Mexico City

Mexico City
a city in and the capital of Mexico, in the central part. 8,906,000; ab. 7400 ft. (2255 m) above sea level. Official name, México, Distrito Federal /me"hee kaw' dees tree"taw fe dhe rddahl"/.

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Spanish Ciudad de México

City (pop., 2000: city, 8,605,239; metro. area, 18,327,000), capital of Mexico.

Located at an elevation of 7,350 ft (2,240 m), it is officially coterminous with the Federal District, which occupies 571 sq mi (1,477 sq km). Mexico City is one of the world's largest cities and one of the world's fastest-growing metropolitan areas. It generates about one-third of Mexico's industrial production. It lies on an ancient lake bed, the site of the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlán, which was taken by the Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés in 1521. It was the seat of the Viceroyalty of New Spain throughout the colonial period. Captured by Mexican revolutionaries under Gen. Agustín de Iturbide in 1821, it was seized by the U.S. in 1847 during the Mexican War and by the French (1863–67) under Maximilian. It was greatly improved during the presidency of Porfirio Díaz (1877–80, 1884–1911). In 1985 it was struck by a severe earthquake that killed 9,500 people. The old city centre, the Zócalo, has many historic buildings, including the Metropolitan Cathedral (built on the site of an Aztec temple) and the National Palace (built on the ruins of the palace of Montezuma II). Its educational institutions include the National Autonomous University of Mexico (founded 1551), the College of Mexico, and the Ibero-American University.

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Nahuatl  México , Spanish  Ciudad de México  or  in full  Ciudad de México, D.F.  
 city and capital of Mexico, synonymous with the Federal District (Distrito Federal; D.F.). The term Mexico City can also apply to the capital's metropolitan area, which includes the Federal District but extends beyond it to the west, north, and east, where the state (estado) of México surrounds it on three sides. In contrast, the southern part of the Federal District sustains a limited population on its mountain slopes.

 Spanish conquistadors (conquistador) founded Mexico City in 1521 atop the razed island-capital of Tenochtitlán, the cultural and political centre of the Aztec (Mexica) empire. It is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban settlements in the Western Hemisphere, and it is ranked as one of the world's most populous metropolitan areas. One of the few major cities not located along the banks of a river, it lies in an inland basin called the Valley of Mexico, or Mesa Central. The valley is an extension of the southern Mexican Plateau and is also known as Anáhuac (Nahuatl: “Close to the Water”) because the area once contained several large lakes. The name México is derived from Nahuatl, the language of its precolonial inhabitants.

      Mexico City's leading position with regard to other urban centres of the developing world can be attributed to its origins in a rich and diverse environment, its long history as a densely populated area, and the central role that its rulers have defined for it throughout the ages. Centralism has perhaps influenced Mexico City's character the most, for the city has been a hub of politics, religion, and trade since the late Post-Classic Period (13th–16th century AD). Its highland location makes it a natural crossroads for trade between the arid north, the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico (east) and the Pacific Ocean (west), and southern Mexico. The simple footpaths and trails of the pre-Hispanic trade routes became the roads for carts and mule trains of the colonial period and eventually the core of the country's transportation system, all converging on Mexico City. Throughout the centuries, the city has attracted people from the surrounding provinces seeking jobs and opportunities or the possibilities of comparative safety and shelter, as well as a myriad of amenities from schools and hospitals to neighbourhood organizations and government agencies. Area Federal District, 571 square miles (1,479 square km). Pop. (2005) city, 8,463,906; Federal District, 8,720,916; metro. area, 19,231,829.

Character of the city
 Mexico City is a metropolis of contrasts, a monument to a proud and industrious country also faced with many problems. Some observers have fixated on the city's dangers, horrors, and tragedies—views that were reinforced by the Mexican novelist Carlos Fuentes (Fuentes, Carlos) when he called the city “the capital of underdevelopment.” In the late 20th century the writer Jonathan Kandell retorted, “To its detractors (and even to a few admirers), Mexico City is a nightmare, a monster out of control.…And it just keeps growing.” Others have acknowledged the capital's drawbacks while holding that it is a true home to millions—a bustling mosaic of avenues, economic interests, and colonias (neighbourhoods) that are buttressed by extended family networks, reciprocity, and respect.

      By itself the Federal District (the city proper) is comparable in many ways to New York City, Mumbai (Bombay), and Shanghai. But the capital's huge metropolitan population constitutes some one-fifth of Mexico's total, representing one of the world's most significant ratios of capital-to-national population. The country's next largest city, Guadalajara, is only a fraction of its size. Moreover, its dense population has yielded an unparalleled concentration of power and wealth for its urban elite, though not for the denizens of its sprawling shantytowns and lower-working-class neighbourhoods.

      The city's rich heritage is palpable on the streets and in its parks, colonial-era churches, and museums. On the one hand it includes quiet neighbourhoods resembling slow-paced rural villages, while on the other it has bustling, overbuilt, cosmopolitan, heavy-traffic areas. Its inhabitants have sought to preserve the magnificence of the past, including the ruins of the main Aztec temple and the mixture of 19th-century French-style mansions and department stores that complement its graceful colonial palaces and churches.

      Yet the city's residents also embrace modernity, as evidenced by world-class examples of the International Style of architecture and the conspicuous consumption of steel, concrete, and glass. Contemporary high-rise structures include the Torre Latinoamericana (Latin American Tower) and the World Trade Center, the museums and hotels along Paseo de la Reforma, and the opulent shopping centres of Perisur and Santa Fé. Supermarkets have sprung up around the metropolis, but traditional markets such as the Merced are still bustling with hawkers of fresh fruits, live chickens, tortillas, and charcoaled corn on the cob. Chapultepec Castle, the Independence Monument, the Pemex fountain, and numerous other monuments and memorials attest to past dreams and future aspirations amid the chaos of congested avenues and endless neighbourhoods built on the dry bed of Lake Texcoco.


City site
 The highland Valley of Mexico is enclosed on all sides by mountains that form parts of the Cordillera Neo-Volcánica (Neo-Volcánica, Cordillera) (Neo-Volcanic Range). The waters on their slopes drain toward the basin's centre, which was once covered by a series of lakes. As a result, these lacustrine plains make up one-fourth of the city and Federal District's area. The downtown lies at an elevation of some 7,350 feet (2,240 metres), but overall elevations average above 8,000 feet (2,400 metres). Mountainous slopes of volcanic origin occupy about half of the area of the Federal District, largely in the south, where ancient lava beds called pedregales underlie much of the modern built-up area. However, only a small proportion of the population lives in the southern third of the district, including the rugged delegaciones (administrative areas) of Tlalpan and Milpa Alta.

