrass (sod). Throughout much of the state, subsurface drainage has been necessary to make wet soils tillable and productive. In some of the sandier areas of the Lower Peninsula, overhead irrigation has become popular among farmers as a way to augment yields on dry and sandy but otherwise productive sites.ClimateThe Great Lakes cool the hot winds of summer and warm the cold winds of winter, giving Michigan a more moderate and somewhat moister climate than some other north-central states. Although the Upper Peninsula is cooler, the temperature ranges in Michigan's far northern and far southern cities do not differ excessively. In the far north, in Sault Sainte Marie, January high temperatures are usually in the low 20s F (about −6 °C), while low temperatures hover near 5 °F (−15 °C); in July temperatures rise into the mid-70s F (about 24 °C) and drop into the low 50s F (about 11 °C) daily. In Detroit, in the southeast, January high temperatures usually reach the low 30s F (about 1 °C), while lows fall to about 20 °F (about −7 °C); in July, high temperatures are typically in the mid-80s F (about 29 °C) and lows are in the mid-60s F (about 18 °C). Michigan has average annual precipitation of about 30–38 inches (760–965 mm). The wettest part of the state is in the southwest, with precipitation decreasing toward the northeast. Alpena, in the northeastern Lower Peninsula, is one of the driest sites in the United States east of the Mississippi River. There are two lake-effect snowbelts, one on the south shore of Lake Superior, in the Upper Peninsula, the other on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, in the Lower Peninsula. These regions, which stretch inland for some 30 to 60 miles (50 to 100 km), may receive two to three times more winter snowfall than elsewhere in the state. The length of the growing season ranges from about two months in the Upper Peninsula to almost six months near the lakes in the southern portion of the Lower Peninsula. Severe weather phenomena, such as tornadoes (tornado), are rare and usually are restricted to late summer.Plant and animal lifeAlmost all of Michigan was once heavily wooded, with genuine prairies or clearings found only in the southwest and on some coastal dunes. Hardwood forests in the southern part of the state were dominated by oak and hickory in drier areas with relatively poor soils, and by maple and beech in wetter areas with richer soils. In the north, maple, beech, and various species of pine, birch, aspen, and hemlock were commonplace. Large, nearly pure tracts of white pine once dominated the northern region and were the basis for the state's emergence as a leading lumber producer in the late 19th century. By the mid-20th century, only about half of the state remained forest-covered. Since that time, however, there has been slow regrowth of forested land, and Michigan's woodlands remain among the most extensive in the country; the state has four national forests.Animals native to the area are numerous. Whitefish and lake trout abound in the Great Lakes, and many of Michigan's streams contain various other trout. The state's Department of Natural Resources operates hatcheries and encourages fishing in the many inland lakes, where perch, pike, and bass abound. Beavers were sought eagerly by early traders, and other fur-bearing mammals were also found in large numbers. Deer and bears, as well as quail and ducks, remain numerous in many areas. Since the late 20th century, turkeys, elk, and moose have been restocked in northern Michigan and are now thriving there. Despite Michigan's nickname of the Wolverine State, wolverines are extremely rare in the area. It was long believed that the last known specimen was killed (and stuffed) in the 1860s. However, sporadic sightings of wolverines have been reported more recently.People (Michigan)Population compositionPrior to the arrival of European settlers, Michigan was inhabited by several groups of indigenous peoples, most of whom were speakers of Algonquian languages. The majority of the native peoples lived near the lakeshores and traveled by water. Those in the south, the Potawatomi and Ottawa, were primarily farmers, who raised corn (maize), tobacco, sunflowers, and squash and also harvested products from the surrounding forests. These southern peoples were relatively sedentary and settled. By contrast, the widely scattered Ojibwa peoples of the colder north moved seasonally, following a livelihood of hunting and fishing.Most of Michigan's early settlers of European descent came to the area in the 1830s, as part of a wave of immigration commonly called “Michigan Fever.” Between 1820 and 1834 the population of the Michigan Territory increased tenfold. Many of the settlers came from New York state via the Erie Canal; by 1850, immigrants from New York constituted about one-third of Michigan's population.Germans were the most numerous of the early non-English-speaking immigrants. Detroit had a sizeable German community by the mid-1830s, as did several rural areas by 1850. The large Irish population was basically urban, although Irish farmers were found in southern Michigan and, by 1860, also in the Upper Peninsula. Dutch influences are still evident in the western counties around Holland and Zeeland, where Dutch settlers pioneered successfully in 1847. The Finnish, Irish, and Cornish were important in the economic and cultural life of the Upper Peninsula, where many worked as miners. Early Polish immigrants settled in rural areas until the 1890s, when a large number of Poles became concentrated in Detroit. The city's present-day population includes many people of Polish ancestry. More recently Hispanics, Asians, and immigrants from the Middle East have contributed to Michigan's ethnic mix. The state's population of Middle Eastern descent—including Syrians, Lebanese, Iraqis, Palestinians, Jordanians, Yemenis, and others—is one of the largest in the country; it is concentrated near Dearborn.The most significant population phenomenon since the beginning of the 20th century, however, has been the growth of the African American community—largely as a result of the Great Migration of rural southern African Americans to northern urban areas—from fewer than 16,000 in 1900 to well over 1,000,000 by the turn of the 21st century. Roughly half of Michigan's African American residents live in the city of Detroit, where