Louis XVI

Louis XVI
1754-93, king of France 1774-92 (grandson of Louis XV and husband of Marie Antoinette).

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born Aug. 23, 1754, Versailles, France
died Jan. 21, 1793, Paris

Last king of France (1774–92) in the Bourbon line preceding the French Revolution.

In 1770 he married Marie-Antoinette, and in 1774 he succeeded to the throne on the death of his grandfather, Louis XV. Immature and lacking in strength of character, he was unable to give the necessary support to his ministers, including Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot and Jacques Necker, in their efforts to stabilize France's tottering finances. Restoration of the Parlements in 1774 shifted power to the aristocracy. Aristocratic opposition to the economic reforms of Charles-Alexandre de Calonne forced the king to summon the Estates-General in 1788, setting the Revolution in motion. Dominated by the reactionary court faction, he defended the privileges of the clergy and nobility. He dismissed Necker in 1789 and refused to sanction the achievements of the National Assembly. His resistance to popular demands was one cause for the royal family's forcible transfer from Versailles to the Tuileries palace in Paris. He lost credibility further when he attempted to escape the capital in 1791 and was caught at Varennes and returned to Paris. Thereafter he was dominated by the queen, who encouraged him to a policy of subterfuge instead of implementing the Constitution of 1791, which he had sworn to maintain. In 1792 the Tuileries was captured by the people and militia, and the First French Republic was proclaimed. When proof of his counterrevolutionary intrigues with foreigners was found, he was tried for treason. Condemned to death, he went to the guillotine in 1793. His dignity during his trial and execution only somewhat redeemed his reputation.

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▪ king of France
also called (until 1774)  Louis-Auguste, duc de Berry 
born Aug. 23, 1754, Versailles, France
died Jan. 21, 1793, Paris
 the last king of France (1774–92) in the line of Bourbon (Bourbon, House of) monarchs preceding the French Revolution of 1789. The monarchy was abolished on Sept. 21, 1792; later Louis and his queen consort, Marie-Antoinette, were guillotined on charges of counterrevolution.

Early life and accession
 Louis was the third son of the dauphin Louis and his consort Maria Josepha of Saxony. At first known as the duc de Berry, he became the heir to the throne on his father's death in 1765. His education was entrusted to the duc de La Vauguyon (Antoine de Quélen de Caussade). He was taught to avoid letting others know his thoughts, which has led to sharp disagreement about his intelligence. Louis nevertheless possessed an excellent memory, acquired a sound knowledge of Latin and English, and took an interest in history and geography. In 1770 he married the Austrian archduchess Marie-Antoinette, daughter of Maria Theresa and the Holy Roman emperor Francis I.

      On the death of his grandfather Louis XV, Louis succeeded to the French throne on May 10, 1774. At that time he was still immature, lacking in self-confidence, austere in manner, and, because of a physical defect (later remedied by an operation), unable to consummate his marriage. Well-disposed toward his subjects and interested in the conduct of foreign policy, Louis had not sufficient strength of character or power of decision to combat the influence of court factions or to give the necessary support to reforming ministers, such as Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot (Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques, baron de l'Aulne) or Jacques Necker (Necker, Jacques), in their efforts to shore up the tottering finances of the ancien régime.

 In late 1774 he reversed Louis XV's and Chancellor René Maupeou (Maupeou, René-Nicolas-Charles-Augustin de)'s controversial attempt to reduce the powers of the parlements (Parlement) that had been undertaken in 1771; this decision was popular but placed obstacles in the way of any major reforms. His approval of French military and financial support for the American colonists led to a foreign policy success, but the borrowing required to pay for the war drove the government to the brink of bankruptcy and led the king to support the radical fiscal, economic, and administrative reforms proposed by Charles-Alexandre de Calonne (Calonne, Charles-Alexandre de), the controller-general of finance, in 1787. The refusal of a specially summoned Assembly of Notables to approve these measures, and the opposition of the parlements, forced the king in July 1788 to summon the Estates-General—the representatives of the clergy, nobility, and commoners—for the following year and thus set in motion the Revolution.

Louis's reaction to the Revolution (French Revolution)
      After 1789 Louis XVI's incapacity to rule, his irresolution, and his surrender to reactionary influences at court were partially responsible for the failure to establish in France the forms of a limited constitutional monarchy. He allowed himself to be persuaded that royal dignity required him to avoid communication with the deputies assembled at Versailles (Versailles, Palace of), and he made no attempt to lay out a program that might have attracted their support. At critical moments, he was distracted by the illness and death of his eldest son, the dauphin (June 4, 1789).