      The city and its metropolitan area extend well into the surrounding Neo-Volcánica slopes, including the western Monte Alto and Monte Bajo ranges. The Sierra de las Cruces lies to the southwest. Among the several peaks in the southern part of the district are Tláloc (Tlaloc), Chichinautzin, Pelado, and Ajusco, the latter rising to the highest point in the capital at 12,896 feet (3,930 metres). To the east the built-up area extends from the old lake beds onto a broad, inclined plain that leads to a piedmont and then to the highest promontories of the Sierra Nevada. On the metropolitan fringes where the state boundaries of México, Morelos, and Puebla meet, snows cap two high volcanoes: the “White Lady,” known by its Nahuatl name Iztaccihuatl (Iztaccíhuatl), which rises to 17,342 feet (5,285 metres), and the “Smoking Mountain,” Popocatépetl, an active peak with a correspondingly uncertain elevation of some 17,880 feet (5,450 metres). These two volcanoes are sometimes visible from Mexico City on windy mornings, when the air is less laden with pollutants.

 The city's remarkable size and complexity have evolved in tandem with the radical transformation of its surroundings. The island on which it was founded lay near the western shore of Lake Texcoco (Texcoco, Lake), but its built-up area gradually expanded through land reclamation and canal building. The Aztec and, later, Spanish rulers commissioned elaborate water-supply and drainage systems to reduce the threat of flooding within the city. These were gradually expanded in capacity until they drained nearly all of the basin's lake water.

      The Valley of Mexico constitutes a broad area of convergence for species of the tropical and temperate realms. However, urban growth has reduced the size and diversity of plant life, from the tall fir forests along the western ridges to the pines along the southern Ajusco mountains, as well as the formerly widespread oak forests. Grasslands that once bordered the city are now largely covered by prickly pear cactus as well as by a drought-resistant scrub tree known as pirul or piru, the Peruvian pepper tree; this was introduced during the colonial period and became an aggressive colonizer. A unique and fragile plant community survives in patches on the lava flows to the south of the city where it has not been destroyed by urban sprawl. A small area remains as an ecological reserve within the main campus of the National Autonomous University (Mexico, National Autonomous University of).

      Mexico City's climate is influenced by its high elevation, its limited air circulation owing to the mountains surrounding it on three sides, and its exposure to both tropical air masses and cold northerly fronts. The latter make southward intrusions only during the Northern Hemisphere winter and spring. Like other high-elevation cities located in the tropics, Mexico City is relatively cool throughout the year. The mean annual temperature is 59 °F (14 °C), but temperatures vary seasonally and diurnally. The difference between summer and winter mean temperatures is approximately 11 to 14 °F (6 to 8 °C).

      Winter is the driest time of year. Night frosts occur from December through January, primarily along the city's elevated periphery. Snowfall is extremely rare at lower elevations, however, and winter temperatures can rise into the mid-70s °F (mid-20s °C) during the day. April and May are the warmest months because summer temperatures are ameliorated by a rainy season that begins in late May and lasts until early October. During that time the normally dry upland basin becomes verdant and its air cool and clean.

      The city's climate has changed since the surrounding lakes were drained and as the built-up area has increased in size. The lakes once had a temperature-moderating effect that prevented the basin from becoming either too cool or too warm, and they contributed moisture for a higher relative humidity than that which prevails today. Vast areas of paved surfaces now impede moisture from entering the soil and have a greater ability to retain heat than vegetated areas; furthermore, they reduce the cooling effects of evaporation. As a result, the city's buildings, roadways, and machinery have created a thermal island—an urban heat island. Meanwhile, air circulation in the valley is stymied by temperature inversion, in which a blanket of hot polluted air blocks the normal vertical movement of air.

City layout
      Although much of central and eastern Mexico City is built on dried lake beds, several hills with historical significance lie within the city limits. To the north lies Tepeyac, a low hill complex where the Basilica of Guadalupe (Guadalupe, Basilica of) stands. Beyond it is the Sierra de Guadalupe, which marked the northern edge of the colonial city. To the south is the Cerro de la Estrella by the formerly lakeshore town of Colhuacan, where, prior to the Spanish conquest, a bonfire was lit every 52 years in the New Fire Ceremony. To the west lies Chapultepec, or Grasshopper Hill, an extensive tree-covered park with freshwater springs, rock art, a zoo, and the fortress where young cadets (“Los Niños Héroes”) martyred themselves in resistance to invading U.S. troops in 1847.

 The heart of the city is the enormous, concrete-covered Plaza de la Constitución, or Zócalo, the largest public square in Latin America. At its edges stand the Metropolitan Cathedral (north), National Palace (east), Municipal Palace, or city hall (south), and an antique line of arcaded shops (west). A few blocks to the west is the tallest building in the historic city centre, the 44-story Torre Latinoamericana (1956), which offers panoramic views of the city when the air pollution index is low enough.

      The broad, monument-studded avenue called Paseo de la Reforma crosses the downtown area (in Cuauhtémoc delegación) from northwest to southeast before turning west at Chapultepec Park. Insurgentes Avenue is one of the city's more-famous north-south-trending roadways. Middle-class families have occupied some of the formerly elite neighbourhoods along Paseo de la Reforma and Insurgentes, including the elegant French-styled late 19th-century mansions and palaces of the Colonia Roma and Polanco neighbourhoods. Other middle-class neighbourhoods are sprinkled about, with special concentrations in Coyoacán, Tlalpan, and a few other delegaciónes. Upper-class families are also spread about, but many have moved into the highlands along the western edge of the city.

      Squatter settlements and slums known as ciudades perdidas (“lost cities”) have occupied formerly green areas, unused lots, and vast areas of dry lake beds, especially along the city's northwestern and eastern peripheries. Many develop into permanently built-up areas, such as the suburb of Nezahualcóyotl, which has spread across the lake bed just east of the Federal District, growing from a small community of about 10,000 residents in the late 1950s to some 1,200,000 a half-century later. In the greater metropolitan area, México state has been the recipient of the most recent urban sprawl, particularly in the southern parts of the state.

      Mexico City's population includes immigrants from every corner of the country and from numerous overseas locations. Those who are born in the city, particularly those whose families have resided there for several generations, are collectively known as chilangos. Among chilangos, however, there exist deep socioeconomic and ethnic divisions. Mexican society remains conscious of raza (“race”), and discriminatory attitudes prevail, so that, by and large, people with indigenous ancestry—American Indians (Amerindians) and mestizos (mixed Indian and European)—inhabit the middle- and lower-class neighbourhoods while those who claim largely European ancestry (“whites” or criollos (Creole)) inhabit the wealthier zones. The “whiteness” of an individual remains a key element for social mobility and acceptance. While few will publicly acknowledge the existence of racial discrimination, criollos generally have the better-paying jobs and enjoy a higher standard of living than do the vast majority of the city's inhabitants.

 As in the rest of Mexico, residents of the capital generally view religion as an important part of their cultural background. One of the most powerful institutions since colonial times, the Roman Catholic Church, has left a deep imprint on Mexico City's urban landscape and the daily life of its inhabitants. Practically every neighbourhood has a church, the older of which attest to the wealth and grandeur of the church in the Baroque and Neo-Classical periods.