they constitute more than four-fifths of the population; there also are sizeable African American communities in the older neighbourhoods and central city areas of Flint and Saginaw.Michigan's religious history differs somewhat from that of many of the other states of the Midwest (Middle West) in its early predominance of Roman Catholicism. Because the first European settlers in Detroit were French Roman Catholics, many immigrants of that faith were attracted to the city even before the large Irish, Italian, and Polish immigrations of the 19th century. Detroit was made a diocese in 1833 and an archdiocese in 1937. Other dioceses were established at Marquette, Grand Rapids, Lansing, Saginaw, Gaylord, and Kalamazoo. Of the Protestant (Protestant Heritage) denominations, Lutheranism has had many German and Scandinavian adherents, while Methodism has been important in both rural and urban Michigan. The first Dutch settlers were members of the Christian Reformed Church (Christian Reformed Church in North America), which was opposed to the state church of The Netherlands; the Michigan congregation was (and has remained) highly independent of the Dutch church from which it separated. There are also large numbers of Presbyterians (Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)), Baptists (Baptist), and Episcopalians (Episcopal Church in the United States of America). Altogether, Michigan has scores of Protestant denominations, some with only small memberships.The first Jewish (Judaism) immigrants to Michigan were of German background. In 1851 Detroit Jews founded a synagogue. Synagogues throughout the state reflect all forms of Judaism. A portion of the state's Arab population is Muslim (Islāmic world), most following the Shīʿite branch of Islam (Islām). Arab Christians (mostly Catholic), however, outnumber Arab Muslims in the Detroit region.Settlement patternsSettlement in the rugged western half of the Upper Peninsula largely has revolved around the mining industry. Ironwood, Iron Mountain, Hancock, Houghton, and Marquette are among the larger cities, all located near mines or their port facilities. Sault Sainte Marie, the major city in the eastern Upper Peninsula, overlooks the Soo Locks on the shipping route that links Lake Huron with Lake Superior. Throughout the peninsula, many residents are involved in forestry.Geographic and historical forces unite the eastern segment of the Upper Peninsula with roughly the northern half of the Lower Peninsula to create the area known as northern Michigan. This area has long been the centre of the state's forestry industry; many of the woodlands are owned by the state and national government. The towns of northern Michigan serve as regional centres for tourists and farmers and often as headquarters for government services. Many of the larger communities have attracted small-scale manufacturing; others serve as important harbours. Cities of northern Michigan include Sault Sainte Marie, Petoskey, Ludington, Manistee, Cadillac, Alpena, Escanaba, and Traverse City, on Grand Traverse Bay.Although the northern portion of the Lower Peninsula is a productive farming area in places, the state's strongest and most diverse agricultural foundation lies in southern Michigan—the area to the south of the lateral corridor between Bay City and Muskegon. Southern Michigan also contains most of the state's large cities and industrial centres including Detroit (one of the largest in the country) and its many suburbs, as well as Flint, Saginaw, Lansing, Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, and Battle Creek.EconomyMichigan's economy, originally based on small-scale agriculture, became dependent on lumbering and mining by the late 19th century. Lumbering of vast white pine forests proceeded at a feverish pace between the 1830s and 1905, until the forests' wealth was virtually exhausted. By the 1980s, iron and copper mines had opened in the western Upper Peninsula, fueling new settlement there. Advances in transportation aided economic development during this period; in 1855 the first of the Soo Locks on the St. Marys River (Saint Marys River) was completed, enabling passage of deep water vessels between Lake Superior (Superior, Lake) and the other Great Lakes.In the second decade of the 20th century the automotive industry began to dominate Michigan's economy. Since that time, Michigan remained tied to the fortunes of the auto companies, despite contributions from other manufacturing activities, tourism, and the agriculture and (albeit reduced) forestry sectors. The oil embargo of the late 1970s, combined with a dramatic increase in imports of foreign cars and a national economic recession, caused an economic crisis in Michigan. Between 1979 and 1982 the state's unemployment level rose sharply and became the highest in the country. The auto industry made a modest recovery over the next two decades, but it again suffered major losses when gasoline prices spiked and U.S. economic growth slowed in the early 21st century. Largely in response to the fluctuation of the auto industry, Michigan's government and business leaders initiated programs to expand the state's manufacturing base, to attract new high-technology firms, and to promote the service sector of the economy; tourism and education, in particular, have continued to do well.Agriculture and forestryDiverse agricultural activities have long been a stable element of Michigan's economy. Since the late 20th century, however, the number of farms in the state has been declining, both as smaller holdings are purchased and consolidated by larger agribusiness enterprises and as the suburbs expand into the surrounding farmlands. With its fertile soils and favourable climate, however, Michigan has remained a major agricultural state.The state's dairy industry, one of the country's leaders in the production of milk, is especially strong. Hogs are also important; they are raised in the southwestern part of the state. Corn is the principal field crop, followed by soybeans and wheat. All are grown primarily in the southern region, along with abundant quantities of sugar beets, dry beans, hay, potatoes, and blueberries. Michigan is well known for its fruit production. Not only is the state a top producer of blueberries (blueberry), but it also yields some three-fourths of the country's total crop of tart cherries and is a