      By this time the fundamental weakness of the king's character had become evident. Lethargic in temperament, lacking political insight, and therefore incapable of appreciating the need to compromise, Louis continued to divert himself by hunting and with his personal hobbies of making locks and doing masonry. His dismissal of Necker in early July 1789 set off popular demonstrations culminating in the storming of the Bastille, which forced the king to accept the authority of the newly proclaimed National Assembly. Despite his reluctance, he had to endorse its "destruction" of the feudal regime and its Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in August. The king privately continued to believe that the Revolution would burn itself out. Publicly, however, he appeared ready to accept his new role as constitutional monarch, and gestures such as his visit to Paris after the storming of the Bastille led to an upsurge in his popularity; in early August 1789 the National Assembly proclaimed him the “restorer of French liberty.”

Attempt to flee the country
      Louis's resistance to popular demands was one of the causes of the forcible transfer of the royal family from Versailles to the Tuileries Palace in Paris on October 6. Yet he made still more mistakes, refusing to follow the secret advice tendered to him after May 1790 by the comte de Mirabeau (Mirabeau, Honoré-Gabriel Riqueti, comte de), abdicating his responsibilities, and acquiescing in a disastrous attempt to escape from the capital to the eastern frontier on June 21, 1791. Caught at Varennes and brought back to Paris, he lost credibility as a constitutional monarch. Thenceforward he seems to have been completely dominated by the queen, who must bear the chief blame for the court's subsequent political duplicity.

      From the autumn of 1791 the king tied his hopes of political salvation to the dubious prospects of foreign intervention. At the same time, he encouraged the Girondin faction in the Legislative Assembly (which had succeeded the National Assembly in September 1791) in their policy of war with Austria, in the expectation that French military disaster would pave the way for the restoration of his authority. Prompted by Marie-Antoinette, Louis rejected the advice of the moderate constitutionalists, led by Antoine Barnave (Barnave, Antoine), to faithfully implement the constitution of 1791, which he had sworn to maintain, and committed himself to a policy of subterfuge and deception.

      The outbreak of the war with Austria in April 1792, the suspected machinations of the queen's “Austrian committee,” and the publication of the manifesto by the Austrian commander, the duke of Brunswick, threatening the destruction of Paris if the safety of the royal family were again endangered, led to the capture of the Tuileries by the people of Paris and provincial militia on Aug. 10, 1792. It also led to the temporary suspension of the king's powers by the Legislative Assembly and the proclamation of the First French Republic on September 21. In November, proof of Louis XVI's secret dealings with Mirabeau and of his counterrevolutionary intrigues with the foreigners was found in a secret cupboard in the Tuileries. On December 3 it was decided that Louis, who together with his family had been imprisoned since August, should be brought to trial for treason. He himself appeared twice before the Convention (National Convention) (December 11 and 23).

Condemnation to death
 Despite the last-minute efforts of the Girondins to save him, Citizen Capet, as he was then called, was found guilty by the National Convention and condemned to death on Jan. 18, 1793, by 387 votes (including 26 in favour of a debate on the possibility of postponing execution) to 334 (including 13 for a death sentence with the proviso that it should be suspended). When a final decision on the question of a respite was taken on January 19, Louis was condemned to death by 380 votes to 310. He was guillotined in the Place de la Révolution in Paris on Jan. 21, 1793. Nine months later his wife met the same fate. Louis XVI's courage on June 20, 1792, when the royal palace was invaded by the Paris mob after his dismissal of the Girondin ministry, and his dignified bearing during his trial and at the moment of execution did something to redeem, but did not reestablish, his reputation.

Albert Goodwin Jeremy David Popkin

Additional Reading
John Hardman, Louis XVI, the Silent King (1993, reissued 2000), is a sympathetic biography that supersedes earlier works. P.M. Jones, Reform and Revolution in France (1995), recounts the groping and contradictory reform efforts of the 1770s and early 1780s. William Doyle, Origins of the French Revolution, 3rd. ed. (1999); and Jean Egret, The French Pre-Revolution, 1787–1788, trans. from the French by Wesley D. Camp (1977), deal with the crisis leading to the summoning of the Estates-General. Munro Price, The Road from Versailles: Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and the Fall of the French Monarchy (2002), documents the king's persistent hostility to the Revolution. Timothy Tackett, When the King Took Flight (2003), gives a vivid account of the unsuccessful escape attempt that doomed the king and the monarchy. David P. Jordan, The King's Trial, new ed. (2004), explains the king's defense strategy and the reasons for its failure. Vincent Cronin, Louis and Antoinette (1974, reissued 1996), is a lively, well-written dual biography that attempts a more-favourable-than-usual assessment of the king's character.Jeremy David Popkin

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Universalium. 2010.

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