      Aside from its overwhelming Roman Catholic majority, the city has a small Jewish community that is prominent in the city's trades and professions. Protestant churches account for a small but growing proportion of Mexico City's Christians; as in the rest of Latin America, Protestants have been rapidly gaining converts since the 1980s, particularly through evangelization in the poorer neighbourhoods.

      The Mexico City region accounts for nearly one-fourth of the gross domestic product of Mexico. More than three-fourths of the district's income derives from the service sector, and about one-fourth derives from manufacturing. The vast majority of the metropolitan area's income and employment also derives from services, followed by manufacturing. México state is the economic backbone of the surrounding area, and its economy ranks second only to the Federal District on a national scale.

      The informal sector of the economy, which helps compensate for high official unemployment rates, is difficult to quantify but is undeniably widespread in the capital. It is evidenced in the squadrons of shoeshine boys, mobile candy-and-gum sellers, garbage scavengers, day labourers, street performers, and others whose income is generally underreported to taxing authorities. As is also true in Europe and the United States, many residents of the city are employed in informal jobs hidden beyond ordinary sight, including those working as live-in maids and unlicensed child-care providers, as well as those engaged in more nefarious pursuits, such as drug dealing, prostitution, and black marketeering.

      Agriculture and mining together account for only a tiny percentage of the metropolitan workforce. However, dairy products, corn (maize), maguey (agave, the source of pulque), and other farm products are sold in urban markets. The demands for food, water, and fuel for an urban settlement the size of Mexico City are staggering. All of these supplies are brought in from increasingly distant places. A single orange or beefsteak may have to travel more than 100 miles (160 km) to reach a household in the city. Tens of thousands of tons of food alone must arrive daily in order to meet demands.

      Owing to its superior transportation infrastructure and its large supply of skilled and semiskilled workers, Mexico City has remained the country's principal manufacturing centre in spite of competition from regional centres such as Monterrey and the rapid growth of strategically positioned maquiladoras (maquiladora) (export-oriented assembly plants) in the northern border states. However, the capital's share of manufacturing employment has declined relative to service-oriented jobs.

      Most of Mexico City's heavier industries are dispersed along its metropolitan ring rather than being centralized within the Federal District itself, and in the 1990s the government forced some remaining industries to move or close because of concerns over air pollution. Among the city's light manufacturing enterprises are maquiladoras specializing in clothing, paper products, and consumer electronics. Chemicals, plastics, cement, and processed foods and beverages are also important. Among the chief manufactures of the metropolitan area, centred on México state, are refined metals, metal products, chemicals, and processed foods.

Finance and other services
      There has been a marked shift of the labour force to the service sector, which includes banks and financial services, restaurants, hotels and entertainment, communications media, advertising and other business services, and government employment. Tourism has become an increasingly important component of the sector.

      As one of the developing world's financial capitals, Mexico City has numerous major national and international banks. Its financial institutions manage the vast majority of Mexico's savings accounts and foreign investment. Its stock exchange has grown rapidly and can be considered the pulse of the country's economy, as well as a regional financial hub as important as the market of São Paulo or Buenos Aires.

      Although many government agencies and offices have been moved outside of the capital since the 1990s, Mexico City retains the largest concentration of government jobs in the country. Local (city) government is also a major employer.

      Owing to its location within a large and resource-rich basin, Mexico City has long been a transportation hub. Ancient trade routes intersected there, linking the highlands with the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific coasts, the lake districts to the west, and the Puebla Basin to the east. Today the relatively efficient and well-maintained transportation network relies heavily on roads, although railways also converge there from throughout the country.

 The construction of two beltways, the outer Anillo Periférico and the inner Circuíto Interior, has allowed drivers to circumvent the city's bustling and congested central district. Expressways link the capital to the rest of the country via a ring of major cities including Cuernavaca, Toluca, Morelia, Querétaro, Tlaxcala, Puebla, and Pachuca. Toll superhighways built since the 1990s have greatly improved travel between Mexico City and Oaxaca, Acapulco, Toluca, and Morelia.

      Mexico City has the country's greatest concentration of cars, trucks, and other vehicles, and for a city of its vast size the internal transportation system works well. But despite the expansion and designation of several major streets as one-way thoroughfares (ejes) with synchronized street lights, traffic is often chaotic, particularly in the downtown area. Major boulevards such as Insurgentes and Paseo de la Reforma are often blocked by protesters marching toward the Zócalo to voice their concerns before the National Palace or the offices of the mayor. Enterprising street vendors set up their stalls along the sidewalks of many streets, adding to the general congestion and noise. Moreover, the streets can be deadly, especially for pedestrians forced off blocked sidewalks.

      The number of vehicles circulating in the city nearly doubled to some three million between the late 1970s and early '90s, and the total has continued to grow to about four million in the early 21st century. Traffic may creep at an average speed of 12 miles (20 km) per hour, particularly during the three high-traffic rush hours, which in some areas seem to last all day. The morning rush hour is exacerbated by countless parents who deliver their children to school before continuing on to their offices. In addition to lower-income commuters on public transportation, the long afternoon rush includes parents picking up their children from school, office workers heading home for lunch and those returning to their offices, and bureaucrats whose workday is over. In addition, there is a late afternoon and early evening rush hour. Increasing numbers of commuters drive 50 miles (80 km) or more to work in Mexico City while making their homes in cities such as Cuernavaca, Toluca, and Tlaxcala.

 The capital's millions of automobiles give the city some of the country's most polluted air. The government has sought to reduce air pollution by limiting the number of cars on the road on any given day, according to the last numbers on their license plates; however, many wealthier commuters have circumvented these controls by buying an additional car to use on days when their regular car is banned.

      Public transportation within the city and throughout the metropolitan area consists primarily of buses and the Metro subway, which the government heavily subsidizes. With some 125 miles (200 km) of railway on its 11 routes, the Metro alone transports about four million passengers each day, but its ticket sales cover only a fraction of its total operating costs. Other popular forms of transport include taxis, trolleys, and minibuses known as peseros. A light rail connects the central city with Xochimilco.

      Mexico City's huge international airport, now virtually surrounded by development in the northeastern part of the city, handles both national and international flights. Although the facility in the capital has been expanded, the airport at Toluca has been used since the 1980s to facilitate air traffic control. International flights also depart from the city of Puebla.

Administration and society
      The living conditions and welfare of Mexico City's inhabitants vary dramatically according to socioeconomic class and the colonia (neighbourhood) they live in. In marked contrast to poor colonias, the more-prosperous neighbourhoods have all the benefits and services of a city in a developed country, including piped running water, electricity, telephone service, paved streets, and regular garbage collection. Supermarkets and stores provide all of the basic necessities. Luxurious malls, dance clubs, and theatres provide nightly entertainment, especially on weekends. The wealthy can also obtain government services more readily, although populist and leftist politicians have built a significant base of support among the lower classes and university students.