major source of apples, sweet cherries, and peaches. Many of the state's orchards are concentrated along the Lake Michigan shore. In terms of monetary value, however, vegetable production exceeds that of fruit, with Michigan being a notable source of cucumbers, celery, asparagus, carrots, and pumpkins. Christmas trees, mushrooms, and maple syrup are other important products.As forests have continued to recover from the exploitation of the late 19th century and as more marginal farmland has reverted back to forest, Michigan's timber industry has experienced a revival. The state's forests are a major source of hardwoods, but they also yield pulpwoods in significant quantities. Large tracts of woodland remain protected, however.ResourcesThe western segment of Michigan's Upper Peninsula has for generations been the site of mining activities, and the region has remained one of the country's chief producers of iron ore. Changes in the U.S. steel industry have affected iron ore mining in the state, however, and in 1984 all mining activities in the Menominee Iron Range ceased, although production continues at two open-pit surface mines (mining) in the Marquette Iron Range. Copper was mined aggressively in the Upper Peninsula in the second half of the 19th century, but during the 20th century the state's industry was eclipsed by more productive mines in the western United States. Michigan's last regularly operating copper mine closed in the late 1990s.Limestone, gravel, and sand are the principal nonmetal products of the state's mining industry. The limestone quarry at Rogers City, on the northeast coast of the Lower Peninsula, is one of the largest in the world; much of its product is used in steel mills, as aggregate (used in the production of concrete and mortar), or as an ingredient in cement. An immense deposit of halite (rock salt) lies beneath the Lower Peninsula, although little has been extracted. Gypsum is also abundant in the region; it is mined and used in the manufacture of wallboard. Historically, coal was also mined in Michigan's Lower Peninsula, but, because the coal seams are deep and thin, the industry was not economically viable, and all production ceased in the mid-20th century.ManufacturingReflective of a national trend, manufacturing has weakened in Michigan since the late 20th century. Nevertheless, the sector remains an important contributor to the state's gross product, and it employs a significant segment of the population. The state's leading manufactures include motor vehicles and parts, machinery, fabricated metal products, chemical products, furniture, and processed foods.Michigan's automotive industry is based in and near Detroit, and many reasons have been advanced to account for its establishment in that location. The city long had been noted for the manufacture of carriages, wagons, buggies, bicycles, and marine engines, and it had a large number of skilled and semiskilled labourers and an available supply of investment capital. Other cities, however, offered inducements equal to those of Detroit, and during the pioneering phase of the industry Detroit had a number of rivals.Personalities were a major reason that Detroit became the world's automotive centre and remained so for much of the 20th century. The industry began with Ransom E. Olds (Olds, Ransom Eli) of Lansing, whose father manufactured gasoline engines. Olds's success by 1901 focused the attention of the major figures in the emergent automotive industry on Detroit. Henry Ford (Ford, Henry) brought even greater fame to the city. Organizing the Ford Motor Company in 1903, he was by 1908 confining production to the standard, low-priced Model T. Ford emphasized ease of repair, garage service, and the utility of his product. For nearly two decades, the Model T was the country's most popular car. W.C. Durant (Durant, William Crapo) of Flint recognized that the primary purchasers of automobiles were indeed ordinary people who desired transportation (rather than motorists who sought automotive novelty). Through the formation of a company with large-scale capital investment, Durant hoped to speed up technological advances and thus capture much of the untapped middle-class market. The General Motors Corporation stands as a testimony to his thinking.As the size and profits of individual auto companies grew, so did the auto industry. Auto plants were built in Grand Rapids, Lansing, Flint, Pontiac, Kalamazoo, and Grand Haven, while Detroit and its immediate suburbs, producing over half the world's cars in the early 20th century, remained the hub of the industry. The industry paid high wages, which allowed many automotive workers to become members of the middle class, and because of the high wages there was little interest in unionism until the Great Depression of the 1930s. The lure of lucrative employment drew thousands of workers to Michigan, thus making the auto industry a driving force in the growth of the state's major cities.Aside from its role in the automotive industry, Grand Rapids is recognized for its production of fine furniture. Battle Creek, home of the Kellogg Company, is known for its ready-to-eat cereals and other processed foods. The Dow Chemical Company has its headquarters in Midland. Michigan also has long been a major producer of pharmaceuticals, with plants in both the Upper and Lower peninsulas but concentrated in the southern part of the state.Services and labourTourism ranks behind only agriculture and manufacturing in terms of revenue generated for the state. Most of Michigan's tourism-related enterprises are centred on state and national parks located in the northern Lower Peninsula, the eastern Upper Peninsula, and along the lakeshores. The sand dunes on the Lake Michigan shore are used annually by thousands of vacationers, and state forests, parks, and wildlife areas, containing millions of acres of wooded land, include varied landscapes that have helped Michigan to become a major tourist attraction of the Midwest.Michigan has long been a pioneer in programs to protect its labour force. The state has had a workers' compensation law since 1912. By World War II Michigan had already implemented extensive programs of social legislation, including unemployment compensation. The United Automobile Workers, headquartered in Detroit, is one of the oldest and strongest labour unions in the country.TransportationThe