Mauretania

Mauretania
Mauretanian, adj., n.
/mawr'i tay"nee euh/, n.
an ancient kingdom in NW Africa: it included the territory that is modern Morocco and part of Algeria.
Also, Mauritania.

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Ancient region of North Africa, corresponding to present-day northern Morocco and western and central Algeria.

It was settled by the Phoenicians and Carthaginians from the 6th century BC. Its later inhabitants were known to the Romans as the Mauri and Massaeyli. It was annexed to Rome с AD 42 and divided into two provinces. It became virtually independent in the 5th century but was overrun by the Vandals and then by the Arabs in the 7th century.

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      region of ancient North Africa corresponding to present northern Morocco and western and central Algeria north of the Atlas Mountains.

      Its native inhabitants, seminomadic pastoralists of Berber stock, were known to the Romans as the Mauri (i.e., Moors) and the Massaesyli. From the 6th century BC the Phoenicians and Carthaginians also settled at points along the coast. The Massaesyli became part of Masinissa's Numidian kingdom in 203 BC, after the defeat of their ruler Syphax, who had been an ally of Carthage against Rome. Beginning in the late 2nd century BC, the kings of Mauretania became Roman vassals. Under the emperor Claudius (about AD 44), the area was annexed to Rome and divided into two provinces: Mauretania Tingitana, with its capital at Tingis (modern Tangier); and Mauretania Caesariensis, with its capital at Caesarea (modern Cherchell, Alg.). Roman influence was mostly confined to the coast, and Rome ruled much of the province's vast interior through local chieftains. Mauretanians made effective light cavalrymen in the Roman legions, however.

      In the late 3rd century another province, Sitifensis, was formed out of the eastern part of Caesariensis. When the Vandals arrived in Africa in 429, much of Mauretania became virtually independent. Christianity had spread rapidly there in the 4th and 5th centuries but was extinguished when the Arabs conquered the region in the 7th century.

ship, 1906-1935
      transatlantic passenger liner of the Cunard Line, called the “Grand Old Lady of the Atlantic.” It was launched in 1906 and made its maiden voyage in 1907; thereafter, it held the Atlantic Blue Riband for speed until 1929, challenged only by its sister ship, the Lusitania (sunk by a German submarine on May 7, 1915). During World War I the Mauretania worked as a transport and hospital ship. During its long career the ship made 269 double crossings of the Atlantic, exclusive of war work. Its last crossing was made in 1934, and it was broken up in 1935.

      A second ocean liner with the name Mauretania was launched in 1938 by the Cunard White Star Line. It made its maiden voyage the following year and, like its predecessor, was noted for its luxury and service. With the outbreak of World War II, the Mauretania became a transport ship but resumed its passenger service in 1947. In the late 1950s the ship's popularity began to wane, and the Mauretania was scrapped in 1965.

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Universalium. 2010.

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