 Mexico City is the seat of the federal government, and local and national politics intertwine there like nowhere else in Mexico. The city's residents have long had a powerful voice in politics, owing to their large and dense population (and their correspondingly large number of registered voters) and their ability to launch massive protests in the city streets. In addition, chilangos elect a proportion of deputies (representatives) and senators to the national Congress.

      Scattered throughout the city are headquarters and offices for all of the federal executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. The president's official seat of power is the National Palace, originally the residence of the viceroys during the colonial period. It is located on the east side of the Zócalo, where enormous crowds gather every September 15 at 11 PM (on the eve of Mexican Independence Day) to join the president in the 200-year-old battle cry known as the Grito de Dolores (Cry of Dolores). Much of the president's day-to-day business is conducted at the official presidential residence, Los Pinos, which is located in Chapultepec Park.

      Mexico City and the Federal District are constitutionally defined as one and the same. Their shared area has gradually increased since the mid-20th century and is now subdivided into 16 delegaciones, or administrative areas, similar to boroughs: Álvaro Obregón (Villa Obregón) (Villa Obregón), Atzcapotzalco, Benito Juárez, Coyoacán, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, Cuauhtémoc, Gustavo A. Madero, Iztacalco, Iztapalapa, La Magdalena Contreras (Magdalena), Miguel Hidalgo, Milpa Alta, Tláhuac, Tlalpan, Venustiano Carranza, and Xochimilco. Many administrative functions are centralized, but other powers are divided among the delegaciones. In addition, the capital's vast metropolitan area includes more than two dozen self-governing municipios (administrative units similar to counties or townships) in México state.

      For much of Mexico City's history, its residents did not elect local leaders. The president appointed a trusted party member to serve as its chief of government (jefe del gobierno), or mayor, who then became one of the most powerful politicians in the country. However, since 1997 the mayor has been elected by popular vote to a six-year term, and since that time left-wing politicians have tended to dominate the powerful city government, often in direct opposition to right-wing national presidents.

      The city's government, which is headquartered along the south side of the Zócalo, is structured much like the national government. The executive branch includes key secretariats, or ministries, such as a state secretariat and another that oversees public works and services. Other ministries deal with public safety, finance, environment, transportation and circulation, human welfare, and justice. The mayor once appointed trusted followers to head each of the delegaciones, but since 2000 they have been directly elected. In addition, the Federal District has a legislative assembly, similar to those of the Mexican states. Its members are elected to three-year terms.

Municipal services
      Mexico City provides a full range of utilities and other municipal services to its wealthier and middle-class residents. However, many poorer neighbourhoods lack safe drinking water, proper housing, electricity, and sewer systems. Conditions are most deplorable in the ciudades perdidas, where overcrowded shanties may consist of nothing more than wooden frames with walls made of cardboard and newspaper and a sheet-metal roof. As a family's income gradually improves over the years, these less-durable materials are replaced by cinder blocks, concrete, metal frames, and windows. Running water, electricity, and paved, lit streets may also be delayed for years in some areas.

      Freshwater supplies and flood-control measures have been key to the city since the days of Aztec rule. Colonial administrators initiated major drainage projects, including an expansion of the Huehuetoca Canal in the 19th century. In 1900 the Tequixquiac tunnel diverted a large volume of water to the east. The drainage system was partly renovated in the 1970s and '80s. Drinking water has been another challenge. In 1951 a system of tunnels and tubes was completed to supply México state and the Federal District with drinking water from distant reservoirs; hydroelectricity was supplied from the dams impounding the reservoirs. Fresh water now reaches virtually all households, but it is not always safe to drink. The great bulk is tapped from some 1,200 wells beneath the city, some of which are more than 980 feet (300 metres) deep. But the extraction of so much groundwater has contributed to the subsidence of parts of the metropolitan area. Moreover, as underground reserves have dwindled, drinking water has had to be brought in through expensive systems of pipes and pumping stations.

      Some electricity is produced within the city, but most is purchased from outside. The telephone system, always inadequate, suffered a severe blow when a major earthquake in 1985 destroyed the city's main exchange; in the late 1980s a decentralized system was installed. Cellular phones have become increasingly widespread since the 1990s. Propane gas, commonly used for cooking and for heating water, is distributed in portable tanks or by tanker trucks that fill home containers; home heating is virtually nonexistent.

      Public health is a major concern for the city because utilities and basic health care are inadequate in many areas. Although sanitary standards are higher than in the rest of Mexico, gastrointestinal diseases remain common, particularly among lower-class children. Also prevalent are respiratory illnesses, a consequence of pollution, and psychological disorders stemming from overcrowding. Among the worst sufferers from disease and unhealthful conditions are Mexico City's pepenadores (garbage-dump scavengers), who daily risk becoming infected by the materials they handle or by inhaling toxic fumes. Among the majority of people, the gradual improvement of sanitary conditions (and subsequent relative decline in diseases caused by poor sanitation) has produced a rise in illnesses more characteristic of developed countries, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. This is particularly the case among middle- and upper-class residents, whose rates of diabetes and heart disease have increased with changes in diet and lifestyle.

      Health care in Mexico City is a major service industry, and patients from throughout the country often travel to the capital for treatment. Huge hospital complexes and world-renowned research institutes and clinics are found in the more prosperous neighbourhoods. Many of these facilities are equipped with the latest technological developments, as well as world-class surgeons, technical personnel, and nurses. Among the best-known are the Institutes of Cancer, Cardiology, and Nutrition, located near Tlalpan in the southwestern section of the city. The government operates numerous health facilities, including the gigantic General Hospital and the Medical Centre, a conglomerate of specialized units. There are also many private hospitals.

      The vast majority of Mexico City residents are literate, and, despite limited resources in some areas and high dropout rates, the educational facilities are unsurpassed in Mexico. The public school system is complemented by a large number of private schools.

 The capital contains Mexico's largest concentration of higher-education facilities. The National Autonomous University of Mexico (Mexico, National Autonomous University of), better known by its Spanish acronym UNAM, was founded in 1551; it is the oldest such institution on the Latin American mainland and is now one of the largest universities in the world, with hundreds of thousands of full-time students. The National Polytechnic Institute and the Metropolitan Autonomous University are among the other important public institutions of higher education. Private universities include the Jesuit Ibero-Americana University and Anáhuac University. There are a number of specialized postgraduate and research institutions, including the prestigious College of México.