first railroad in Michigan, the Erie and Kalamazoo, was completed in 1836; it ran from the town of Adrian to Toledo (now in Ohio). By 1870 the state had more than 1,600 miles (2,600 km) of rail, and in 1910 Michigan's rail length peaked at about 9,000 miles (14,500 km). Since that time, however, railway mileage has been reduced by more than half. In contrast, state and local governments have collaborated to develop an extensive system of state highways, county roads, and city streets. The interstate expressways have been built largely with federal assistance.Air passenger service in Michigan began in 1926, and by the early 21st century there were some two dozen airports offering regular passenger flights, in addition to roughly 200 smaller airports that were available for public use. Michigan has several international airports, the largest and busiest of which is the Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport. Much of the airfreight of metropolitan Detroit is handled at the Willow Run Airport, a facility constructed as a bomber plant during World War II.The waterways of the Great Lakes carry tremendous tonnage of ores and other bulk materials, such as stone and sand, coal, cement, and wheat. In this regard, Michigan and its waterways form an important part of the international trade network of the St. Lawrence Seaway (Saint Lawrence River and Seaway), a channel that links the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean.Government and societyConstitutional frameworkMichigan has had four constitutions. The first of these was promulgated in 1835, the second in 1850, and the third in 1907. The current constitution was adopted in 1963.Like the Constitution of the United States (Constitution of the United States of America), Michigan's constitution provides for executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Executive power is vested in the governor, who serves for four years. The governor is nominated by a primary election, but the lieutenant governor is nominated by party convention; the governor and lieutenant governor are then chosen through direct election. Administrative commissions appointed by the governor are responsible to the executive branch and to several advisory commissions. The majority of the important governmental services are combined under departments responsible to the governor.Michigan's legislature consists of the Senate, made up of 38 elected members who serve four-year terms, and the House of Representatives, made up of 110 elected members who serve two-year terms. The legislative districts are redefined by a special commission after each federal census. Amendments to the state constitution may be submitted to the electorate by the legislature or by initiative petitions, but all amendments must be approved by a referendum of the voters.The highest court is the seven-member state Supreme Court. This body not only hears appeals from lower courts but also supervises the operation of the entire court system. Supreme Court judges are elected to eight-year terms. Lower courts include a court of appeals, circuit courts, probate courts, and courts of limited jurisdiction that are specified by the legislature.Michigan has thousands of local governmental units, including counties, cities, townships, villages, school districts, and such special districts as park authorities. Although the majority of counties are governed by a board of supervisors, the home-rule privilege allows larger counties to entrust management to county commissioners. Extensive privileges of home rule are authorized for the cities as well. School districts are classified by population and enjoy differing privileges of government.The precinct is the primary unit of political party organization, and the precinct delegates carry considerable importance in the annual party conventions, where candidates are nominated for lieutenant governor, attorney general, and secretary of state, as well as for seats on the boards that govern the state system of higher education and on the State Board of Education. Justices of the Supreme Court are nominated on a nonpartisan ballot. The state party conventions also select delegates to the national presidential conventions.Unions have been very active in Michigan politics, and the United Automobile Workers has endorsed candidates at the municipal, state, and national levels. African American political interest was stimulated by the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century, and civil rights groups have continued to cultivate political awareness among black voters. Coleman Young (Young, Coleman) was elected the first African American mayor of Detroit in 1973.At the state level, the Republican Party was dominant for most of the period from the American Civil War (1861–65) until the Great Depression, when the state became a “battleground” or “swing” state. Since World War II (1939–45), both the Democratic (Democratic Party) and Republican parties each have had periodic control of the governorship and legislature. Similarly, in presidential politics, the state has tilted toward each party at different times. For example, the Republicans won the state in 1948, 1952, and 1960, but then the Democrats won the next three races. From 1972 to 1988, Republican presidential candidates swept Michigan in every election, though thereafter the Democrats began to edge past the Republicans.Health and welfareThe Department of Community Health regulates the operation, construction, and licensing of health care facilities, including hospitals, nursing homes, homes for the elderly, and long-term care units. A psychiatric hospital has been in operation in Kalamazoo since the mid-19th century. It was the first of a number of institutions to provide medical care for patients with special needs. Especially since the mid-20th century, Michigan has implemented numerous welfare-reform policies that have been viewed as exemplary by many other states. A significant portion of Michigan's annual budget has consistently been devoted to social programs.EducationHistorically, much of Michigan's revenue has been allocated for support of the state's numerous public institutions of higher learning, including many community colleges, as well as for the development of public elementary and secondary schools. However, in the early 21st century, adequate and equitable