Cultural life

Cultural institutions
 An astounding mixture of ancient and modern art complements the cultural life of Mexico City. Pre-Hispanic ruins are still visible throughout the city, along with colonial Spanish, 19th-century Mexican, and modern buildings. In 1987 the historic centre of Mexico City was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site; included in the site are more than 1,400 buildings dating from the 16th to the 19th century and the surviving Xochimilco canals, where tourists are still floated on colourfully decorated launches through the district's famed chinampas (the canal-irrigated but misnamed “floating” gardens dating from Aztec times). The central city's chief archaeological site is the Templo Mayor (“Main Temple”) of the Aztecs, which is located just off the Zócalo. An adjacent museum contains many artifacts from the site.

      The main campus of UNAM, situated over the lava flows of the Pedregal de San Angel in the southern part of the city, is also a World Heritage site (designated 2007). The campus was built in 1949–52 and opened in 1954. Its architecture is a unique mix of 20th-century modern construction and traditional design. Many of the walls are decorated with mosaic murals reflecting Mexico's pre-Hispanic past.

      The metropolitan parts of México state also contain notable preconquest ruins, among them Tenayuca, Acatzingo, and the great monumental “City of the Dead,” Teotihuacán (designated a World Heritage site in 1987). Lying about 30 miles (50 km) northeast of central Mexico City, Teotihuacán remains one of the capital's main tourist destinations. Artifacts from these and other major archaeological sites are on display at the world-renowned National Museum of Anthropology (founded 1825), located in its present building in Chapultepec Park since 1964.

 The Metropolitan Cathedral, built over a period of nearly 250 years (1573–1813) on the north side of the Zócalo, presents a mixture of three architectural styles predominant during the colonial period: Renaissance, Baroque, and Neoclassical. Its meticulously decorated Sagrarium represents the apogee of the native Baroque style of the 18th century. Until a major stabilization project was completed in 2000, the cathedral was also famous for the uneven sinking of its heavy foundations into the lacustrine soil.

 In terms of religious pilgrims, the cathedral is overshadowed only by the low hill of Tepeyac in the northern part of the city, a site that was once dedicated to the Aztec goddess Tonantzin. Since the 17th century the hill has been dedicated as the shrine to Our Lady of Guadalupe (Guadalupe, Our Lady of), the preeminent symbol of Mexican culture, who inspires, along with the national flag, powerful sentiments of national unity. Millions of pilgrims and tourists visit the two basilicas there: the Antigua (Old) Basilica (1695–1709) and the great circular Nueva (New) Basilica (1974–76), within which the original 20-foot- (6-metre-) tall image of the Madonna is displayed. The Virgin's apparition is celebrated lavishly each December 12 by pilgrims from remote mountain communities as well as by church prelates, politicians, famous artists, and countless visitors from the city's barrios.

 Other popular feast days include the celebration of the Epiphany (January 6; the day when children receive gifts from the Three Kings) and the Day of the Dead (November 2), which is the day after All Saint's Day. Special breads and candies are prepared for the latter occasion, and homemade altars are displayed in memory of deceased loved ones. Elaborate Passion plays are enacted each year at Iztapalapa, where the participants portraying Jesus are subjected to whippings and simulated crucifixions.

 The capital also has notable examples of secular art inspired by Mesoamerican, European, and Mexican sociopolitical themes. The Palace of Fine Arts (Fine Arts, Palace of) (Palacio de Bellas Artes), built between 1904 and 1934, houses numerous paintings and sculptures and functions as a venue for dance and musical performances. On the grounds of the National Autonomous University is the Central Library, which features a facade-covering mosaic (1952) by Juan O'Gorman, and the Rectoria building, with colourful murals by David Alfaro Siqueiros, Diego Rivera, and others. Murals also grace the National Palace and other public structures, and private galleries dedicated to such artists as Frida Kahlo (Kahlo, Frida) have become major attractions. The house and studio of the architect Luis Barragán (Barragán, Luis) was designated a World Heritage site in 2004.

Sports and recreation
 Football (soccer) is the most popular participatory and spectator sport in the city. Mexico City has hosted the championship match of the World Cup finals twice (1970 and 1986). The major venues for the professional teams are Aztec Stadium, Azul Stadium, and the National University's Olympic Stadium. Although the popularity of bullfighting has been declining for some time, the city's Plaza México is still the largest bullring in the world. In addition, there are numerous sports complexes throughout the region, some of the facilities dating to the 1968 Summer Olympic Games held in the city.

      Mexico City's parklands, beginning with Chapultepec Park, are a major part of urban life and a venue for cultural attractions. Among the city's national parks are Ajusco, Dínamos, Desierto de los Leones (which is a woodland, not a desert), and Pedregal, all on the slopes of Las Cruces range in the southwest, and Estrella National Park in the centre-east. The San Juan de Aragón woodland lies near the international airport in the east. National parks in México state include Marquesa, Nevado de Toluca (Nevado de Toluca National Park) (Mount Toluca), Desierto del Carmen, and Zoquiapan. Families taking weekend excursions from the capital often visit historic Puebla city or the highland town of Cuernavaca (a favoured retreat for the wealthy), as well as the resort port of Acapulco, six hours west by bus.

Press and broadcasting
      Mexico City is the centre of Mexican publishing and telecommunications, which are exported as a major commercial and cultural force throughout Latin America. Dozens of daily newspapers and weekly magazines, as well as countless printings of books, are published there.

      Residents throughout the city are interconnected through local and national television and radio stations, although they are divided in many other aspects of daily life by differences in class, occupation, and educational level. Even the working poor, in their overcrowded one-room apartments and slum dwellings, live in the shadows of a veritable forest of television antennas. In addition to telenovelas (soap operas), variety shows, football (soccer) games, and other sports events, chilangos thrill to the acrobatics of the masked heroes and villains of lucha libre (professional wrestling). Their adoration has reached such heights that one champion of social justice has donned a wrestler's costume to create Superbarrio, a quintessentially chilango superhero whose “power” is the focusing of media attention on the struggles of poorer barrio residents. Movie theatres offer mostly kung fu and other action-oriented films, as well as imported and domestic dramas.


Ancient foundations
      It is thought that the Aztecs set out from their homeland, Aztlán (the source of the name Aztec), in the 12th century AD and arrived in the Valley of Mexico by the early 14th century. Sometime after they had left Aztlán, they united with a second group made up of nomadic hunter-gatherers, the Mexica, and took on their name. The Aztec-Mexica were experienced agriculturalists who constructed and planted chinampas (raised fields that have been misnamed “floating gardens” because they are largely surrounded by water). They reclaimed large amounts of land and maintained soil fertility by periodically scooping sediment from the bottom of Lake Texcoco (Texcoco, Lake) (then called Meztliapan) and using it as mulch. They also depended on collecting, hunting, and fishing to complement their staple diet of corn (maize), beans, squash, and chili peppers from the chinampas. They netted fish and aquatic birds and gathered insect larvae, tadpoles and frogs, salamanders (axolotl), shrimp, and floating algae.

      After settling temporarily at different lakeside sites, including the woods of Chapultepec and the lava flows of Tizapan (on the Pedregal de San Angel), the Aztecs sought a more permanent base. According to legend, one of their leader priests, Tenoch, had a vision in which the god Huitzilopochtli instructed them to look for a sacred site marked by an eagle with a snake in its beak, perched on a prickly pear cactus. The group came upon the sign on a small island along the western edge of Lake Texcoco, and in 1325 they founded Tenochtitlán. The sacred symbol, which came to be the emblem for their city, is now the coat of arms and central design of the Mexican national flag.

      The Aztecs built a temple to Huitzilopochtli and began expanding their island-city into the surrounding marshes. The economy and social life continued to depend on the surrounding waters, but periodic disastrous floods threatened the city's very existence; its rulers responded by building a series of flood-control levees. They also erected aqueducts to supply fresh water and canals to allow canoes to travel throughout the city and to settlements on the lake margins. Among the latter was the nearby twin city of Tlatelolco, which was simultaneously growing along the north shore of the lake.

      The island of Tenochtitlán was connected to the mainland by three causeways. To the north was the causeway to Tepeyac, a small community on a spit near the present-day shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe. Another causeway led south to the peninsula on which the village of Ixtapalapa (Iztapalapa) was built. A third causeway extended westward to Tlacopan (Tacuba) and Chapultepec. Each causeway was interrupted by bridges, including a series of massive wooden drawbridges that formed part of the city's defenses. The causeways converged on the ceremonial centre near the Templo Mayor and palaces, an area now occupied by the downtown Zócalo. Among the sacred precinct's other features were schools, a ball court, and a large skull rack on which the Aztecs would eventually display the heads of fallen Spanish soldiers—and those of their warhorses.

      Shortly after it was founded, Tenochtitlán inserted itself into a dynamic trade network and, together with Tlatelolco, became one of the main centres of consumption in the region. Tropical lowland products—including cotton, cacao, dyes, palm fronds, salt, and feathers—converged on the highland basin, and copper came from mines to the west. Tenochtitlán also attracted capable leaders and the muscle for labour and for waging war.

      Tenochtitlán and Tlatelolco comprised more than 70 neighbourhoods, including some dedicated to specific tradespeople, such as goldsmiths or pulque brewers, and others occupied by foreigners. Most of the houses were low and flat-roofed, although many elites lived in two-story dwellings. There were also terraced houses, and along the causeways were towers and other fortified sites. Administratively, Tenochtitlán was organized into calpulli, or ward districts, consisting of free commoners who held land, paid taxes, provided community services, and engaged in social and political activities. Each of these wards had its own temple and telpohcalli, or young men's schools. By the early 16th century the city supported between 100,000 and 200,000 inhabitants (although some estimates have ranged higher), and it was the political and economic hub of a regional population that exceeded 1,000,000.

      The first Spanish conquistadors (conquistador) to gaze on the city were awed by its size and orderliness, and they compared its grandeur to that of European centres such as Sevilla (Seville) and Salamanca in Spain and especially Venice in Italy, with its comparably intricate network of navigation canals, bridges, and causeways. In a report to the Spanish king, conquistador Hernán Cortés (Cortés, Hernán, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca) wrote of the twin cities' commerce, noting especially the main market at Tlatelolco, where the Plaza of the Three Cultures stands today:

There is one square, twice as large as that of Salamanca, all surrounded by arcades, where there are daily more than sixty thousand souls, buying and selling, and where are found all the kinds of merchandise produced in these countries, including food products, jewels of gold and silver, lead,…zinc, stone, bones, shells, and feathers.…There is a street…where they sell every sort of bird…and they sell the skin of some…birds of prey with feathers, heads, beaks, and claws.…There is a street set apart for the sale of herbs [with] houses like apothecary shops, where prepared medicines are sold.…There are places like our barber shops where they wash and shave their heads. (Hernán Cortés, Fernando Cortés, His Five Letters to the Emperor Charles V, ed. and trans. by Francis A. McNutt [1908])

      Cortés also described sales of fruits and vegetables, beeswax and honey, corn syrup (which he called “honey made of corn stalks”), varieties of cotton cloth, and reed mats used for cushions and floor coverings. In addition, the city had restaurants and innumerable service workers such as porters, suppliers of wood and charcoal, and collectors of human waste (for various agricultural and industrial uses).

The razing of Tenochtitlán and the emergence of Mexico City
      Less than eight months after entering Tenochtitlán as conquerors, Cortés and his men were routed from the city on what the Europeans came to call La Noche Triste (“The Sad Night”; June 30, 1520); they determined to retake it the following year. Despite the awe and marvel that the Spaniards felt for the city, they opted to destroy it methodically as they advanced. Otherwise, they reasoned, the defenders would be able to use every wall as a parapet. It took a 75-day siege and a naval battle in 1521 to effect the final downfall of the great Aztec city.

 The Spaniards were aided in their victory by thousands of indigenous allies as well as by superior weapons, including steel swords, warhorses, and trained attack dogs. But their most formidable and cruel weapons were biological, for they had unwittingly unleashed European diseases—such as measles and smallpox, against which the local populations had no immunity—on the cities and armies of the New World. These maladies eventually killed up to nine-tenths of the Aztecs, including the last emperor, Cuauhtémoc, and his predecessor, Cuitláhuac, who earlier (as general) had successfully led Aztec forces during La Noche Triste.

 From the rubble of the temples and pyramids, the conquerors began to construct the new centre of Spanish power in the New World. The city, and its cabildo (town council), was chartered in 1522, and by 1535 it was recognized as the preeminent city of the Americas. As the seat of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, its jurisdiction extended into the northern Spanish territories of California and Texas, as far south as Panama, and even east across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines. The oldest hospital in the Western Hemisphere, the Hospital of Jesus of Nazareth, was established in Mexico City in the early 16th century, and the school that would become the National Autonomous University was founded in 1551.

      Following the example of their Aztec predecessors, Spanish administrators took steps to protect the city from frequent floods, and their efforts led to the draining of the basin. By the end of the 16th century, they filled in many of the chinampas and canals, expanded the island's land area, and built elevated roadways. A drainage canal 9 miles (15 km) long opened in 1608; it cut through a low-lying range and emptied the waters of northern Lake Zumpango into the Tula River basin. Work on the larger Huehuetoca Canal began in the late 16th century and continued into the 20th century. Drainage accelerated with the construction of the Guadalupe Canal, which was originally designed as a spillover system, and the opening in the 18th century of a tunnel at the Tula Falls.

      As the urban area grew, overhunting and forest destruction caused the disappearance of the once-rich fauna of the surrounding basin, including ocelots, pronghorns, mule deer, and peccaries, which became locally extinct. By the 17th century, hunters had also wiped out the wild turkeys that had once been abundant in the surrounding forests. The reduced forest cover may have contributed to more-destructive floods, such as the disasters of 1607 and 1629 that killed tens of thousands of inhabitants.