funding for schools at all levels has been a growing concern. College savings and scholarship programs are sponsored by the state and some of the local governments.In 1817 Judge Augustus Woodward, one of the major figures in the state's early history, conceived the idea of a “Catholepistemiad,” an academy of universal knowledge. His idea was realized to some measure in 1837 when the University of Michigan (Michigan, University of) opened in Ann Arbor. This university has since come to be regarded widely as one of the country's top research institutions, with programs at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. In 1849 a teacher-training institution, which later became Eastern Michigan University, began instruction at Ypsilanti. In 1855 the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, now Michigan State University, was established in East Lansing. Since its founding Michigan State University has moved far beyond its identification with agriculture; like its rival in Ann Arbor, it has become a nationally recognized research institution. The Michigan Technological University at Houghton, a state institution, was established in 1885 as the Michigan Mining School. In 1956 the state acquired Wayne University, a Detroit municipal university. Wayne State University, as it was renamed, has fostered much educational experimentation and has become a broadly based research university of national distinction. In the 1960s its campus and physical plant became landmarks in U.S. educational architecture through the designs of the American architect Minoru Yamasaki (Yamasaki, Minoru). Grand Valley State University, an institution with a strong liberal arts curriculum in Allendale, west-central Michigan, has experienced rapid growth since its establishment in 1960.Michigan is also the home of several widely recognized specialized schools, especially in the arts. In 1927 the School of Music was founded in Interlochen; it was the forerunner of the contemporary Interlochen Center for the Arts, which includes a boarding high school for the fine arts, a summer arts camp for youth, and numerous arts programs for adults. The Cranbrook School for Boys (1928) and the Kingswood School for Girls (1931) in Bloomfield Hills, designed by architect Eliel Saarinen (Saarinen, Eliel), pioneered advanced courses in the visual arts for students of high-school age. These institutions merged in the mid-1980s to become the coeducational Cranbrook Kingswood Schools. Together with the Cranbrook Academy of Art (1932), a postgraduate institution, they constitute the Cranbrook Educational Community.Cultural lifeThroughout Michigan's history, the diverse backgrounds of Detroit's population have given the city a cosmopolitan atmosphere and made it a magnet for a broad spectrum of cultural activity. The state's first traveling theatrical companies performed in Detroit, and an opera house was erected there before the American Civil War. In 1819 the Young Men's Society was organized by Lewis Cass (Cass, Lewis), an early American politician and civic leader, to promote debates, lectures, and general intellectual life. In the major parks the city of Detroit promoted band concerts and, later, symphony concerts to bring other types of music to thousands. In the mid-20th century, Berry Gordy, Jr. (Gordy, Berry, Jr.), founded in Detroit one of the most successful and influential recording companies in the history of the rock (rock and roll) and popular music industry— Motown.Historically, the rural populations have cultivated different sorts of cultural pursuits than have their urban counterparts. The pioneer farmers channeled much of their artistic energy and cultural creativity into such events as community dances and seasonal county fairs. Today, a wide variety of local fairs and festivals continue to take place throughout the state. Many of the smaller cities emphasize Homecoming Day, usually the anniversary date of the incorporation of the community. The city of Holland's Tulip Time Festival, held each May, has become an event of more than local importance. Several cities in the north commemorate the lumbering era with Paul Bunyan (Bunyan, Paul) Days. Traverse City sponsors a popular National Cherry Festival. Additional seasonal festivals celebrate the harvest of blueberries, strawberries, asparagus, and other locally important products. Ethnic groups in many cities, including Detroit, sponsor festivals to celebrate their cultural heritage. The annual Bavarian Festival in Frankenmuth, for instance, pays tribute to the community's German roots but enjoys broad appeal.Cultural institutionsThe Detroit Institute of Arts, founded in 1885, houses one of the country's major collections of ancient and contemporary art from around the world. The Muskegon Museum of Art, the Kalamazoo Institute of Arts, and the Grand Rapids Art Museum also have won wide recognition. Lansing is home to the Michigan Historical Museum, famous for its military and Native American collections, while many county museums commemorate local history. In Grand Rapids, the Gerald R. Ford Museum chronicles the lives and times of former U.S. president Gerald R. Ford (Ford, Gerald R.) and his wife, Betty Ford (Ford, Betty). The Museum of African American History in Detroit chronicles the role of African Americans in the development of Detroit, the state of Michigan, and the United States as a whole. The Michigan Historical Commission has designated sites of historic importance, such as the location of early settlements and the first home of the Ford Motor Company. The state museum, archives, and library are housed together in a single building in Lansing that showcases the state's cultural resources.Aside from the major public libraries in Michigan's larger cities, there are a number of specialized libraries, among the most notable of which are the William L. Clements Library at the University of Michigan, specializing in American history; the Burton Historical Collection of the Detroit Public Library, specializing in local history and genealogy; the Clarke Historical Library at Central Michigan University, with collections on state and regional history; and the Gerald R. Ford Library in Ann Arbor, focusing on events of the Cold War era.Sports and recreationOrganized team sports in Michigan began with the establishment of baseball teams in several cities during the late 1850s