 Mexico City eventually regained its former size, claiming by the late 1700s considerably more than 100,000 residents—many of them immigrants from the provinces—along with some 150 ecclesiastical buildings and a dozen hospitals. The city benefited from a large cadre of skilled guild members, including thousands of carpenters, shoemakers, and masons. Numerous seigniorial homes, public buildings, churches, and convents were built. European architectural designs were ably transformed by Indian artisans, who used red and black tezontle, a light and porous volcanic rock found locally, to create elaborate facades. Many of the palaces that have survived in the city's historic centre capture the splendour of the Baroque styles of the 18th century. More austere and rectilinear forms characterized the Neoclassical constructions of the early 19th century, including the city's first public libraries.

      Mexico City's opulent residential estates inspired the German geographer Alexander von Humboldt to christen it the “city of palaces” in the early 1800s. However, he also noted that thousands of residents were mired in poverty, particularly along the city's perimeter, where the dwellings of the indigenous and of the poorer Spaniards were concentrated. Slum conditions contributed to major epidemics from the 1760s through the 1800s.

The city after independence
      The wars for Mexican independence (1810–21) largely spared the city and did little to change its appearance. However, Mexico City and the rest of the country suffered from political instability from the 1820s to the 1850s, as the national leadership changed hands nearly 50 times. During the same period, crowds of urban protestors often emerged to oppose economic policies and military conscriptions. Meanwhile, the city's elites worked to limit the political power of the masses. By insisting on property-owning requirements for voting, they disenfranchised thousands of their neighbours.

      A large proportion of the region's wealth was controlled by convents and monasteries, as well as by traditional elite families. The capital also had a growing merchant class, led by the proprietors of the central Parián market, and a small middle class of artisans and professionals, including teachers and civil servants. However, thousands of workers continued to toil in textile factories and in filthy, polluted slaughterhouses and tanneries on the urban outskirts. A census in 1842 reported a population of more than 120,000; among the economically active, about one-third worked in artisanal or manufacturing jobs, and nearly one-fourth were in the service sector, which included domestic maids.

 The city was a strategic prize during the Mexican-American War. In 1847 U.S. forces took the city following battles at the castle of Chapultepec and other sites. The fall of Chapultepec, in particular, has become enshrined in the national lexicon. There a small band of Mexico's sons—the “Niños Héroes” (“Boy Heroes”)—defended their military academy to the death rather than follow the order to retreat. Although the cadets had no real effect on the outcome of the battle, their action has since been touted in official histories as the ultimate display of patriotic sacrifice.

      After Benito Juárez (Juárez, Benito) rose to power as president in the 1850s, an anticlerical (anticlericalism) reform movement got under way. Perhaps no other single event since Mexico City's founding and the draining of the lake contributed to the modification of the city's appearance as did this wave of expropriation of church property. The large church-held estates on the outskirts of the city were confiscated in 1856, and all of the city's convents were either demolished or converted to other uses. In addition, the church was forced to relinquish several apartment complexes in the city that had functioned as workshops and homes for the working poor.

      In 1863, during the period of French intervention in Mexico, French troops captured the city and held it until 1867. The Hapsburg archduke Maximilian, who was made emperor of Mexico under French auspices, expanded the city limits in 1865 and built the Paseo del Emperador (now Paseo de la Reforma) to connect his residence at Chapultepec with the city. The upper-class families started moving out of the downtown area into new palatial homes and mansions being built along that avenue.

      During the rule of Pres. Porfirio Díaz (Díaz, Porfirio) (1876–80; 1884–1911), Mexico City was modernized in the manner of Paris under the administrator Georges Eugène, Baron Haussmann (Haussmann, Georges-Eugène, Baron). By the end of the 19th century, streetcars pulled by mules linked the centre of the city with villages like Mixcoac. The post office and the Palace of Fine Arts exemplified the dominant French architectural influence. Trains heralded the arrival of the Industrial Revolution. Hundreds of factories opened as trainloads of labourers arrived from the country's vast interior. The city undertook numerous public works projects that included completing its drainage system in 1907 and introducing gas and electric lighting and electric streetcars. Mexico City also attracted significantly greater levels of foreign investment, especially from Great Britain and the United States. Meanwhile, provincial cities such as Tampico and Veracruz thrived only by providing trade connections to the capital.

      Although Mexico City received government investment that was denied to provincial areas, the supply of resources within the capital was uneven. As elites fled to the fashionable west side of the city, low-income families moved into the deteriorating, subdivided mansions of the downtown and east side, sometimes opening small workshops and family-run retail businesses. Tenements overflowed with tens of thousands of peasant immigrants who had been forced off their lands by Díaz's economic reforms. In 1906 the writer Manuel Torres Torrija noted:

There is a very marked difference between East and West Mexico [City]. The former is old, somber, narrow, and often winding and always dirty, with miserable alleys, deserted and antiquated squares, ruined bridges, deposits of slimy water, and paltry adobe houses inhabited by squalid persons. The West is modern and cheerful with open streets drawn at right angles that are clean, carefully paved and full of shady parks, gardens, and squares; there is good drainage and the elegant houses, though at times in the worst architectural styles, are costly, neat, imposing, and modern.

      During the Mexican Revolution (1910–20) the capital was the scene of intense fighting, particularly during a 10-day battle in 1913, called La Deceña Trágica (“The Ten Tragic Days”), and again the following year. Even so, the city was viewed as safer than the war-torn countryside, and immigrants swelled the population to more than 600,000 by 1921. The population surpassed 1,000,000 by 1930 and 1,500,000 by 1940, owing to additional rural migrants and exiles from the Spanish Civil War (1936–39).

Metamorphosis into megalopolis
      In the second half of the 20th century, Mexico City experienced additional rapid growth that was largely fueled by domestic migration. The metropolitan population grew from 3.1 million in 1950 to 5.5 million in 1960, and it skyrocketed to 14 million by 1980. By the early 21st century the metropolitan area had swollen to some 20 million people, with more than half of the total living beyond the Federal District's boundaries. In effect, the national population increased 5-fold from 1940 to 2000, but the population of metropolitan Mexico City increased more than 12-fold during the same period.

      In 1940 the capital accounted for nearly one-tenth of the country's industrial firms but nearly one-third of manufacturing output. By 1950 city employers were taking advantage of an expanding workforce; thousands were arriving on buses via the newly paved Pan-American Highway, attracted by real economic opportunities along with dreams of urban success. By 1960 the capital accounted for one-fifth of the national population but nearly half of its manufacturing output.

      Mexico City was a major beneficiary of the country's policy of import-substitution industrialization (ISI), by which domestic manufacturing was encouraged and protected through taxes and tariffs on imports. However, ISI did not improve the lot for those living in the capital's sprawling shantytowns and overcrowded tenements. Meanwhile, the government encouraged suburbanization with tax incentives for industries located in the state of México and with a ban on new housing developments in the Federal District. The ban promoted squatting in many areas; only in 1968, when the ban was lifted, did new residential neighbourhoods begin to appear on the southern end of the city.