and early 1860s. In 1881, when the Detroit team began to compete nationally, the state's love affair with the Tigers began. Ty Cobb (Cobb, Ty), Hank Greenberg, and Al Kaline (Kaline, Al) are just a few of the inductees of the Baseball Hall of Fame who have played for the Tigers. Detroit also is home to the National Basketball Association's Pistons (whose “Bad Boys” won back-to-back championships in 1988–90), the Women's National Basketball Association's Shock, and the National Football League's Lions (whose heyday was in the 1950s, although running back Barry Sanders (Sanders, Barry) scampered in the record books into the 1990s). To many in Michigan, professional hockey surpasses baseball, basketball, and football as the spectator sport of choice. The Detroit Red Wings have an especially devoted following and are many-time winners of the Stanley Cup championship of the National Hockey League; the team has earned Detroit the nickname “Hockeytown, U.S.A.”College sports have a major presence in Michigan as well, topped by a pair of rivals who participate in the Big Ten Conference: the University of Michigan (Michigan, University of), which has excelled especially at gridiron football through renowned coaches such as Fielding Yost (Yost, Fielding) and Bo Schembechler, and Michigan State University, which is best known for a basketball tradition that includes a pair of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) championships and the storied player Magic Johnson (Johnson, Magic). Michigan State has also won several NCAA hockey championships, as have the University of Michigan and Michigan Technical University. Elsewhere in the state, fans follow the fortunes of the teams that represent several smaller universities in the Mid-American Conference. In Division II competition, Grand Valley State University has won numerous national championships in gridiron football.Outdoor recreation in Michigan is dominated by woods and water. As early as the 1830s, the Great Lakes were a favourite vacation lure, particularly for residents of the eastern states. In 1919 Michigan began to develop a park system, which now encompasses nearly 100 state-operated parks and more than a dozen state recreation areas. Many places along the shores of the Great Lakes and smaller inland lakes are lined with summer cottages, and residents of southern Michigan and tourists from other areas flock to these areas and to the state's forests to swim, fish, hike, and hunt. Among the most popular outdoor-recreation sites are the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, on Lake Michigan (Michigan, Lake) in the northwestern Lower Peninsula, and Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, the Huron National Wildlife Refuge, and the Porcupine Mountains Wilderness State Park, all on Lake Superior (Superior, Lake) in the Upper Peninsula.Media and publishingMichigan has some 300 newspapers, including dailies, weeklies, monthlies, and others that circulate at regular intervals. Of the dailies, the Detroit Free Press and The Detroit News are the most prominent, and they circulate throughout the state. The Flint Journal also is widely read. The Grand Rapids Press is the major daily in western Michigan, and the Lansing State Journal serves the central part of the state.HistoryThe earliest inhabitantsIn the 17th century, the Native American population of what is present-day Michigan included the Ottawa, Ojibwa, Miami, and Potawatomi nations, all of which belonged to the Algonquian (Algonquian languages) linguistic group. Together, the Ottawa, Ojibwa, and Potawatomi formed a loose alliance known as the “Three Fires.” Smaller numbers of Huron (Wyandot) groups, including members of the Wendat confederacy—all speakers of Iroquoian languages—were located primarily in southeastern Michigan.At the time of initial contact with Europeans, all of these peoples engaged in agriculture and fishing, as well as in hunting and gathering (hunting and gathering culture) activities. The proportion of time spent on each depended on the quantity and reliability of local wild foods, the most important of which were wild rice (for those living in lakeside environments); semidomesticated seed-bearing plants, mostly from the Amaranthaceae family (for those living in inland environments); deer; and fish. The key crops were corn (maize), beans, and squash.European settlementÉtienne Brulé (Brûlé, Étienne) was the first European to visit the area, in 1622. He was the forerunner of numerous missionaries, fur traders, and explorers (many seeking a water route to the Pacific Ocean) who helped pave the way for French control of Michigan. Although some of the region's indigenous peoples and the newcomers initially engaged in skirmishes, these soon gave way to more amiable relationships. Many native individuals became fur trappers, trade middlemen, or guides, while others, particularly women, focused on providing food to the French settlements. In turn, the French provided knives, axes, guns, metal utensils and jewelry, glass beads, cloth, and alcohol. A number of formal alliances were made between tribal and French communities, as were many personal alliances. The latter were often cemented by marriage—the Algonquians, Huron, and French were all accustomed to using the institution as a means of joining extended families.The oldest European settlement in Michigan is Sault Sainte Marie, founded by the French in 1668 at a site where in 1641 missionaries had held services for some 2,000 Ojibwa. In 1701 Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac (Cadillac, Antoine Laumet de La Mothe) established Detroit as a fur-trading centre and administrative post; it soon became the leading French community in the entire Great Lakes area. The French, and later the British and Americans, also maintained Fort Michilimackinac (Mackinaw City) at the strategic Straits of Mackinac (Mackinac, Straits of) between Lake Huron (Huron, Lake) and Lake Michigan (Michigan, Lake).The period from the late 17th century to the beginning of the 19th century saw France, Great Britain, and other European powers engaged in a near-constant state of warfare that often included actions in the colonies. In the midst of the Seven Years' War (1756–63; in the North American theatre, the French and Indian War, 1754–63), the French garrisons were surrendered to the British (British Empire) (1760). In 1763, by the Treaty of Paris (Paris, Treaty of), Great Britain acquired jurisdiction over Canada and the French territory east of the Mississippi River except for New Orleans. Under British rule Michigan remained a part of Canada. During the American Revolution (1775–83) Detroit was a major supply centre for British troops, who raided the Kentucky country continually until 1779, when the British general Henry Hamilton was captured.The British (unlike the French) did not get along with the indigenous peoples, and hostilities quickly developed between them and several of the tribes. Repeated attacks by armed native forces upon British forts in Michigan resulted in several one-sided massacres in which the British sustained serious losses; eventually most of the British forts in Michigan fell to the native forces. The hostility culminated in “Pontiac's Siege,” in which the Ottawa chief Pontiac and his followers led an attack on Detroit that lasted for more than four months. The British forces held out under the leadership of Henry Gladwin, however, and eventually the indigenous resistance succumbed, allowing the region to stay under British control.U.S. territoryThe area that would become Michigan was awarded to the United States in 1783. In 1787 it was made a part of the newly created Northwest Territory—along with the lands now constituting Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, and Wisconsin. Once the territory was under U.S. sovereignty, politicians implemented an aggressive program to acquire the lands of the native populations (sometimes forcibly) through the negotiation of treaties. Indigenous peoples' opposition to U.S. rule in the region ended with the victory of Anthony Wayne (Wayne, Anthony) at the Battle of Fallen Timbers (Fallen Timbers, Battle of), near present-day Toledo, Ohio, in 1794. The Jay Treaty of the same year provided for the evacuation of the remaining British from the Northwest Territory by 1796. Negotiations with the indigenous populations continued for the next several decades, during which time they lost most of their lands. Some of the native peoples resettled on reservations within the area that is now Michigan, while others moved (or were relocated) to western territories. Others slowly assimilated into the society of the majority.In 1805 Michigan Territory was separated from Indiana, and Detroit was made its capital. Although Michigan's first territorial governor, William Hull (Hull, William), surrendered Detroit to the British early in the War of 1812 (1812, War of), American rule was restored late in 1813 by the victory of Oliver Hazard Perry (Perry, Oliver Hazard) at the Battle of Lake Erie (Lake Erie, Battle of). Notable growth began with the new territorial governor, Lewis Cass (Cass, Lewis), who actively encouraged settlement and promoted development. Improvements in transportation and infrastructure were especially significant under Cass's leadership. In 1818 steamship navigation linked Detroit and Buffalo (N.Y.), inaugurating a new era in lake transportation. Moreover, Cass's highway chain from Detroit to Chicago (Ill.), Saginaw, and Port Huron helped to establish the patterns of settlement in the interior. Completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 made Michigan even more appealing for settlers seeking new homes in the Great Lakes area; the canal provided easy access to the region from the east by water, and further, it opened up the markets of the east coast to Michigan products such as wheat.Statehood and growthMichigan was anxious for statehood so that it might undertake a more ambitious program of internal improvements. The first constitution was enacted in 1835, but statehood was delayed until 1837 by the so-called Toledo War, a boundary dispute with Ohio. The “war” centred on what was known as the Toledo Strip, a narrow piece of land on the southern Michigan border that ran westward from Toledo (on Lake Erie) to the Indiana border. According to the Ordinance of 1787, which had established the Northwest Territory, the land should have gone to Michigan. Ohio claimed the land based on earlier, albeit inaccurate, surveys, however, because it wanted Toledo—the planned terminus of the Miami and Erie canals. In the end, Michigan relinquished its claims to Toledo and to the mouth of the Maumee River. In return, Michigan was awarded the western Upper Peninsula. (A small, eastern segment of the Upper Peninsula had already been part of Michigan Territory.) Although initially the agreement was widely scorned as an unequal exchange, it ultimately proved a boon for Michigan, which inherited the vast copper and iron riches of the Upper Peninsula.In the wake of the frenzy of new settlement popularly called “Michigan Fever,” the state grew very rapidly through the 1840s and '50s. Thousands of prospective agricultural settlers—including many who came from New York and the New England states via the Erie Canal and Lake Erie, as well as many who were foreign-born—established new homes in the state. Detroit and other leading cities profited, and in the 1840s rich iron and copper resources were discovered in the Upper Peninsula, drawing even more immigrants to the state. The state capital was moved from Detroit to the more central location of Lansing in 1847.National tension over the slavery issue resulted in the formation of the present-day Republican Party at Jackson in July 1854, and throughout the American Civil War (1861–65) Michigan made major contributions to the Union cause. In so doing, the state lost some 14,000 of its 90,000 men who served. A black regiment from Michigan included enlistees from many states and also from the Canadian province of Canada West (now Ontario). The Republican Party became dominant after the war. In the 1890s many leaders, including Hazen Pingree, mayor of Detroit and subsequently governor of Michigan, implemented progressive legislation.Meanwhile, the mining and forestry industries helped to jump-start Michigan's economy. Iron ore was extracted from three ranges in the Upper Peninsula—Marquette, Gogebic, and Menominee—while copper mining was centred in the Keweenaw Range, in the northernmost part of the Upper Peninsula. Lumbering of the vast pine forests was the mainstay of the state's economy during the late 1800s. The Saginaw Valley, in the east-central region of the Lower Peninsula, was the leading