      Inspired by Mexico's economic successes in the 1960s, the federal government wished to showcase the country's progress to the world at large. It seemed to find the perfect opportunity to do this by hosting the 1968 Summer Olympic Games (Olympic Games) in Mexico City. However, those efforts were largely derailed following a heavy-handed attempt to silence government critics. Ten days before the Summer Games opened, security forces opened fire on student protesters in the Plaza de las Tres Culturas. As many as 300 were killed in the incident (which became known as the Tlatelolco Massacre), and the shadow it cast proved to be much longer than the counteracting goodwill of the internationally televised Games that it preceded.

      During the 1980s, a time of economic crisis known as “the lost decade” in Latin America, Mexico City experienced large-scale factory closings and layoffs as well as a decline in rural-to-urban migration. Confidence in local and federal government also declined as a result of their responses to major disasters, beginning in 1984 with a series of huge explosions of liquefied petroleum gas in the northern suburb of San Juan Ixhuatepec (also called San Juanico). In 1985 a severe earthquake struck the capital, killing several thousand residents. The loose lacustrine subsoils proved particularly detrimental during the disaster as they shifted, or “liquefied,” beneath building foundations. Many of the deaths occurred as government-built apartment complexes suffered heavy damage or collapsed. Aided in part by World Bank funds, the government helped tens of thousands of families to obtain new or restored housing by 1988. A bright spot in the decade was Mexico's hosting of the 1986 World Cup football (soccer) finals; a number of games, including the championship match, were played in Mexico City.

      Foreign investment in the city increased in the 1990s as the federal government moved toward neoliberal economic policies, relaxing market controls and privatizing many formerly state-owned enterprises. At the same time, some of the capital's heaviest industrial polluters were forced to close or move to the metropolitan fringe. First-class hotels, malls, business offices, and elite gated communities sprang up throughout the southern and western parts of the city. Tourism boomed, as did cultural imports from the United States such as fast-food restaurants and stores stocked with U.S. brands. But, while an affluent minority enjoyed these fruits of globalization and modernity, the poor continued to experience life much as they had in previous decades. Moreover, the region's precarious geology reemerged as a concern as Mount Popocatépetl (Popocatépetl) became active again in 1994 and erupted intermittently into the early 21st century. Although it was more of a threat to Puebla, the volcano occasionally deposited ash on the outskirts of the metropolitan area.

 Many scholars in the 1970s and '80s had feared that Mexico City itself would swell to a population of 30 million by the year 2000; however, the region's growth rate slowed significantly in the 1980s, and by the early 21st century only two-thirds of that number lived in the entire metropolitan area. It is likely that potential immigrants were dissuaded by fears of air pollution, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions even as Mexico City was being viewed as increasingly crime-ridden, corrupt, and overcrowded. There were also concerns that manufacturing jobs were leaving the capital for Mexico's smaller cities, particularly those in the north, or that U.S.-based and transnational companies were moving their investments overseas to countries such as China. On the other hand, the capital's dependence on service-related employment continued to increase.

 Mexico City remains politically and economically paramount in the country, and in its achievements and struggles it often seems a microcosm for Mexico as a whole. The elections of 2000 and 2006 were especially dramatic for the city, as mayors running as left-wing presidential candidates lost to their right-wing opponents in heavily contested and controversial races. On those and other occasions, streets and plazas have become political spaces contested by masses of protestors and counter-protestors, as well as by heavily armed security forces. In addition, although the mayor's office has become more conservative, the city legislature has remained leftist politically and has passed such socially progressive acts as those legalizing same-sex unions and abortion.

Carlos Rincón Mautner

Additional Reading

General introductions to Mexico City include Nick Caistor, Mexico City: A Cultural and Literary Companion (2000); and Ruben Gallo (ed.), The Mexico City Reader (2004). Among the better guidebooks are Chris Humphrey, Mexico City, 3rd ed. (2005), one of the Moon Handbooks; and John Noble, Mexico City, 2nd ed. (2002), a Lonely Planet guide.

The metropolitan area's environmental modification is the subject of Exequiel Ezcurra et al., The Basin of Mexico: Critical Environmental Issues and Sustainability (1999). Mexico's conservation movement, which began in Mexico City during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, is discussed in Lane Simonian, Defending the Land of the Jaguar: A History of Conservation in Mexico (1995).The city's urban development, management, and political life during the late 20th century are surveyed in Peter Ward, Mexico City (1998); and Carlos Aguila and Luis M. Salgado, La ciudad entró en el caos (1999). Urbanization and the economic evolution of the city are also described in several articles in Nacional Financiera S.N.C., El Mercado de Valores (monthly).

A comprehensive history of the city is Fernando Benítez, La ciudad de México, 1325–1982, 3 vol. (1981–82). Numerous historical anecdotes are provided in Jonathan Kandell, La Capital: The Biography of Mexico City (1988).Perspectives on Tenochtitlán and the early colonial era are included in H.B. Nicholson and Eloise Quiñones Keber, Art of Aztec Mexico: Treasures of Tenochtitlan (1983); Doris Heyden and Luis Francisco Villaseñor, The Great Temple and the Aztec Gods (1984); Richard F. Townsend, The Aztecs (1992); and Elizabeth Hill Boone (ed.), The Aztec Templo Mayor (1987). Firsthand accounts of the conquistadors are collected in Hernán Cortés, Letters from Mexico, trans. from Spanish by Anthony Pagden (1971, reissued 1986); and Bernal Diaz Del Castillo, Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España (1632; new ed. by Miguel León-Portilla, 2 vol., 1984). The mid-16th century colonial city is the focus of Francisco Cervantes De Salazar, México en 1554, 3rd ed. (1964); and John E. Kicza, Colonial Entrepreneurs, Families, and Business in Bourbon Mexico City (1983).Events from the 17th to the 19th century are examined in Luis González Obregón, México viejo, 10th ed. (1980); José María Marroqui, La ciudad de México, 3 vol. (1900–03, reissued 1969); Jesús Galindo y Villa, Historia sumaria de la ciudad de México (1925, reissued 1970); Irving Leonard, Baroque Times in Old Mexico: Seventeenth-Century Persons, Places, and Practices (1959); Doris Ladd, The Mexican Nobility at Independence (1780–1826) (1976); Silvia Marina Arrom, The Women of Mexico City, 1790–1857 (1985); Donald B. Cooper, Epidemic Disease in Mexico City, 1761–1813 (1965); and Richard A. Warren, Vagrants and Citizens: Politics and the Masses in Mexico City from Colony to Republic (2001). The dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz is analyzed in William H. Beezley, Judas at the Jockey Club and Other Episodes of Porfirian Mexico (1987); and Michael Johns, The City of Mexico in the Age of Díaz (1997).Carlos Rincón Mautner

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