lumbering area between 1840 and 1860. By 1900, however, most of the pine in the Lower Peninsula was gone. Logging in the Upper Peninsula began to assume importance in the 1880s, and the virgin stands lasted into the early 20th century.Michigan, c. 1900–70Before 1900 a diverse base of agriculture, lumbering, mining, and manufacturing activities had propelled the state's economy; throughout much of the 20th century, however, the economy was dominated by the automotive industry. During World War I, industrial production at all levels was intensified, and Michigan became a buoy of the national economy. Conversely, in the decade following the Great Depression that began in 1929. unemployment and deflation were far above the national averages, largely because the state's industrial products were not among the necessities of life. In 1932 Michigan departed from the Republican fold, thereafter becoming one of the indeterminate “swing” states, while organized labour became a powerful political and economic force. In 1937 the United Automobile Workers became the bargaining agent for production workers at General Motors Corporation, and by the outbreak of World War II it was the dominant union in all automotive plants. During the war Detroit became a major producer of military (rather than commercial) vehicles and, as such, was known as the Arsenal of Democracy. After the war, industrial production continued at a peak to restock the country with new cars and other war-depleted consumer goods.The postwar years were also a period of explosive growth in the suburbs and rapid expansion of the state's highway system. One of the ramifications of these developments, however, was a decline in population, industries, and services in the inner cities, beginning in the late 1950s. In response to this negative trend, the state undertook projects to revive urban areas, including the construction of Detroit's Renaissance Center, a high-rise riverfront hotel, retail, and business development; the centre remains a symbol of Michigan's dedication to making its cities attractive and livable.Meanwhile, racial polarization in Michigan increased during the mid-20th century, with major riots erupting in Detroit, most notably in 1943 and 1967. Such incidents notwithstanding, Michigan emerged as a leader in the movement to provide equal opportunity for minorities, people with disabilities, and women. The 1963 Michigan constitution was the first in the country to provide for a Department of Civil Rights (civil rights movement).Michigan since the 1970sMichigan has experienced significant economic fluctuations since the late 20th century. A severe recession in the late 1970s and early 1980s caused widespread unemployment, business failures, and cuts in state government services. The government, business, and education sectors subsequently pooled their efforts to attract new enterprises, broaden opportunities for young people, strengthen the work force, and promote the expanding tourism industry.Especially with the development of high-technology industries and a revival of automobile manufacturing, the state experienced somewhat of an economic renaissance in the 1990s, and unemployment dropped to low levels. Tourism, manufacturing, agriculture, and services dominated the economy more evenly than in the past. By the early 21st century, however, Michigan's auto industry (automotive industry) again was struggling, urban sprawl and the loss of prime farmland to suburban development were growing concerns, and the rate of unemployment was among the highest in the country. Nevertheless, economic diversification and high-technology industries continued to be viewed as the long-term solution to the state's economic woes. The state increasingly encouraged the development of wind farms for power generation, and in 2008 the U.S. Department of Energy awarded a $550 million nuclear physics research project to Michigan State University.Additional ReadingAlthough compiled in the mid-20th century, Writers' Program, Michigan: A Guide to the Wolverine State (1941, reissued 1973), is still a useful overview. The state's physical features are described in Lawrence M. Sommers, Michigan: A Geography (1984); and Richard A. Santer, Michigan, Heart of the Great Lakes (1977). Maps of the state may be found in Lawrence M. Sommers (ed.), Atlas of Michigan (1977); and DeLorme Mapping Company, Michigan Atlas & Gazetteer, 10th ed. (2002). Interesting studies of Michigan's ethnic origins include James A. Clifton, George L. Cornell, and James M. McClurken, People of the Three Fires: The Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Ojibway of Michigan (1986); Helen Hornbeck Tanner (ed.), Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History (1987); Charles E. Cleland, Rites of Conquest: The History and Culture of Michigan's Native Americans (1992); C. Warren Vander Hill, Settling the Great Lakes Frontier: Immigration to Michigan, 1837–1924 (1970); Reginald Larrie, Black Experiences in Michigan History (1975); and James M. Anderson and Iva A. Smith (eds.), Ethnic Groups in Michigan (1983). George S. May, A Most Unique Machine: The Michigan Origins of the American Automobile Industry (1975); and Angus Murdoch, Boom Copper: The Story of the First U.S. Mining Boom (1943, reissued 1964), focus on Michigan's economy. Donald I. Dickmann and Lawrence A. Leefers, The Forests of Michigan (2003), provides a solid account of Michigan's forests and forestry industry. Although produced in the mid-20th century, Jethro Otto Veatch, Soils and Land of Michigan (1953), remains a valuable resource on the soils of the state.Useful general histories include Richard J. Hathaway (ed.), Michigan: Visions of Our Past (1989); George S. May and JoEllen Vinyard, Michigan, the Great Lakes State: An Illustrated History (2005); Bruce A. Rubenstein and Lawrence E. Ziewacz, Michigan: A History of the Great Lakes State, 4th ed. (2008); and Willis F. Dunbar, Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State, 3rd rev. ed. by George S. May (1995). The decades surrounding statehood are examined in Justin L. Kestenbaum (ed.), The Making of Michigan, 1820–1860: A Pioneer Anthology (1990). Walter Romig, Michigan Place Names (1986), provides notes on the history, founding, and naming of thousands of Michigan communities.Randall J. Schaetzl
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